User talk:Higa4/OSM book Japan/Introduction to editing in OpenStreetMap

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Introduction to editing in OpenStreetMap


Anybody can edit data in OpenStreetMap. This chapter will give you the concepts you need to understand in order to begin contributing.


OpenStreetMap consists of a few basic types of data: nodes, ways, relations, and tags.

OpenStreetMapはいくつかの基本的なデータ種別から成りたっています: ノード、ウェイ、リレーション、そしてタグです。

A node is a single point with a latitude and longitude. A single node can be a point of interest such as a tree or a mailbox or a place such as a city of a village.

ノードとは緯度と経度の値を持った一つの点です。一つのノードは、木や郵便ポスト、あるいは村の場所を示すといったようなPOI(Point Of Interest:興味深い地点)を表すことができます。

A way is a line. Lines are made by connecting many nodes together. A way can be something like a road or a trail.


An area is a way where the starting and ending point are the same. Note that not all closed ways are always areas. There might be a circular road for an example, which would be a closed way but not an area. A lake, on the other hand, would be an area. Other words for an area include a shape or a polygon. Other examples of an area include a building, a sports field, or a forest.


Relations are used to group geographically-related objects together. Relations are perhaps harder to understand than the previous concepts, but you are also less likely to need them when starting on your path (or way!) as a OpenStreetMap contributor. Relations could be used to group something like the roads of a bus route together. So in the bus route example instead of drawing a new set of ways to describe the bus route you can say which roads are part of the bus route using a relation.


A tag is a key/value pair that is used to describe an object. The key tells you what kind of object it is, for example an amenity or a highway. You then use the value to describe what type of object it is, for example an amenity might be a bank or a pharmacy, while a highway might be a primary road or residential street. There are many tags already use in OpenStreetMap, but there is flexibility to create new ones in case you want to map something nobody else has mapped before. This versatility means you can add any keys and values that you think are needed. Many editors however have presets for common key/value pairs, which makes it easier and faster to edit maps.

タグはオブジェクトについて記述するために使用されるKey(キー)とValue(値)の組み合わせです。Key(キー)はamenity(施設)やhighway(道路)といったようにオブジェクトの種類を表します。Value(値)はそのオブジェクトがどのタイプなのか説明するために使います。amenity(施設)ではamenity=bank(銀行)、amenity=pharmacy(薬局)のように使用します。highway(道路)ではhighway=primary(主要地方道)、highway=residential(居住区域内道路)のように使います。 OpenStreetMapには既に多くのタグがあります。それでも、以前に誰もマッピングしたことがなくタグがないものを書きたい場合、新しいタグを作ることができる柔軟性がOpenStreetMapにはあります。 この汎用性は、あなたが必要であると思うあらゆるキーおよび値を追加できるということを意味します。しかし、OSMエディター(Potlatch2、JOSM・・)の多くは、よく使われるKey(キー)とValue(値)の組み合わせのプリセットを備えており、マップ編集をより容易に、素早くできるようにします。

Changesets are sets of edits within OpenStreetMap. When you edit OpenStreetMap the changes you make during that editing session are saved in a changeset. This changeset is seen in history tab of the map, and are associated with your user account.