Key:access

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Public-images-osm logo.svg access
WhichAccess.png
Description
For describing the legal accessibility of a element.
Group: Restrictions
Used on these elements
may be used on nodes
may be used on ways
may be used on areas
use on relations unspecified
Useful combination
Status: unspecified

Description

Access values are used to describe the legal access for highway=*s and other facilities including building entrances. The values can be used with the access tag or with tags associated with particular forms of transport. For example access=delivery on a service road tagged with highway=service would imply that all transport modes can use the entrance for delivery only. A building entrance available for pedestrian customers only would be tagged entrance=yes and foot=customer. In addition to transport mode restriction, there may be restrictions relating to height, weight, restrictions may vary by time and day and restrictions may be directional.

Values

Value Description
agricultural Only for agricultural traffic
customers Only for customers of the element.[1]
Ambox warning pn.svg Recent addition with disputed applicability (See discussion). Some mappers are using "customer" or "destination" instead; this proposal describes the customer tag
delivery Only when delivering to the element.
designated A preferred or designated (not compulsory) route for a specific vehicle type or types. Often marked by a traffic sign
destination Only when traveling to this element, e.g. customer parking lots.
discouraged A legal right of way exists (see "yes") but usage is officially discouraged (e.g. HGVs on narrow but passable lanes) . Often marked by a traffic sign
forestry Only for forestry traffic
no No access for the general public. Consider using additional access:*=* tag(s) to indicate who can use the element (e.g. if only specific transport modes allowed).
official The way is dedicated to a specific mode of travel by law. Usually marked by traffic signs and exclusive. In Germany use is also compulsory. clarification needed
permissive Open to general traffic until such time as the owner revokes the permission which they are legally allowed to do at any time in the future.
private Only with permission of the owner on an individual basis
yes The public has an official, legally-enshrined right of access, i.e. it's a right of way

Access time and other conditional restrictions

Restrictions may be limited to a particular time or day. Or they may limit the access for vehicles over a certain weight. Such conditions can be tagged as shown in these tagging examples:

  • Ex 1. Only destination access is permitted during 8am and 5pm on Mondays to Fridays:
    access:conditional=destination @ (Mo-Fr 08:00-17:00)
  • Ex 2. Motor vehicles heavier than 5 tonnes may only access this street for the purpose of delivering goods:
    motor_vehicle:conditional=delivery @ (weight>5)

Please note that the above tagging style can be used to replace the following time dependent restrictions. It has been suggested that they be deprecated and should therefore no longer be used. date_on=*, date_off=*, day_on=*, day_off=*, hour_on=*, hour_off=*. Also note, that using of conditional tag assumes overt indication of value, which mostly suites as a default value. For example, if access is open on one part of day (on this part of day access=permissive) and is closed on other part of day (on this part of day access=private), we have a situation, when we should mark the object with a tag access=permissive or access=private. There is no conrete, precise and universal algorithm to define, if we should use permissive or private in concrete situation, but we can definitely say, that in such case we can't use access=yes (or not use tag access at all), because access=yes (or absence of tag access) means round-the-clock open access for general public.

For a full description and more examples, please see the conditional restrictions page.

Size and statutory restrictions

A number of statutary restrictions based on height, width, weight etc can also be defined. A assumed units are the appropriate SI unit and should be specified without any suffix. For lengths use metres, for weights use metric tonnes and for times use hours. Decimal numbers should include a decimal point. Exceptions include speeds which should be in mph in places where speed limits are defined in these units and times which can include a suffix of 'days' if appropriate.

