FR:Cartographie des camps de réfugiés

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Introduction

Utiliser OpenStreetMap comme une base de données commune pour la cartographie des camps offre beaucoup d'avantages.

En utilisant OSM, les acteurs humanitaires bénéficient d'outils et technologies low tech déjà disponibles. OSM facilite la dissémination de l'information. OSM permet également la décentralisation de la mise à jour des données puisque l'ensemble des acteurs et agences n'ont désormais plus chacun besoin d'experts techniques pour collecter, maintenir et vérifier leurs données.

De plus, OSM peut être utilisé pour mettre en application un référentiel commun au sein d'un camp. Dans le contexte de Zaatari, la multiplicité des acteurs travaillant sur des systèmes déconnectés avait mené à l'irruption simultanée de 2 systèmes d'adressage parallèles (par exemple entre l'organisation en charge de la planification du site et celle en charge de l'approvisionnement en eau) et par conséquent limité le potentiel d'analyse comparative.

Pour la collecte de données initiale, REACH a utilisé OpenDataKit http://opendatakit.org/. Les tags furent sélectionnés parmi les Humanitarian OSM Tags/HDM preset. Là où les tags préexistants ne suffisaient pas, de nouveaux tags ont été créés. Les tags actuellement utilisés sont présentés et décrits ci-dessous.

Camps de réfugiés en Jordanie

En Jordanie, les camps de réfugiés sont conçus et planifiés par une équipe dédiée. Les géomètres utilisent le système de référence "Palestine 1923 / Israeli CS Grid" [1] pour dessiner le schéma directeur du camp dans Autocad.

Le bureau du UNHCR en Jordanie a importé le premier jeu de données pour le camp de Zaatari le 25 juin 2013 [2]. Il a ensuite contracté REACH[3] pour approfondir la cartographie des équipements au sein du camp de réfugiés de Za'atari.

En avril 2014, la carte du camp d'Azraq a été ajoutée à son tour à OSM.

Les données des 2 camps peuvent être contrôlées à travers les liens suivants:

Camp Voir dans OSM Comparer différents rendus du lieu Extraire les données Flux RSS pour suivre les modifications Page dédiée sur le portail du UNHCR
Zaatari http://osm.org/go/xtP2cVjM-?m= http://mc.bbbike.org/mc/?lon=36.33106&lat=32.29246&zoom=14&num=8&mt0=mapnik&mt1=osm-roads&mt2=google-hybrid&mt3=esri-satellite&mt4=osm-administrative-boundaries&mt5=mapquest-map&mt6=bing-hybrid&mt7=mapbox-satellite http://export.hotosm.org/en/jobs/6968 http://simon04.dev.openstreetmap.org/whodidit/scripts/rss.php?bbox=36.310932,32.279348,36.345565,32.30496 http://data.unhcr.org/syrianrefugees/settlement.php?id=176&country=107&region=77
Azraq http://osm.org/go/xtkUCNq5-- http://mc.bbbike.org/mc/?lon=36.58314&lat=31.90411&zoom=13&num=8&mt0=mapnik&mt1=osm-roads&mt2=google-hybrid&mt3=esri-satellite&mt4=osm-administrative-boundaries&mt5=mapquest-map&mt6=bing-hybrid&mt7=mapbox-satellite http://export.hotosm.org/en/jobs/6970 http://simon04.dev.openstreetmap.org/whodidit/scripts/rss.php?bbox=36.54525,31.882639,36.630909,31.932258 http://data.unhcr.org/syrianrefugees/settlement.php?id=251&country=107&region=73

Camps de réfugiés en République démocratique du Congo

Contribuer et éditer la carte

Editing the map requires an account to create an account in OSM: https://www.openstreetmap.org/user/new? (for better monitoring of the edits, we suggest to include the name of your organization within your user name).

Then just go to the "edit" tab in the OpenStreetMap page https://www.openstreetmap.org/edit and start contributing. You add or edit tags: http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Beginners_Guide_1.4.1 or create new objects: http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Beginners_Guide_1.3

A very good introduction can also be gfound here: http://en.flossmanuals.net/openstreetmap/editing-with-josm/

Offline map edition can also be done with JOSM: . Specific preset for tcamp mapping are available in Github: https://github.com/unhcr/presets. The presets have been organized to match sectors terminology as known by humanitarian workers.

Note that a specific preset has been designed to be used with Vespucci, (https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=de.blau.android), the Android Offline OpenStreetmap editor: https://github.com/unhcr/presets/blob/master/HDM-camp-vespucci.xml

Utiliser l'imagerie pour cartographier les camps

Consulte ce guide disponible en ligne (en anglais): Satellite Imagery Interpretation Guide: Displaced Population Camps: http://hhi.harvard.edu/publications/satellite-imagery-interpretation-guide-displaced-population-camps

Tags

Note that addr:postcode is used to register the Addressing systems as used in UNHCR registration database. This will facilitate export and join with aggregated refugee profile information.

