UAV

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An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), is an aircraft without a human pilot on board. Its flight is either controlled autonomously by computers, or under the remote control of a pilot on the ground. The term "drone" encompasses a range of UAV's including the microcopter, mini UAV or small UAV, Micro Air vehicle (MAV), rotor-UAV or RUAV, quadrocopter, hexacopter, octocopter, Bi-copter, Tri-copter, helicopter and Fixed wing planes.

This wiki page is intended at presenting the rationale for the incorporation of UAV* image data in OSM.

We will focus here on a small UAV Framework less than 2 kg,the size is up to 1.5 m and the cheapest price as possible using open source autopilot and software as seen in the table below.

As of 2013 many standard cheap off the shelf drones exist like the DJI Phantom 2 Vision with 25 minutes flying time[1], or another open framework drone with a HD WiFi camera like the Gopro Hero or Hero3[2] or 41-megapixel Nokia Lumia 1020[3], improvements on parts are readily available[4] and in quality for DSLR aerial photography up to HD live video.[5] See some example of an aerial photo done with an UAV swinglet cam, resolution 4cm):[6]

Please note even for recreational use, safety must come first and foremost. UAV's are not toys. Use extreme caution when operating a UAV. Avoid flying over crowds or over people as far as is possible. Follow a UAV ground course. Consider getting UAV insurance. Check for and follow local laws at all times.

Camera

Time-lapse (intervalometer) fixed-lens cameras which can take pictures continuously are available in the market[7], but as First Person View with a permanent link is preferred to see where you fly if the UAV goes out of sight the HD WiFi cameras and cell phones with wireless and GSM are getting more common at the moment. For multi purpose cameras, The US Agricultural Research Service en Science Applications International Corp reduced the costs of near-infrared spectroscopy by using a standard 12-Mpixel camera that didn't use a hot-mirror filter to block the NIR spectrum and added an additional optical Wratten number filter.[8] Considder the gimbal suspension and side protection frames to protect your camera on landings.

Range Extenders

To extend the range standard HDMI Long Range Wireless Extenders[9] (Wireless (Wifi) Repeaters) are used up to 984 feet (400-450 m) line-of-sight. Cellular GPRS modems can be used.[10] A cheap solution is to combine a CC3D and EzUHF 4-Channel RX with PPM.[11] A tracking station comes in different sizes.[12] An omni type antenna for short range and your directional antenna like a helical, yagi or patch.

Data import to OSM

OpenStreetPhoto used its OpenStreetPhoto/QuadCopter for UAV image data in collaboration with Opengeo [13]. In a later stage it moved to a Fixed Wing configuration. The Vertical_Aerial_Photographs#Homebrew section has some links on how to import.

Image recognition software

Considder using image recognition software to spot roads in the software.(and call your local emergency number if you spot a fire) [14][15]

Orthophoto

Todo:

FAQ

Why using aerial imagery rather than satellite imagery?

The resolution of images is an issue when you are updating cartography over disaster and slum area. In one hour UAV flight you can provide you a coverage of 2 km2 with a pixel resolution of 4cm and a DEM (Digital Elevation Model) at 10 cm. Satellite imagery can cover a large area (20*20 Km) for one tile with a resolution of 50 cm.

So both images from satellite and UAV/aerial photo are essential to have a better accuracy in a specific area, it is complementary.

With an UAV the only constraint you have it the wind and the rain, but you can still take picture under cloud and when you want without any license issue.


See also

References

UAV components

Categorie Description liens Commentaires

UAV Range Extender

UAV Range Extender
Name Description link Commentaires
EzAntennaTracker System V1 http://www.immersionrc.com/product-details.php?fpv_product=2&fpv_product_name=EzAntennaTracker%20System%20V1
Tiny Telemetry http://www.product-details.php?fpv_product=3
Graupner MX-20 HoTT UHF 4 km http://www.graupner.de/en/products/33124/product.aspx
Scherrer LRS UHF 10 km http://www.tslrs.com/
Dragonlink UHF 10 km http://dragonlinkrc.com/
Mikrokopter Wireless http://www.mikrokopter.de/ucwiki/en/RangeExtender
xtreambee xbee Wireless http://store.3drobotics.com/products/xtreambee-xbee-adapter-board
phonedrone GPRS http://store.3drobotics.com/products/phonedrone-board-for-android
Drone Cell GPRS http://www.narobo.com/products/DroneCell/DroneCell.html
FATBOX GPRS2 420 gram http://www.diydrones.com/profiles/blogs/releasing-the-shackles-how-far-do-you-want-to-go

