MBTiles

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MBTiles is a file format for storing map tiles in a single file. It is, technically, a SQLite database. Latest format version as of 21 October 2011 is 1.1, next version (1.2) is in development.

Serving MBTiles

Since the only qualification for implementing languages is basic SQLite support, the logic is easily ported. A list of implementations is maintained by the project.

A simple PHP MBTiles Server script for serving image tiles only: https://github.com/bmcbride/PHP-MBTiles-Server

A more sophisticated PHP TileServer supporting UTFGrid & TileJson: https://github.com/infostreams/mbtiles-php

Other uses

You can bring a layer into JOSM from an MBTiles database using JOSM/Plugins/Mbtiles