Routing restrictions

One-way restrictions

Ways may have different access restrictions for each direction. The most simple case is a way designated as a oneway road:

  • oneway=yes driving is only allowed in the direction of the way
  • oneway=-1 driving is only allowed against the direction of the way
  • oneway=no default, access is allowed in both directions (this key/value combination does not normally need to be added to ways, unless another tag such as highway=motorway_link implies oneway=yes)

For more complex direction dependent restrictions, the postfixes :backward and :forward can be used on the keys, for example:

  • bicycle:backward=no (when a road has a oneway cycleway next to it that must be used, and a cyclelane in the other direction)
  • bicycle:backward=yes (when cyclists are allowed to travel in both directions on a oneway street (but no lane is present))

Also in use when cyclists are allowed to travel in the opposite direction

The oneway tag can be translated (for routing purposes) to this generic system as follows (oneway restrictions presumably do not apply to pedestrians):

Lane dependent restrictions

Access restrictions may differ between lanes. For details about lane-dependent tags see Lanes.

  • hgv:lanes=no|yes|yes (Heavy good vehicles are not allowed on the leftmost lane of a road with three lanes)
  • bus:lanes:forward=no|yes|designated (Buses are not allowed on the leftmost lane of a road with three lanes in forward direction. The rightmost lane is a designated bus lane)

Transport mode restrictions

Use the access=* key to describe a general access restriction that applies to all transport modes. Note, that, for example, adding access=yes to highway=footway changes default restrictions (which usually are foot=yes and vehicle=no for highway=footway) to yes, highway=footway + access=yes means "road, which is open for all pedestrians and vehicles". Be very careful when adding general permitting tags access=yes and access=permissive, think about adding precise correct tags with concrete transport modes. If you want, for example, distingush footway with open access from footway with closed access, use tags like foot=yes and foot=private instead of access=yes and access=private.

Where different restrictions apply to different modes of transport then mode specific tags can be used. These modal tags each have a place in a hierarchy in which keys become narrower in scope as they branch out from the root.

For example:

  • access=yes,foot=no means that all transport modes except pedestrians can use the element
  • access=forestry,foot=permissive implies that forestry vehicles can use the route legally and that pedestrians can use it by currently but that permission may later be withdrawn.
  • See examples section for more examples.

Land-based transportation

This hierarchy is different in each country. So it's possible that your country has vehicle classes which aren't in this list, doesn't have some which are, and some vehicle classes may even have a different definition from the one listed below:

  • access=* (category: any land-based transportation mode)
    • Moving without a vehicle
    • Sinnbild Reiter.svg horse=* (horse riders)
    • vehicle=* (category: any vehicle)
      • Non-motorized vehicle
        • Single-tracked
        • Double-tracked
      • motor_vehicle=* (category: any motorized vehicle)
        • Single-tracked
          • Sinnbild Kraftrad.svg motorcycle=* (a two-wheeled motor vehicle, allowed to drive on motorways)
          • moped=* (motorized bicycles with a speed restriction; e.g., at most a 50 cc engine or max. speed of about 45 km/h)
          • Sinnbild Mofa.svg mofa=* ("low performance moped", usually with a maximum design speed of 25 km/h)
        • Sinnbild Kfz.svg Double-tracked (category: motor vehicles with more than 2 wheels/more than 1 track)
          • Sinnbild PKW.svg motorcar=* automobiles/cars
          • tourist_bus=* describes a bus that is not acting as a public transport bus service
          • goods=* (light commercial vehicles; e.g., goods vehicles with a maximum allowed mass of up to 3.5 tonnes)
          • Sinnbild LKW.svg hgv=* (heavy goods vehicle; e.g., goods vehicles with a maximum allowed mass over 3.5 tonnes)
          • Sinnbild Traktor.svg agricultural=* (agricultural motor vehicles (e.g., tractors) that have additional restrictions (e.g., a 25 km/h speed limit))
          • atv=* a.k.a. Quad (bike) (Restricted to or permissive for vehicles 50 in (1.27 m) or less in width) still in proposal stage. You may want to use maxwidth=1.27 instead.
          • snowmobile=*
        • By use
          • psv=* (public service vehicle)
            • Sinnbild Kraftomnibus.svg bus=* (a bus acting as a public service vehicle)
            • taxi=* (taxi)
          • hov=* (high-occupancy vehicle/carpool, at least one passenger (varies by location))
          • emergency=* (category: emergency motor vehicles; e.g., ambulance, fire truck, police car)
          • hazmat=* (motor vehicles carrying hazardous materials)
          • disabled=*(holders of blue badge (UK) or other such disabled persons' permit. Used on traffic signs to exempt said group from access restrictions; not just regarding parking)

Not in the list: hybrid cars, electric cars, 4wd_only, Sinnbild LKW mit Anhänger.svg (should that be "hgv_caravan" or "road_train"?).

