|power = substation|
|Used on these elements|
|Tools for this tag|
A substation is used to step-up or step-down the voltage=* within a electrical power grid and generally linked to the rest of the network by one of more sets of power=lines and which may contains one or more power=transformers. Substations can vary in size from small buildings the size of a garden shed to much larger installations to size of many football fields.
How to Map
Tag a or a as power=substation. Substations should in general be mapped as areas. Very small substations such as small "transformer" kiosks in residential areas may be mapped as nodes but such small facilities can also be mapped as power=transformer as this is what most people associate with small distribution substations.
- name=* The name of the facility
- operator=* The name of the company operating the substation.
- voltage=* The highest voltage of operation within the facility
Detailed mapping of substations
Note: This section describes an advanced tagging scheme for substations. It is particularly intended for mappers having some knowledge about power systems.
A substation performs switching of circuits, transforming of voltage and several other important functions in a power system.
When should a facility be tagged as a substation and when should it be tagged as a transformer? Substations and transformers can be distinguished as follows:
- power=substation represents an area that may contain transformers. It typically also comprises switchgear and other components.
- power=transformer represents a transformer device, as a . Power transformers are mostly found inside substations. However, a small distribution transformer located in a power pole is by most people considered to be a "transformer", not a "substation". According to this proposal a pole mounted transformer should not be tagged as a substation. See power=transformer for more details.
A substation should be tagged as follows:
|power||substation||The substation should normally be mapped as an . However, a small distribution substation may also be mapped as a .||mandatory|
|substation||<substation type>||The functional type or role of the substation. See below for possible values.||recommended|
|location||<location>||The physical location of the substation, such as indoor. See below for possible values. The default value is outdoor||recommended.|
|voltage||<voltage>[;<voltage>..]||The different voltages of the substation, ordered from highest to lowest (ex: 400000;225000;63000). It is recommended to tag at least the highest voltage of the substation.||recommended|
|gas_insulated||yes||Use this tag for gas insulated substations using pressurized SF6 or SF6/nitrogen gas as insulation medium. Gas insulation is typically used in indoor high voltage substations.||optional|
|name||<name>||The name by which the substation is known.||recommended|
|operator||<operator>||Name of the company that operates the substation.||optional|
|ref||<reference>||Abbreviation / number of the substation.||optional|
|substation||transmission||A transmission substation is a substation whose main function is to connect and switch transmission lines transmitting power between areas. It is suggested to use this value for substations handling voltages above 100 kV since transmission grids in most parts of the world have a voltage of 110 kV or higher. A transmission substation may also feed a medium voltage distribution grid (typically having a voltage of less than 100 kV). Substations collecting power from one or more generators of a power plant should also be considered to be of this type.|
|distribution||A distribution substation is a substation coupled to a medium voltage distribution grid mostly having a voltage between 25 kV and 90 kV and that typically feeds a lower voltage distribution network (e.g. 10 kV) of an area. A distribution substation may be fed from the transmission grid via a transformer (see above) but provides no switching of transmission power lines (otherwise use substation=transmission). Unless fed from the transmission grid the highest voltage level will typically be 90 kV or lower. The lowest voltage is typically higher than 2.4 kV. A distribution substation does not directly supply households (see minor_distribution substation below).|
|minor_distribution||This is a small substation at the lowest level of transforming in the distribution grid. This kind of substation directly supplies households and small businesses with low voltage power (e.g. 400V/230V in Europe). It is fed from the medium voltage distribution grid normally having a voltage between 3 kV and 30 kV. The substation is normally of the indoor type located in a small masonary building or prefabricated kiosk.|
|converter||A converter substation () comprises an HVDC converter plant. It usually also performs the functions of a normal transmission substation.|
|compensation||A compensation substation is used only for compensation of reactive power of a power line or underground cable. It usually does not comprise transformers or switchgear except possibly switches for disconnecting the compensation components such as reactors or series capacitors.|
|transition||A transition station sometimes referred to as transition yard. This is not a real substation but a fenced-off area with cable terminals where an underground cable connects to an overhead power line. It comprises no active components such as switches or transformers. If the cable terminals are located in the tower itself (no fenced area on the ground) don't tag this as a substation. Use the attribute tower=transition on the tower instead.|
|traction||A traction substation (605-01-06) is a substation whose main function is to supply a traction system (railways, trams and/or trolleybuses). They are often located near a railway.|
|industrial||Electrical substations may be found inside large industrial plants such as refineries and steel mills.|
|location||outdoor||A substation substantially located outside in open air although some parts, such as lower voltage switchgear, may be indoor. This is the default value.|
|indoor||A substation substantially located inside a building. Certain components, especially transformers, may be located outside the building.|
|underground||A substation located underground.|
|platform||A substation located on an offshore platform, for example associated with an offshore wind farm.|
|rooftop||A substation located on top of a building that is used for something else.|
|kiosk||A compact distribution substation located in a small, often prefabricated enclosure.|
A typical substation comprises at least the following components:
| Gray: Substation|
Cyan: Power line
Green: Switches etc
Purple: Busbar assembly
The switchgear assembly comprises one or more busbar assemblies and a number of bays each connecting a circuit to the busbar assembly. Normally the busbars and bays should be mapped individually, see below. However, sometimes the layout of the switchgear is not known, such as when the switchgear is inside a building or when no good aerial imagery is available. In such cases the switchgear may be mapped as an area. Only map switchgear in this way if it cannot be mapped in more details. If the entire substation is located indoor don't map the switchgear separately.