Administrative levels within the camp are recorded at 2 levels:

For level 1 (Camp sectors or modules)

               <key key="place" value="suburb"/>
               <key key="admin_level" value="8"/>
               <key key="boundary" value="administrative"/>
               <key key="refugee" value="yes"/>


For level 2 (Camp blocks or communities)

               <key key="place" value="neighbourhood"/>
               <key key="admin_level" value="9"/>
               <key key="boundary" value="administrative"/>
               <key key="refugee" value="yes"/>


Tags habituels

These tags can by used freely to all camp facilities. It dosen't mean that each facility need all of them, but each tag can be used with every type of facility .

Nom Clé Valeur Description Hyperlien
Local name loc_name User Defined Local name of the shop/service/facility Key:name
International name int_name User Defined International name of the facility Key:name
English name name:en User Defined The name of the facility given in English Key:name
Owner owner User Defined Name of the owner or donor Key:owner
Operator operator User Defined Name of the operator or person/instition/subject that is responsible for maintain it Key:operator
Type of operator operator:type public, private, government, religious, ngo, community Type of operator key:operator:type
Camp facility type See below See below Different camp facilities

Equipements

Below are the common facilities available in Za'atari Refugee Camp. Within these facilities are a wide range of services available to the residents of Za'atari refugee Camp.

See other tables below for more specific description of each facility.

Nom Tag Description Hyperlien
Toilet/latrine amenity=toilets For more specific description see below for Toilets Tag:amenity=toilets
Water point amenity=water_point Independet water point where you can get large amount of drinking water Tag:amenity=water_point
WASH centre amenity=washcenter A solid communal structure to collect water, wash hands and use toilet. Somtimes also there is a shower Tag:amenity=washcenter
Kitchen amenity=kitchen A solid communal structure where to cook Tag:amenity=kitchen
Bin amenity=waste_basket Key:bin
Lamp posts/Street lamps highway=street_lamp A street light, lamppost, street lamp, light standard, or lamp standard is a raised source of light on the edge of a road, which is turned on or lit at a certain time every night. Tag:highway=street_lamp
Amenity amenity=* See below for common Za'atari shops and services to find values Key:amenity
Shop shop=* See below for common Za'atari shops and services to find values Key:shop
Craft craft=* See below for common Za'atari shops and services to find valuess Key:craft
Restaurant amenity=restaurant Tag:amenity=restaurant
Clinic amenity=clinic Tag:amenity=clinic
Mosque amenity=place_of_worship religion=muslim See below for Mosque to find more attributes Tag:amenity=place_of_worship
Distribution centre amenity=social_facility; social_facility=distribution Key:social_facility

Equipements en lien avec la jeunesse et l'enseignement

Nom Tag Description Hyperlien
Ecole amenity=school Tag:amenity=school
Espace adapté aux enfants amenity=social_facility; social_facility=outreach Un espace sûr et convivial pour que les enfants y jouent Key:social_facility
Terrain de jeu landuse=recreation_ground Tag:landuse=recreation_ground
Aire de jeu leisure=playground Tag:leisure=playground
Centre communautaire amenity=community_centre Une installation publique principalement utilisée par les associations locales pour l'organisation d'événements et festivités Tag:amenity=community_centre


Eau et hygiène ("WASH")

Toilettes et latrines

Nom Key Value Description Hyperlien
Toilettes amenity toilets The location of a toilet open to the public Tag:amenity=toilets
Latrine toilets:disposal pitlatrine Toilet is a latrine, a receptacle (as a pit in the earth) for use as a toilet. Use with amenity=toilets Tag:amenity=toilets
Latrine type movable yes/no If the latrine is movable or permanent Proposed_features/Attributes#movable.3Dyes.2Fno
Female, male female,male yes/no female=yes when access is ONLY for female, male=yes when access is ONLY for male Tag:amenity=toilets
Access to toilet access public, private, multifamily If the toilet is public and open to whoever walks up or it is private Key:access
Condition of facility damage_status intact, minor, medium, heavy, completely How well the facility is functioning taginfo: [http://taginfo.openstreetmap.org/keys/damage_status

Fosse septique

Nom Tag Description Hyperlien
Fosse septique man_made=septic_tank Septic tanks can be used as a separete item or in a Relation Relation with a amenity=toilets with toilets:disposal=pitlatrine if the latrine has septic tank Tag:man made=septic tank

Eau potable

Nom Clé Valeur Description Hyperlien
Facility type amenity drinking_water Place to get "drinking water" in smaller amounts for personal usage Tag:amenity=drinking_water