Water-based transportation

  • access=* (category: any water-based transportation mode)
    • boat=* (covers small boats and pleasure crafts, including yachts)
      • motorboat=* (boats and yachts using motor, on Way also for sailing boats using the motor)
      • sailboat=* (boats and yachts using sails, on Way doing way with sail, not using the motor (according to the definition of the Colreg))
      • canoe=* (boats without sail or motor, such as small dingies, canoes, kayaks, etc.)
    • fishing_vessel=* (covers fishing vessels of any size)
    • ship=* (covers commercial vessels of any size and any trade)
      • passenger=* (ships carrying passengers, either in route (ferries, etc.) or as cruise)
      • cargo=* (any type of cargo ship)
      • isps=* (International Ship and Port Facility Security Regulation.)

As suggested, see discussion.

Rail-based transportation

  • access=* (category: any rail-based transportation mode)

Nodes, ways and areas

Tags of "access" group can be used for nodes, ways and areas. There are different priorities in OSM-community, where to put access tag: to area (usually it is a square, which have some specific conditions of access), to line (usually it is roads inside square) or to node (usually it is gate in barrier, which surrounds square, where there is a possibility to enter the area). Note that access tags mark legal status of territory and barriers and warning signs are only physical reflections of restrictions in area. In such manner, area with private status should have appropriate values, even there is no surrounding barrier or it is broken. Note, that different entrances can have different access values and different roads inside area can have different access values too. For example, we have are with permissive access - so we mark it with access=permissive. But there are several entrances, one of which is designated for all people, and other - only for persons, which have key. So we mark one entrance with access=permissive and other - with access=private. Another example - we have botanical garden with permissive access, which have roads, which are designated for public, and roads, which are designated only for stuff of garden. In such case we have access=permissive at one roads and access=private (or access=no) at another.

When you are tagging some area, it is your desicion, where to put "access" tags: to area, to entrances or to roads inside area (because nobody can bring you to add some tags somewhere), but removal of correct tags, which were put but someone else, is a mistake (and is close to vandalism). If you like to put tags to areas, do it, if you like to put tags to roads inside areas, do it, if you like to put tags to entrances, do it. But don't delete tags from type of elements, which you don't like.

Examples

  • bicycle=yes The public has a right of way when traveling on a bicycle.
  • horse=designated The route is designated for use by equestrians.
  • motorcycle=unknown It is unclear whether motorcycles can use this section.
  • motorcar=private The owner must give access to cars on an individual basis. Access by car is private, e.g. on a private road.
  • goods=no General goods vehicle traffic is not allowed.
  • hgv=no Heavy goods vehicle traffic is not allowed.
  • boat=no Waterway is not available for boat traffic.
  • oneway=yes + psv=opposite_lane The street is one way for cars but there is one opposite lane for buses and taxis.
  • maxweight=7 The weight limit is 7 tonnes
  • maxaxleload=3.5 The restricted weight limit per axle in tonnes, eg 3.5 t
  • maxheight=2.5 The maximum vehicle height is 2.5 meters
  • maxdraught=1 The maximum boat draught is 1 meter
  • maxspeed=110 The maximum speed limit is 110 km/h
  • maxspeed=55 mph The maximum speed limit is 55 mph
  • maxstay=14 days The maximum stay permitted; units in the tag as either hour/hours or day/days.
A one-way street with a contra-flow cycle lane

A one-way street with a cycle lane in the opposite direction:

See also

References

  1. If the general public can become a customer only with preliminary concordance of an owner of an object/territory, or if access is not open for all customers (or is otherwise limited), consider using private instead.