UAV Camera

UAV Camera Check your wireless functions, some might use wireless only for downloading images. Considder the gimbal suspension and side protection frames to protect your camera on landings.
Name Description link Commentaires
Hero3 HD Wireless http://gopro.com/
Liquid Image Eco HD Wireless http://www.liquidimageco.com/
Black Magic Design http://www.blackmagicdesign.com/
Sony hdr-as30v HD Wifi http://www.sony.co.uk/product/cam-action-cam/hdr-as30v
Garmin Virb Elite HD Wifi http://sites.garmin.com/virb/
iON Air Pro 2 HD Wifi http://www.ioncamera.com/
DRIFT HD GHOST HD Wifi http://driftinnovation.com/
Beardevil black HD Wifi http://beardevil.com/
Canon sx230hs HD Wifi http://www.clubic.com/photo/appareils-photo/article-428844-1-canon-sx230hs.html
Nokia Lumia 1020 HD Wifi and GSM http://www.nokia.com/us-en/phones/phone/lumia1020/
Pentax Optio WG-2 Fixed lens http://reviews.cnet.com/digital-cameras/pentax-optio-wg-2/4505-6501_7-35175467.html
Pentax Optio WG-3 Fixed lens http://www.dpreview.com/reviews/pentax-wg3
Panasonic Lumix DMC-TS5 Fixed lens, WIFI http://shop.panasonic.com/shop/model/DMC-TS5D
Nikon Coolpix P510 Fixed lens http://www.nikonusa.com/en/Nikon-Products/Product/Compact-Digital-Cameras/26329/COOLPIX-P510.html
Ricoh GR Fixed lens http://www.us.ricoh-imaging.com/digital-camera/RICOH_GR


UAV Others Sensors

Name Description link Commentaires
3D LADAR Camerals 3D LADAR cameras are based on a focal plane array http://www.princetonlightwave.com/mm-products/3d-ladar
Imaging FLIR Camera this module gathers mechanically and digitally stabilized real-time MPEG-4 video http://www.aeryon.com/products/payloads/thermal-imaging-flir.html

UAV frameworks

Autopilots with hardware and software
Name Description link Commentaires
Embention Veronte Autopilot https://products.embention.com/veronte/uav-autopilot Control System for UAVs from https://www.embention.com
The Paparazzi Project GNU licencing, Google, MS Maps and Openstreetmap http://paparazzi.enac.fr/wiki/Main_Page
PX4 BSD license, (Google Earth support https://pixhawk.ethz.ch/px4/en/start http://qgroundcontrol.org/
Slugs (Google Earth support http://slugsuav.soe.ucsc.edu/
Autoquad http://autoquad.org/
MatrixPilot https://code.google.com/p/gentlenav/
Virtual Robotix http://www.virtualrobotix.com/
SmartAP http://sky-drones.com/
OpenPilot (Google Earth support http://www.openpilot.org/
UAVOS (Google Earth support http://wiki.uavos.com/doku.php/sw/start
Ardupilot (Google Earth support http://copter.ardupilot.com/
TauLabs http://www.rcswift.com/
Airware http://www.airware.com/development/software/
Airelectronics http://www.airelectronics.es/
Uas-europe http://www.uas-europe.se/
Micropilot http://www.micropilot.com/
Piccolo http://www.cloudcaptech.com/
Rockwellcollins http://www.rockwellcollins.com/
Aerocontrol http://www.aerocontrol.com/
Gluonpilot http://gluonpilot.com/
Quantec http://www.quantec-networks.de/
UNAV http://u-nav.com/software.aspx
Skycircuits http://www.skycircuits.com/
Vikingaero http://vikingaero.com/
Cropcam http://cropcam.com/
Parrot http://ardrone2.parrot.com/
Dji http://www.dji.com/
Sensefly https://www.sensefly.com/
Canberrauav http://www.canberrauav.com/
NG-UAV http://ng.uavp.ch/
Lehmann http://www.lehmannaviation.com/
Uav Factory http://www.uavfactory.com/
Aibotix http://www.aibotix.com/
Aeronavics http://aeronavics.com/
Uas Trimble http://uas.trimble.com/
Mikrokopter http://www.mikrokopter.de/