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利用できる言語 — Environment
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OpenStreetMap は、エリアを描いて Key:landuse キーや Key:natural のような土地の分類を使用することで、地図の土地利用(土地の区域別の使用方法による分類)に対応しています。レンダラーはこれらの多くのタグをサポートし、道路やその他の地物の下をそれぞれの色で表示する傾向があります。

森林

森林をタグ付けするとき、 OSM では幾つかの意味があります。

土地利用 (Landuse)

短い定義: 区域が人間によってどのように利用されているか。

  • landuse=* - 土地利用を示す主タグ。
  • 一部の leisure=* タグは土地利用とみなされることがあります。
  • 一部の man_made=* タグは土地利用とみなされることがあります(man_made=wastewater_plant)。このタグの多くは提案されたものではなく、 man_made 以下のタグは OSM が発展する中で配置されたものであることに注意してください。
  • 他の人間が介在する可能性があるタグ(operator=*, managed=*, craft=*

植生 (Vegetation)

土地の表面 (Landcover)

Landcover は地面の表面の物理的な材質を記述するために使います。土地の表面には草、アスファルト、木、土、水などが含まれます。


土地利用のマッピングへのアプローチに関する勧告は、終結しようとしています。以下の#公開質問を参照してください。

rei: Wakefield has a lot of landuse areas mapped out. Is Wakefield a "good" example? You decide:

In this image you can see land classified with tags such as:

landuse=residential
landuse=industrial
landuse=farmland
landuse=recreation_ground
landuse=allotments
landuse=cemetery
natural=heath
natural=scrub
amenity=school
amenity=hospital

公開質問

Here are some awkward questions to do with landuse:

  • Are we aiming to classify every area of land with a landuse? Could be good, but in practical terms, how do we deal with farm land (or in some countries desert/wasteland) which occupy the majority of the landmass outside of cities? While they are half-mapped the map looks weirdly incomplete, with big brown stains over patches where farms are drawn in. Why are the renderers set-up like that?
  • How should we map very large landuse areas. These forests in British Colmbia for example have been added by splitting them up in rectangular chunks. This is a pragmatic solution to help renderers, but it results in rendering artefacts. Is that a bug to fix in the style config / software?
  • Should adjacent landuse areas share nodes? (overlapping way-segments)? Also should abutting highways along the edge of landuse area share nodes? People have different approaches to this. Some people leave a small gap between landuse areas and surrounding elements. Sharing nodes makes the data more awkward to work with (you have to use clever key-presses to separate the data out if you want to change it).
  • Similar question to the above. Should landuse areas ever be "attached" (share a node) with intersecting highways? It is common to do this for highway=footway as they cross into leisure=park, but it means the landuse data is less easily separated out into different layers.
  • What granularity do we go for when mapping farms? Is a landuse=farmland area drawn around an individual field, individual farm, or do we draw massive areas covering lots of farmland?
  • What granularity do we go for when mapping in cities? and if we do very detailed landuse areas, do we end up mapping a small landuse=retail area around every standalone corner shop? how does this sit with the use of building=*?

タグ付けの疑問

In addition to these general questions about landuse mapping, there are also a great deal of questions about tagging. Taking a step back and looking at the array of landuse tags and natural tags we have defined, it can look like a hopeless mess, but remember that OpenStreetMap has never operated with a strict ontology. If you're using the data, it's easy enough to define mappings to fit with how you would like to rationalise classifications.

Persuading the mapping community to stick to more sensible tagging classifications, is a more difficult task. Many tags are used passionately by a small number of contributors in a specific area, but sit uncomfortably with other defined tags. It's not even worth attempting to solve the problems all at once. You are encouraged to cross-link between similar tags on the wiki tag pages, and use the wiki talk pages and other Contact channels to point out inconsistencies and help nudge things in a more rational direction, but don't expect everyone to agree. Have patience.

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