Proposed features/Power switching extension

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Power switching extension
Status: Voting (under way)
Proposed by: fanfouer
Tagging: switch=*
Applies to: Node
Definition: Extends available description for power switching devices. Mappers may be invited to use switch=* to give extra details about them.
Drafted on: 2016-02-24
RFC start: 2016-07-20
Vote start: 2016-11-26
Vote end: 2016-12-10
Power 400kv dual coupling circuitbreaker.jpg

Rationale

Here is a little but necessary technical introduction

A switching device is intended to break the current in a given power line or equipment. Many sorts actually exist in power grids, at different scales to protect or control how electricity flows through the network both for maintenance or security purposes.
To know where and how they operate in the network can allow data consumers to improve a lot their own comprehension of such systems.

This proposal can be directly linked the the IEC 441 section where many useful definitions can be read.

Here are an extract of the most useful to have in mind :

  • Mechanical switch (441-14-10) : Is the most common form of power switch devices. Such a switch can carry normal currents and currents under abnormal specification but only breaks the first one. Furthermore, it can't offer enough protection to high voltages even in open position.
  • Disconnector (441-14-05) : A disconnector is capable to open circuits when a negligible current have to be broken. It provides a sufficient protection to high voltages when open but mustn't be operated when the power circuit is loaded.
  • Circuit-breaker (441-14-20) : This device is capable to break both normal or abnormal power currents but can't offer an enough protection to high voltages when open. It is often associated with a disconnector or earthing switch which brings this protection in open state.

Switches can be found in any system, alternative or direct current ones. Event it is actually recommanded to cut phases, switches can cut neutral or earthing conductors too.

It is possible to combine these different devices to meet security or breaking capabilities according to the environment of operation.
As you may understand, power switches won't offer any kind of overload detection. Switches have to be controlled by appropriate devices which will operate as quickly as they can to protect the power transmission chain.
A power switch is equivalent to a railway switch or a pipeline valve and they are both widely mapped around the world.

Proposal

It is proposed to use the switch=* key to complete information about power switches on OSM.
Such devices can be found in substations, on top of poles or in domestic places.

As other features like valves, the map can easily be cluttered if mappers add all - sometimes irrelevant - switches. Only a certain amount of them are described here and are proposed to be mapped.

How to map

Please don't go inside power substations if you're not invited to do so, it's dangerous and probably illegal.
Aerial imagery will help to see outdoor switch facilities safely.

On every switching device found, add a Node and put some tags described below.
Use location=* to give information about its position and switch=* to let us know about its function.

You may find mechanically linked switches as to prevent them to be operated independently (mainly on poly-phase systems). They often have the same figures and functions.
You are free to map every single switch with nodes (using cables=1 on each) or placing a single node in the middle of them and use cables=* to give the exact amount of device.

Elsewhere you may find several switch electrically linked to operate on the same phase or pole. It is strongly recommended to map every single device with a dedicated node since all device won't necessarily have the same figures and functions.

Tagging

Key Value Comment Recommendation
power switch The switch is normally mapped as a Node. This tags says it's a power switch mandatory
switch <switch type> The functional type or role of the switch. Values are mainly inspired by definitions in this proposal's Rationale. recommended
location <location> The physical location of the switch, such as indoor. See below for possible values. recommended
voltage <voltage> The voltage at which the power switch operates. The switch is mechanically designed to cut two parts of a circuit apart and the voltage is linked to the distance of these two parts when the switch is open. This key is optional since the ways leading to switch are also described with equivalent information. optional
cables <number of cables> A power switch (or group of power switches) can cut several phases, or poles for direct current. If so, just gives the number with this key. Defaults to 1. Please note phases=* is too specific and refers to alternative systems only. A switch can be seen on direct current systems too. Furthermore it can cuts not only phases/lives conductors but neutral too. optional
gas_insulated yes Use this tag for gas insulated switches using pressurized SF6 or SF6/nitrogen gas as insulation medium. Gas insulation allows to reduce distances needed to cut circuits. optional
operator <operator> Name of the company that operates the switch. optional
ref <reference> Abbreviation / number of the switch. optional

Switch values

This key gives information about the function of the switch, answering to the question why have we to put a switch there ?. It's not question of its shape or whatever else.

List of possible switch=* values
Key Value Comment
switch mechanical A Mechanical switch is the most common power switch you'll find in your environment. It can enable or cut normal power currents to turn on and off devices.

As such switch can have many different looks, you'll find some examples in the next section of this proposal.

disconnector A Disconnector is intended to put devices or network parts offline, permanently or temporarily.
circuit_breaker A Circuit-breaker is the only kind of switch which offers enough protection (safety) against abnormal power currents.
earthing A earthing switch is connected on one of its side to earth and can be operated to connect a device or network part to the ground.

Location

List of possible location=* values.
Key Value Comment
location outdoor A switch located in the open air outside, taking mainly advantage of it to cur power currents.
indoor A substation located indoor. Higher the voltage to cut is high, bigger are the dimensions. Some of them can use special insulating gas.
underground A switch located underground
platform A switch placed on a platform
rooftop A switch located on a rooftop

And you can obviously add as much precise values as you may need to this incomplete list.

Examples

Examples are focused on substations and distribution networks, where switches can easily be seen.
As a common device, you can find many similar shaped devices in many similar places around the world. The example list will probably be improved later, if the switch=* key get adopted.

Substation and transmission switches

Sun, mountains and French Alps substations, here you get some big switches.
Sevral pictures are taken from the outside of power facilities. It is possible to safely collect information from the outside without going inside as shown below.

