United Kingdom renewable energy
According to Wikipedia "The total of all renewable electricity sources provided for 14.9% of the electricity generated in the United Kingdom in 2013, reaching 53.7 TWh of electricity generated. In the second quarter of 2015, renewable electricity generation exceeded 25% and coal generation for the first time"
UK Renewable Energy Planning Database (REPD)
The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) UK Renewable Energy Planning Database defines larger scale renewable energy sites in the UK. The database shows planning requests and their status. We are probably most interested in those that are operational or under construction.
The database provides a UK National Grid Reference for each location, but this is frequently inaccurate (+/-1km) as it may have been created early on in the planning process before the actual site location was decided. On occasion the given location may be on the nearest conurbation. Operational or under construction sites are often visible in aerial photography, in particular wind turbines which cast a clear shadow.
user:Jnicho02 is running a project to map wind farms, ground mounted solar farms, and renewable energy sites in the REPD and invites you to join in.
Energy sites are mapped as a relation which links wind turbines, transformer unit they connect to, and access tracks. See http://overpass-turbo.eu/s/rJW for a couple of examples.
As of September 2017 the REPD identifies larger renewable energy sites ('farms') in the UK. These are split into:
select "technology type", "mounting type for solar", "development status (short)", count(*) as counter from ukgov_energy_planning where "development status (short)" = 'Operational' group by "technology type", "mounting type for solar", "development status (short)" order by counter desc
|Solar Photovoltaics (roof mounted)||740|
|Solar Photovoltaics (ground mounted)||320|
|Sewage Sludge Digestion||8|
|Advanced Conversion Technologies||7|
|Tidal Barrage and Tidal Stream||5|
|Solar Photovoltaics (floating)||2|
Wind turbines are easy-ish to spot in aerial photos as they cast a shadow. The Newcorp progress map shows REPD sites and has a link to the location on OSM.
Different aerial photos: If a wind farm was constructed in the last couple of years then some aerial images might not show it. Take a look in Google Maps by searching for the grid ref. Try different layers in the ID editor.
As a last resort try finding the contractor's web site which may help you locate the site.
In the ID Editor, after submitting the edit to OSM it can be good to click on 'View on OSM' to view the changeset, then click on the link to the relation, e.g. Mynydd y Betws relation/7587679
A wind farm is *not* a polygon, it is a relation. Other activities can and do happen on the grass between the turbines (e.g. sheep grazing), so the 'farm' is actually a collection of turbines, access tracks, and substation.
|name||the name of the wind farm (not including the words 'Wind Farm', 'resubmission', 'repowering', but do include 'extension')|
|repd:id||123 (the Renewable Energy Planning Database id)|
A 'resubmission' is when a planning application is resubmitted. A 'repowering' is when a site has had old turbines replaced with new, more modern, ones. An 'extension' is where extra turbines are added on to an existing scheme.
Please map an 'extension' as a separate wind farm.
The ID editor does most of these by default. A number of existing nodes do not currently have generator:method='wind_turbine'.
|name||the name of the individual turbine, e.g. 'turbine 1' (optional/unlikely)|
Add a turbine to the wind farm relation role='generator'
Note: when adding things to a relation using the ID Editor the wind farm will only appear in the dropdown if another object already in the relation is visible in the edit screen. Sometimes, turbines are quite far apart. It can help to include the access tracks as you go.
If you want to tag with axis then what you probably think of as a wind turbine is Tag:generator:type=horizontal_axis
Wind farms must have access tracks to get to the turbines. Often they are clearly for this purpose only, other times they may be existing paths.
Q: does it hurt for an existing footpath to be included in wind farm relation? The path may need to have a section broken so as to not include lots of other sections that aren't relevant.
Optionally add the tracks to the wind farm relation as role='access'
To now, I have only connected obvious access tracks
Every wind farm has a substation where the turbines are connected to the main power cable
Add it to the wind farm relation role='substation'
Solar farms come in two forms: roof-mounted and ground mounted. There are a 740+ roof-mounted panels that produce 1MW+ and I don't propose to map them. I consider the 320 ground-mounted panels to be solar 'farms'. The Newcorp progress map shows REPD sites and has a link to the location on OSM.
Different aerial photos: Most solar farms was constructed in the last couple of years then some aerial images might not show it. Take a look in Google Maps by searching for the grid ref. Try different layers in the ID editor.
As a last resort try finding the contractor's web site which may help you locate the site.
Solar farms are mostly in the Midlands and the South
select region, count(*) as counter from ukgov_energy_planning where "technology type" = 'Solar Photovoltaics' and "development status (short)" = 'Operational' and "mounting type for solar" = 'Ground' group by region order by counter desc
|Yorkshire and Humber||16|
Existing locations are often currently marked by polygons.
Offshore wind is harder to map than onshore. If you only have the approximate position from REPD then there are no landmarks to orientate yourself whilst searching aerial photos. Aerial photos of the sea are often at night.
