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Logo. Feature : Waterways
One example for Feature : Waterways
Areas of water including rivers, canals, streams, lake and reservoirs


Waterways include water features including rivers, canals and streams, as well also lakes, reservoirs and docks. Related features include locks, weirs, rapids. See Inland navigation for details about navigation of inland waterways and Whitewater sports for details about tagging for canoeing/rafting; also Water management for more details about water managed for human use, including water in pipes, water treatment plant etc and Marine/Marine navigation for information about the sea and navigation at sea.

Please do not be daunted by all the options, just creating a simple way tagged only with waterway=river is a great start; adding a single additional tag is also useful. Leave others to add all the related tags if they so wish.

Linear water features: rivers, canals, streams etc

All rivers, canals and streams should normally be represented as a linear ways. The main types are waterway=river, waterway=canal or waterway=stream, waterway=brook, waterway=drain and waterway=ditch. This way used should point in the direction of water flow and connect with other linked waterway features to create a routable network. The body of water the linear feature flows into can be named in the destination=* tag.

It is also possible that a waterway loses, partly or totally, in a sinkhole without meeting another waterway – see sinkhole=* to know the possibilities –; using natural=sinkhole and sinkhole=* on a node of the stream, especially on the last one, will then explain to data consumers why the stream vanishes instead of meeting another one, and prevent contributors to try to lengthen the waterway and project its confluence when it simply does not exist.

Tidal sections of a waterway can be tagged with tidal=yes and if it is seasonal (a yearly cycle) use seasonal=*. For intermittent sections/areas use intermittent=yes. If a stream starts as as spring, the node can be tagged with natural=spring. The name=* tag is used to hold the name to the watercourse, and wikipedia=* for a link to a related Wikipedia page.

Point features used along to watercourses include waterway=weir, waterway=dam and ford=*. A section of waterway within a lock between the lock gates can be tagged with lock=* with node tagged waterway=lock_gate at each end. The name of the lock can be added using lock_name=* and/or lock_ref=*. boat=*, ship=* and CEMT=* tags can be used to specify if boats are allowed to use the watercourse.

Wide rivers, lakes, reservoirs and islands

In addition to a linear description of the watercourse, the riverbanks for wider rivers and canals can be defined in one of two ways. The simpler method is to create an area feature for each section of river and tag it with waterway=riverbank joined using a pair of shared nodes with the adjoining section.

At certain points along a larger river the area may take on the appearance of a lake or reservoir which can be mapped as such.

Lakes are tagged with natural=water+water=lake, reservoirs as natural=water+water=reservoir. Previously lakes were mapped as natural=water and reservoirs as landuse=reservoir.

Enclosed areas of water for shipping and other craft where the water level can be controlled by lock-gates or similar should be tagged with waterway=dock. It is a matter of judgement sometimes as to where a section of water is a wide river or a long thin lake/reservoir.

Islands in lakes/ponds etc should be tagged with the appropriate landuse=* or natural=* and will ideally be described as a 'inner' area by a multipolygon. Islands can in turn contain lakes and stream etc as well as other features.

Waterfalls, rapids and whitewater sports

For conventions and proposals for mapping waterfalls see waterfalls.

For whitewater, rapids and water sports (especially kayak and rafting) see WikiProject Whitewater Maps (overview) and Whitewater sports for the actual tagging.

Man-made structures

Where a river or stream goes under a road, railway or similar the upper way should be tagged with bridge=yes and layer=1, alternatively tag the watercourse with tunnel=yes (tunnel=culvert for streams and drains) and layer=-1. Where a canal is carried over an aqueduct the way should be tagged with bridge=aqueduct.

Use man_made=pier for structures projecting out over the water and add a mooring=yes tag if boats can be moored alongside.

Other features:


See Coastline for details of how to map the border between land and the sea, together with natural=beach, natural=cliff and natural=wetland to describe the shoreline. See marine navigation, harbour and leisure=marina for features relating to shipping.



Inverted rivers

Some rivers are inverted: i.e. they go up the mountain, which is physically not possible. Using a DEM and error correction it is possible to detect these rivers. The results are available in maproulette ([1]) or in a website: [2].


Various proposals.

See also