Coupling and power bays

Photo Aerial view Tagging Note
400kV coupling in French Champagnier substation

Node 3822480206
Both bay and busbar dual circuit breaker on a same aerial view

Have a look : Way 69813552
Both coupling and bay circuit breakers have the same tagging. Even if two chambers can be seen on aerial picture, please use only one Node as shown with the following tags:

power=switch
switch=circuit_breaker
operator=RTE
location=outdoor
cables=1
gas_insulated=yes

400kV busbar coupling dual circuit-breaker. Such devices actually use SF6 as insulation gas.
400kV bays in French Champagnier substation

Node 3822480160
400kV dual circuit-breaker protecting a power bay (where power lines connect to substations). Such devices actually use SF6 as insulation gas.
63kV dual configuration with disconnector switches plus circuit-breaker in a distribution substation
--
  • Node 4220544875 Single Node for 3 disconnector switches (on the left) tagging :

power=switch
switch=disconnector
operator=ESSeyssel
location=outdoor
cables=3

  • Node 4523728368 Single Node for 3 circuit breaker switches (on the right) tagging :

power=switch
switch=circuit_breaker
operator=RTE
location=outdoor
cables=3

A dual switches association in distribution substation. The circuit-breaker is on the transmission side and assume the power grid protection. It has to be operated prior to the disconnector since the power line is surely loaded. The disconnector switches are operated by the distribution operator in maintenance operations when the substation needs to be forced offline.

Busbar switches

Photo Aerial view Tagging Note
225kV SF6 insulated busbar switches in Paris surburbs
--

Depending on aerial imagery quality, use 1 (cables=3) or 3 nodes (cables=1 on each) with following tags power=switch
switch=disconnector
operator=RTE
location=outdoor
gas_insulated=yes

225kV busbar switches connecting a power line (coming from the right) to substation busbars (on top).

Mechanically, all 3 switches are linked and can't be operated independently. Mapping with a single node and cables=3 is recommanded

63kV outdoor busbar switches in French Aussois substation
-- As distances aren't so big below 100kV, only one Node for 3-phases switches with following tags:

power=switch
switch=disconnector
operator=RTE
location=outdoor
cables=3

63kV busbar switches connecting a power line (going from left to right) to substation busbars (on top).

Mechanically, all 3 switches are linked and can't be operated independently. Mapping with a single node and cables=3 is recommanded

225kV outdoor disconnector switches connecting bays to busbars in Poteau Rouge French substation
Busbars disconnector switches link bays to busbars

Way 24020441

power=switch
switch=disconnector
operator=RTE
location=outdoor
cables=1

225kV disconnector switches connecting both the same power line (going from left to right) to two different substation busbars (on top). Mapping each of them with Node is mandatory

Misc switches

Photo Aerial view Tagging Note
225kV outdoor disconnector between busbars and coupling chain in Poteau Rouge French substation

Node 2658467057
Such disconnector switches end busbars and link to coupling chain

Way 24020441

power=switch
switch=disconnector
operator=RTE
location=outdoor
cables=1

225kV disconnector switch allowing operator to disconnect busbar from coupling chain.
400kV earthing switch

Node 3619552476

power=switch
switch=earthing
operator=RTE
location=outdoor
cables=1

Earthing switch allow to bind a power circuit (normally well insulated from earth) to earth, for maintenance or safety purposes. It can be also found in houses too, at a far smaller scale since the depicted one is for 400 kV circuits.

The horizontal mobile part goes vertical to connect the power line on the top to the earthed lattice on the bottom.

Distribution switches

Distribution switches can be seen in the country where distributon networks goes aerial. They are often on top of poles.

Photo Tagging Note
lack of illustration

power=pole
switch=mechanical
operator=Enedis
location=outdoor
cables=3

Such switches can be seen on country poles at a distribution level. These have to be operated locally by a technician.
20kV mechanical switch on a distribution line in French country

Node 2417074221

power=pole
switch=mechanical
operator=Enedis
location=outdoor
cables=3
remotely_controllable=radio

Such switches can be seen on country poles at a distribution level. The antenna allows operator to remotely open and close the switch to control the power flow.

Voting

Instructions for voting
  • Log in to the wiki if you are not already logged in.
  • Scroll down to voting and click 'Edit source'. Copy and paste the appropriate code from this table on its own line at the bottom of the text area:
I approve this proposal yes {{vote|yes}} --~~~~
I oppose this proposal no {{vote|no}} reason --~~~~
Replace reason with your reason(s) for voting no.
I abstain from voting but have comments abstain {{vote|abstain}} comments --~~~~
If you want don't want to vote but have comments. Replace comments with your comments.

Note: The ~~~~ automatically inserts your name and the current date.


  • I approve this proposal I approve this proposal. --Fanfouer (talk) 19:06, 26 November 2016 (UTC)
  • I approve this proposal I approve this proposal. --Hedaja (talk) 10:59, 1 December 2016 (UTC)
  • I approve this proposal I approve this proposal. --Hufgardm (talk) 13:02, 1 December 2016 (UTC)
  • I approve this proposal I approve this proposal. --Fernerkunder (talk) 14:58, 1 December 2016 (UTC)
  • I approve this proposal I approve this proposal.. It will make mapping of power switches easier. In my area in the Philippines, I added 34.5 kV lines (usually inroadside for easy access by work vehicles), which includes some switches. Since they are mounted on poles, I tagged them with power=pole and switch=yes, fortunately, this proposal will help specify the type of switch there.--TagaSanPedroAko (talk) 11:38, 2 December 2016 (UTC)
  • I approve this proposal I approve this proposal. ----romanh Thanks, but location=pole is missing

See also