Points d'eau

Nom Clé Valeur Description Hyperlien
Facility type amenity water_point Independet water point where you can get large amount of drinking water form water tanks Tag:amenity=water_point
Water tank size water_tank:size two_cubic_metres, oxfam_water_point Type of water point Key:water_tank
Water tank location water_tank:location displaced Use it with amenity=water_point for indicate taht water tank is not where it should be Key:water_tank
Water tank amount water_tank:quantity Number Amount of water tanks assigned to that water point Key:water_tank
Condition of facility damage_status intact, minor, medium, heavy, completely How well the facility is functioning taginfo: [4]

Centres WASH

Nom Clé Valeur Description Hyperlien
Facility type amenity wash_centre A solid communal structure to collect water, wash hands and use toilet. Somtimes also there is a shower Tag:amenity=wash_center
Local name loc_name User Defined (text) Name of the WASH Centre Key:name
Male WASH Centre male yes/no Male WASH Centre Key:male
Female WASH Centre female yes/no Female WASH Centre Key:female
Outside lighting lit yes/no Is there outside lighting Key:lit
Condition of facility damage_status intact, minor, medium, heavy, completely How well the facility is functioning taginfo: [5]
Facility is disused disused yes/no Facility is disused

Cuisines

Nom Clé Valeur Description Hyperlien
Facility type amenity kitchen Kitchen facility for the community Tag:amenity=kitchen
Operator operator nobody, street_leader_volunteers Who is responsible to upkeep kitchen Key:operator
Condition of facility damage_status intact, minor_damage, mediumr_damage, heavyr_damage, completelyr_damage How well the facility is functioning Taginfo[6]
Bin present bin yes/no Does the Kitchen contain a bin for Kitchen Waste Key:bin
Waste collection collection:waste daily, every_2_3_days, every_3_7_days, more_than_week, never How often does the bin get emptied Key:collection:waste
Gas cylinders appilance gas_cylinder Did the kitchens has gas cylinders present Key:appilance
Gas cylinder amount gas_cylinder:quantity Number How many gas cylinders are present
Non functional cooker cooker:nonfuncional Number Amount of cooker that are non functional at the time of assessment. Use with appilance=cooker
Functional cooker cooker:funcional Number Amount of cooker that are functional at the time of assessment. Use with appilance=cooker
Access to kitchen capacity Number How many people use this kitchen Key:capacity
Residential status squatted yes/no Are people living in the kitchen Key:squatted
Tank amount water_tank:quantity Number Amount of water tanks assigned to that kitchen Tag:water_tank:quantity=*

Poubelles

Nom Clé Valeur Description Hyperlien
Facility Type amenity waste_basket Bin Tag:amenity=waste_basket
Waste Type waste trash subkey for amenity=waste_basket Key:waste

Lampes

Nom Tag Description Hyperlien
Facility Type highway=street_lamp Lamp Post/Street Lighting Tag:highway=street_lamp
Lit lit=yes/no Is the lamp post lit Key:lit

Commerces et services

These tags can by used freely to all Shops and Services facilities in camp. It dosen't mean that each facility need all of them, but each tag can be used with every type of facility .

Nom Clé Valeur Description Hyperlien
Facility type shop,amenity,craft See below for common Za'atari shops and services Shop, craft, business
Obtain good goods_supply outside_camp, inside_camp Where the owner gets their goods/produce from Key:goods_supply
Waste disposal methods waste:disposal bin, septic_tank, backside, on_the_street How the waste is dispose of Key:waste:disposal
Access to water drinking_water yes/no Does the facility have access to water Key:drinking_water
Source of water water_supply bottled_water, paying_water_truckers, external_private_supplier Source of drikning water supply Taginfo:[7]
Tank amount water_tank:quantity Number Amount of water tanks assigned to that facility Tag:water_tank:quantity=*
Appliance appliance small_refidgerator, big_refidgerator, deep_freezer, rotisserie, oven, water_filters, boilers, welding_machines, television, computer, other What type of appliances has facility Key:appliance
License regulation license:unhcr yes/no Need licensed regulated Key:license:unhcr