|power||switchgear||Defines this as switchgear (only use this tag when more detailed mapping of the switchgear is not possible).||mandatory|
|voltage||<voltage>||The voltage of the switchgear||recommended|
|location||<location>||The location of the switchgear, for example indoor. See above for possible values.||recommended|
|gas_insulated||yes||Use this tag for gas insulated switchgear using pressurized SF6 or SF6/nitrogen gas as insulation medium.||optional|
The busbar assembly makes connection to one or more circuits via the attached bays. The assembly comprises either rigid tubular conductors or flexible conductors. Strictly spoken, the term busbar refers to just one conductor but commonly an assembly of three busbars is also called a busbar ] which is the definition used here.
|power||line||Defines this as a generic power line.||mandatory|
|line||busbar||Identifies the line as a busbar assembly||mandatory|
|cables||<3,6,..>||Number of individual conductors. It is recommended to map each three-phase busbar assembly individually. However, if double or triple busbars for some reasons are mapped as a single way the cables tag should be used to indicate this fact.||recommended|
|voltage||<voltage>||The voltage of the busbar||recommended|
A bay connects an incoming circuit (power line, transformer, etc) to a busbar assembly. Each bay typically comprises circuit breakers, disconnectors, instrument transformers and surge arresters. It is suggested not to tag all these individual components. However, the circuit breaker may optionally be tagged as a switch.
|power||line||Defines this as a generic power line.||mandatory|
|line||bay||Identifies the line as a bay||mandatory|
|cables||<3,6,..>||Normally bays should be mapped individually per circuit. However, if for some reasons the mapped represents more than one circuit this should be indicated using the cables tag, e.g cables=6 for two bays.||recommended|
|voltage||<voltage>||The voltage of the bay||recommended|
A power transformer is a static piece of apparatus with two or more windings which, by electromagnetic induction, transforms a system of alternating voltage and current into another system of voltage and current for the purpose of transmitting electrical power 
An HVDC converter converts electric power from high voltage alternating current (AC) to high-voltage direct current (HVDC), or vice-versa.
An HVDC converter plant comprises several components. The valve hall comprises the converter itself. Further components include a DC smoothing reactor, converter transformers, AC switch gear, harmonic filters and reactive power compensation. See below for compensation components. The converter itself may be tagged as follows:
|power||converter||Defines this node or area as an HVDC converter. Typically the converter building (valve hall) should get this tag||mandatory|
|converter||lcc||A line commutated converter (LCC) uses thyristor based valves and is the most common type. This is the default value.||recommended|
|vsc||A newer type is the transistor-based voltage source converter (VSC).||recommended|
|back-to-back||A back-to-back converter couples two AC networks that are not synchronous or operate at different frequencies. There is no external DC power transmission link||recommended|
|voltage||<DC voltage>||The voltage of the DC transmission in volt||recommended|
|poles||monopole / bipole||The number of poles.||recommended|
|rating||<power> MW||The power rating of the converter in MW (megawatt)||recommended|
Various components are used for controlling reactive power and voltage quality in a power grid. Here are some suggested tags for different types of compensators.
|power||compensator||Defines this node or area as a compensation component||mandatory|
|compensator||<compensator type>||See below for possible values. This tag should be specified when the compensator type is known||recommended|
|voltage||<voltage>||The voltage at which the compensator is operated||recommended|
|rating||<power> Mvar/kvar||The power rating of the compensator. The unit should be Mvar (megavolt-ampere-reactive) or kvar (kilovolt-ampere-reactive)||recommended|
|compensator||shunt_reactor||A shunt reactor absorbs excess reactive power. It looks like a transformer but has no secondary terminals.|
|shunt_capacitor||A shunt capacitor bank generates reactive power|
|static_var||A static var compensator (SVC) comprises a thyristor controlled reactor, normally a thyristor switched capacitor and often fixed or switched reactors and capacitor banks.|
|statcom||A static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) is a transistor based compensator (its design is similar to a VSC converter, see above).|
|synchronous_condenser||A synchronous condenser is a large rotating synchronous machine (similar to a generator) for generating or absorbing reactive power.|
|filter||A harmonic filter is used to eliminate harmonic currents generated by an HVDC converter. These can be quite large and may appropriately be mapped as . Other types of filters for removing undesired frequency components may also occur.|
|series_reactor||A series reactor is used for controlling load sharing between parallel power lines or for limiting short circuit currents. The smoothing reactor of an HVDC converter is also a series reactor.|
|series_capacitor||A series capacitor is sometimes inserted in a long power line to increase the transmission capacity.|
- area: The feature should be rendered as a gray area like the old power=sub_station tag.
- node: Some sort of lightning symbol traditionally used to indicate high voltage.
name=Bjæverskov HVDC Kontek
| Bjæverskov HVDC substation in Denmark (northern terminal of Kontek HVDC connection).|
Bing imagery of the substation.
|380 kV substation with three 380/150 kV transformers. Unusual for using outdoor gas insulated switchgear (GIS).|
|Indoor 25/10kV substation near The Hague. The entire fenced area should be mapped as a substation, not just the building.|
|An example of a small kiosk type substation.|
|Typical pole mounted 10 kV transformer.|
|Characteristic tower type transformer building functioning as an electricity pole. Maybe tag the building as building=transformer_tower?|
Tools using this scheme
- Proposed_features/Substation_refinement: The approved substation proposal.