Proposed features/Power switching extension
|Power switching extension|
|Status:||Voting (under way)|
|Definition:||Extends available description for power switching devices. Mappers may be invited to use switch=* to give extra details about them.|
Here is a little but necessary technical introduction
A switching device is intended to break the current in a given power line or equipment. Many sorts actually exist in power grids, at different scales to protect or control how electricity flows through the network both for maintenance or security purposes.
To know where and how they operate in the network can allow data consumers to improve a lot their own comprehension of such systems.
This proposal can be directly linked the the IEC 441 section where many useful definitions can be read.
Here are an extract of the most useful to have in mind :
- Mechanical switch (441-14-10) : Is the most common form of power switch devices. Such a switch can carry normal currents and currents under abnormal specification but only breaks the first one. Furthermore, it can't offer enough protection to high voltages even in open position.
- Disconnector (441-14-05) : A disconnector is capable to open circuits when a negligible current have to be broken. It provides a sufficient protection to high voltages when open but mustn't be operated when the power circuit is loaded.
- Circuit-breaker (441-14-20) : This device is capable to break both normal or abnormal power currents but can't offer an enough protection to high voltages when open. It is often associated with a disconnector or earthing switch which brings this protection in open state.
Switches can be found in any system, alternative or direct current ones. Event it is actually recommanded to cut phases, switches can cut neutral or earthing conductors too.
It is possible to combine these different devices to meet security or breaking capabilities according to the environment of operation.
As you may understand, power switches won't offer any kind of overload detection. Switches have to be controlled by appropriate devices which will operate as quickly as they can to protect the power transmission chain.
A power switch is equivalent to a railway switch or a pipeline valve and they are both widely mapped around the world.
As other features like valves, the map can easily be cluttered if mappers add all - sometimes irrelevant - switches. Only a certain amount of them are described here and are proposed to be mapped.
How to map
Please don't go inside power substations if you're not invited to do so, it's dangerous and probably illegal.
Aerial imagery will help to see outdoor switch facilities safely.
You may find mechanically linked switches as to prevent them to be operated independently (mainly on poly-phase systems). They often have the same figures and functions.
You are free to map every single switch with nodes (using cables=1 on each) or placing a single node in the middle of them and use cables=* to give the exact amount of device.
Elsewhere you may find several switch electrically linked to operate on the same phase or pole. It is strongly recommended to map every single device with a dedicated node since all device won't necessarily have the same figures and functions.
|power||switch||The switch is normally mapped as a . This tags says it's a power switch||mandatory|
|switch||<switch type>||The functional type or role of the switch. Values are mainly inspired by definitions in this proposal's Rationale.||recommended|
|location||<location>||The physical location of the switch, such as indoor. See below for possible values.||recommended|
|voltage||<voltage>||The voltage at which the power switch operates. The switch is mechanically designed to cut two parts of a circuit apart and the voltage is linked to the distance of these two parts when the switch is open. This key is optional since the ways leading to switch are also described with equivalent information.||optional|
|cables||<number of cables>||A power switch (or group of power switches) can cut several phases, or poles for direct current. If so, just gives the number with this key. Defaults to 1. Please note phases=* is too specific and refers to alternative systems only. A switch can be seen on direct current systems too. Furthermore it can cuts not only phases/lives conductors but neutral too.||optional|
|gas_insulated||yes||Use this tag for gas insulated switches using pressurized SF6 or SF6/nitrogen gas as insulation medium. Gas insulation allows to reduce distances needed to cut circuits.||optional|
|operator||<operator>||Name of the company that operates the switch.||optional|
|ref||<reference>||Abbreviation / number of the switch.||optional|
This key gives information about the function of the switch, answering to the question why have we to put a switch there ?. It's not question of its shape or whatever else.
|switch||mechanical|| A Mechanical switch is the most common power switch you'll find in your environment. It can enable or cut normal power currents to turn on and off devices.
As such switch can have many different looks, you'll find some examples in the next section of this proposal.
|disconnector||A Disconnector is intended to put devices or network parts offline, permanently or temporarily.|
|circuit_breaker||A Circuit-breaker is the only kind of switch which offers enough protection (safety) against abnormal power currents.|
|earthing||A earthing switch is connected on one of its side to earth and can be operated to connect a device or network part to the ground.|
|location||outdoor||A switch located in the open air outside, taking mainly advantage of it to cur power currents.|
|indoor||A substation located indoor. Higher the voltage to cut is high, bigger are the dimensions. Some of them can use special insulating gas.|
|underground||A switch located underground|
|platform||A switch placed on a platform|
|rooftop||A switch located on a rooftop|
And you can obviously add as much precise values as you may need to this incomplete list.
Examples are focused on substations and distribution networks, where switches can easily be seen.
As a common device, you can find many similar shaped devices in many similar places around the world. The example list will probably be improved later, if the switch=* key get adopted.
Substation and transmission switches
Sun, mountains and French Alps substations, here you get some big switches.
Sevral pictures are taken from the outside of power facilities. It is possible to safely collect information from the outside without going inside as shown below.
Coupling and power bays
Have a look : 69813552
|Both coupling and bay circuit breakers have the same tagging. Even if two chambers can be seen on aerial picture, please use only one as shown with the following tags:||400kV busbar coupling dual circuit-breaker. Such devices actually use SF6 as insulation gas.|
|400kV dual circuit-breaker protecting a power bay (where power lines connect to substations). Such devices actually use SF6 as insulation gas.|
||A dual switches association in distribution substation. The circuit-breaker is on the transmission side and assume the power grid protection. It has to be operated prior to the disconnector since the power line is surely loaded. The disconnector switches are operated by the distribution operator in maintenance operations when the substation needs to be forced offline.|
|--||225kV busbar switches connecting a power line (coming from the right) to substation busbars (on top).|
|--||As distances aren't so big below 100kV, only one for 3-phases switches with following tags:||63kV busbar switches connecting a power line (going from left to right) to substation busbars (on top).|
|225kV disconnector switches connecting both the same power line (going from left to right) to two different substation busbars (on top). Mapping each of them with is mandatory|
|225kV disconnector switch allowing operator to disconnect busbar from coupling chain.|
| Earthing switch allow to bind a power circuit (normally well insulated from earth) to earth, for maintenance or safety purposes. It can be also found in houses too, at a far smaller scale since the depicted one is for 400 kV circuits.
The horizontal mobile part goes vertical to connect the power line on the top to the earthed lattice on the bottom.
Distribution switches can be seen in the country where distributon networks goes aerial. They are often on top of poles.
|lack of illustration||Such switches can be seen on country poles at a distribution level. These have to be operated locally by a technician.|
|Such switches can be seen on country poles at a distribution level. The antenna allows operator to remotely open and close the switch to control the power flow.|
- I approve this proposal. --Fanfouer (talk) 19:06, 26 November 2016 (UTC)
- I approve this proposal. --Hedaja (talk) 10:59, 1 December 2016 (UTC)
- I approve this proposal. --Hufgardm (talk) 13:02, 1 December 2016 (UTC)
- I approve this proposal. --Fernerkunder (talk) 14:58, 1 December 2016 (UTC)
- I approve this proposal.. It will make mapping of power switches easier. In my area in the Philippines, I added 34.5 kV lines (usually inroadside for easy access by work vehicles), which includes some switches. Since they are mounted on poles, I tagged them with power=pole and switch=yes, fortunately, this proposal will help specify the type of switch there.--TagaSanPedroAko (talk) 11:38, 2 December 2016 (UTC)
- I approve this proposal. ----romanh Thanks, but location=pole is missing