Types de commerces, services, artisans

Nom Tag Description Hyperlien
Electricien craft=electrician tag:craft=electrician
Forgeron craft=blacksmith Un lieu où l'on travaille les métaux Tag:craft=blacksmith
Tailleur craft=tailor Un lieu où l'on crée et/ou répare des vêtements Tag:craft=tailor
Boulanger shop=bakery Tag:shop=bakery
Marchand de fruits et légumes shop=greengrocer Un lieu de vente de fruits et légumes Tag:shop=greengrocer
Salon de beauté shop=beauty A shop which provided beauty treatments and hairdressing Tag:shop=beauty
Magasin de vêtements shop=clothes Un lieu de vente de vêtements Tag:shop=clothes
Magasin de téléphonie shop=mobile_phone A shop which sells mobile phone and mobile phone services Tag:shop=mobile_phone
Fromagerie shop=cheese Un magasin vendant du fromage Tag:shop=cheese
Bureau de change amenity=bureau_de_change Service of exchanging money Tag:amenity=bureau_de_change
Filtration d'eau amenity=water_service Service of filtering water Tag:amenity=water_service
Magasin de yaourt shop=dairy_products A shop which sells yogurt and/or other dairy products Tag:shop=dairy_products
Magasin d'informatique shop=computer A shop which sells computers and provides computer based services Tag:shop=computer
Bed Shop shop=bed A shop which sells, beds, mattresses and blankets and tents Tag:shop=bed
Confiserie shop=confectionery A shop that is specialised in selling sweets (candy) or even producing them Tag:shop=confectionery
Kiosque shop=kiosk A Kiosk is a little shop selling cigarettes, newspapers, sweets, snacks and beverages. Tag:shop=kiosk
Boucher shop=butcher A shop primarily selling meat or meat products. Tag:shop=butcher
Supérette shop=convenience A small local shop carrying a small subset of the items you would find in a supermarket to household items Tag:shop=convenience
DIY Store shop=doityourself A shop selling basic home equipment such as and tools, power tools, self-assembly furniture, decorating products, bathroom and kitchen furniture and fittings, garden furniture, electrical goods, fencing, flooring, and more. Tag:shop=doityourself
Dry Goods Shop shop=food A shop selling cereal, flour, coffee and other food that is solid and dry. Tag:shop=food
Magasin de chaussures shop=shoes A shop which sells shoes Tag:shop=shoes
Appliance Store shop=appliance A shop selling large electrical items (aka white goods) such as washing machines, fridges, cookers, ovens, fans etc. May also include smaller items such as rice cookers, blenders, toasters and/or entertainment electronics such as televisions and stereo systems. Proposed features/Appliance Store
Vacant Shop shop=vacant A shop that is vacant Tag:shop=vacant
Fuel Shop shop=gas A shop that sells gasoline and gas canisters Tag:shop=gas

Catégories de commerce

These tags can be added as additional information for specific type of shop.

Nom Clé Valeur Description
Cloths shop clothes Key:clothes May be used in combination with shop=clothes to give further information on the kind of clothes sold. You can use several values, separated by semicolons, if the shop sells different kinds of clothes.
Second hand second_hand yes, only For Shop that sell special kind of product use "yes" if it sell new and 2nd hand or "only" if it sell only 2nd hand.

Restaurants

Nom Tag Valeur Description Hyperlien
Restaurant amenity restaurant generally formal place with sit-down facilities selling full meals Tag:amenity=restaurant
Warm meals restaurant:warm_meals yes/no Is it served cooked on premises hot food Key:warm_meals
Handwashing restaurant:handwashing yes/no If there are handwashing bucket taps Taginfo: [8]
Toilets distance toilet:distance_meter number
Waste Disposal Methods waste:disposal bin, septic_tank, backside, street How the waste is dispose of Key:waste:disposal
Access to water water_access:paid yes/no If the restaurant owner pay for access to water
Source of Water water_supply bottled_water, paying_water_truckers, external_private_supplier Source of drikning water supply Taginfo:[9]
Tank amount water_tank:quantity Number Amount of water tanks assigned to that facility Tag:water_tank:quantity=*
Appliance appliance small_refidgerator, big_refidgerator, deep_freezer, rotisserie, oven, water_filters, boilers, welding_machines, television, computer, other What type of appliances has facility Key:applicane
License regulation license:unhcr yes/no Need licensed regulated Key:license:unhcr

Types de cafés et fastfoods

Nom Tag Description Hyperlien
Falafel amenity=fastfood, cuisine=falafel Falafel food stand Tag:amenity=fast_food Key:cuisine
Cafe amenity=cafe Coffee Shop, Cafe Tag:amenity=cafe

Mosquées

Nom Clé Valeur Description Hyperlien
Amenity Type amenity place_of_worship In combination with 'religion=muslim' signify mosque Tag:amenity=place_of_worship
Religion religion muslim key:religion
Local Name loc_name User Defined (text) Local name Key:name
International Name int_name User Defined (text) Name in English Key:name
Mosque type mosque:type masjid, mussalla Type of mosque Key:mosque:type
Material building:material caravan, tent, large_tent, pre_fabricated_structure From what material is made building key:building:material
Capacity capacity User Defined (number) How many people can pray key:capacity
Male mosque male yes, no If only male can pray in this mosque (yes), or not only male (no) Key:male
Waste Disposal Methods waste:disposal bin, septic_tank, backside, street How the waste is dispose of Key:waste:disposal
Source of Water water_supply bottled_water, paying_water_truckers, external_private_supplier Source of drikning water supply Taginfo:[10]
Tank amount water_tank:quantity Number Amount of water tanks assigned to that facility Tag:water_tank:quantity=*