According to REPD there are currently 31 operational offshore wind farms in the UK:
select '| ' || "ref id" || ' || ' || "site name" || ' || ' || "no. of turbines" || ' || ' || "address" || ' || ' || "operational" || ' || ' || ST_AsGeoJSON(ST_Transform(the_geom,4326),4) from ukgov_energy_planning where "technology type" = 'Wind Offshore' and "development status (short)" = 'Operational' order by "no. of turbines" desc
|2511||London Array Phase 1||175||12 miles 20km off the Kent and Essex coasts||2013-04-06||http://www.openstreetmap.org/way/218433470|
|2543||Gwynt y Mor||160||Liverpool Bay 13-15km offshore||2015-06-18||http://www.openstreetmap.org/way/294422650 no tags|
|2510||Greater Gabbard Wind Farm||140||Near the Suffolk Coast 26km out to sea||2012-09-07||http://www.openstreetmap.org/way/113729838|
|2519||West of Duddon Sands||108||Off Duddon Sands, Cumbria. East Irish Sea||2014-10-30||http://www.openstreetmap.org/node/2362978617 turbines + cables, no polygon or relation|
|2499||Thanet||100||11km off North Foreland Kent||2010-09-16||http://www.openstreetmap.org/way/113739834|
|2512||Sheringham Shoal||88||between 17 and 22 kilometres off the Norfolk coast, north of the seaside town of Sheringham.||2012-10-29||1.1479,53.1353 can't find, Dudgeon?|
|2513||Centrica Lincs||75||8 Km of Skegness||2013-07-24||0.4981,53.1842 can't find|
|2544||Humber Gateway A||73||8km from Yorkshire Coast||2015-05-30||http://www.openstreetmap.org/way/331863739|
|2500||Walney 1||51||14km off Walney Island, Irish Sea||2011-05-30||-3.5158,54.0394 http://www.openstreetmap.org/node/2362978645 no polygon or relation|
|2506||Walney 2||51||14km off Walney Island, Irish Sea||2012-04-06||-3.609,54.0807 http://www.openstreetmap.org/node/2363140365 no polygon or relation|
|2545||Westermost Rough A||35||25 km north of Spurn Head at the River Humber estuary.||2015-05-26||http://www.openstreetmap.org/way/341804043|
|2539||Burbo Bank Extension Burbo Bank 2||32||Burbo Flats, Liverpool Bay, approximately 6.4km 4.0 miles from the Sefton coastline and 7.2km 4.5 miles from North Wirral.||2017-04-27||-3.27,53.48 may be mixed with http://www.openstreetmap.org/way/327949356|
|2546||Barrow||30||7km Walney Island, near Barrow-in-Furness||2006-04-01||-3.2983,53.9915 lots round here, not sure|
|2490||Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Scheme||30||Gunfleet Sands 4 miles offshore from Holland-on-Sea Nr Clacton-on-Sea Essex||2009-07-24||http://www.openstreetmap.org/way/113739835|
|2492||Kentish Flats||30||Saltend, Thames Estuary, North Sea||2005-09-10||http://www.openstreetmap.org/way/114323074|
|2494||North Hoyle||30||7.5km Prestatyn & Rhyl||2003-12-01||http://www.openstreetmap.org/way/136369186 non-standard tags|
|2509||Ormonde Offshore||30||10km off Barrow on Furness, Heysham||2012-02-22||-3.4386,54.0889|
|2498||Scroby Sands||30||3km NE Great Yarmouth, Norfolk||2004-03-01||http://www.openstreetmap.org/way/114328399|
|2496||Robin Rigg East||30||9.5km Maryport_8.5km off Rock Cliffe||2010-04-28||http://www.openstreetmap.org/way/291146217 not split|
|2497||Robin Rigg West||28||9.5km Maryport_8.5km off Rock Cliffe||2009-07-18||http://www.openstreetmap.org/way/291146217 not split|
|2514||Teeside Offshore Wind Farm||27||Coast of Coatham Sands at Redcar, the nearest within a mile of the beach||2013-08-31||-1.0955,54.6453 can't find|
|2491||Inner Dowsing||27||5.2km Ingoldmells||2008-04-20||http://www.openstreetmap.org/way/114320194|
|2495||Rhyl Flats||25||8km Abergele, five miles off the North Wales coast in Liverpool Bay||2009-12-28||http://www.openstreetmap.org/way/136368935|
|2487||Burbo Bank||25||Burbo Flats, Liverpool Bay, approximately 6.4km 4.0 miles from the Sefton coastline and 7.2km 4.5 miles from North Wirral.||2007-10-18||http://www.openstreetmap.org/way/327949356|
|2489||Gunfleet Sands II||18||5 Miles from the Essex coast at Frinton-on-Sea||2009-07-24||http://www.openstreetmap.org/way/218287943|
|2504||Kentish Flats 2||15||Kentish Flats Offshore extension||2015-09-14||1.08,51.45 can't find but should be next to Kentish Flats|
|2488||Gunfleet Sands - Demo Extension||2||off the Essex coast||2013-04-19||http://www.openstreetmap.org/way/368344994|
|2486||Blyth Offshore||2||1km off Blyth Harbour||2000-12-01||-1.4901,55.1361 can't find|
|2485||Beatrice Demonstrator||2||Beatrice Offshore Platform||2007-07-17||-2.8884,58.2528 can't find|
|2528||Levenmouth demonstration turbine Fife Energy Park||1||Fife Energy Park Test Site off the coast of Methil in Fife||2014-03-31||-2.958,56.1607|