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Virginia has published the railroads in the state as a Shapefile at, generated from 2002 aerial images and other existing maps. The data is likely in the public domain, but this needs to be verified.

Shapefile field OSM Tag Description Values
FIPS N/A FIPS county code 51001, 51003, etc
FCC service=yard (B3) or service=spur (B2) Census Feature Class Codes B1, B2, B3, B4, B47
EDITOR N/A Perhaps user who edited feature "AB", null
OPER_EDIT  ?? abbreviation (usually Reporting mark) BB, BCR, C&A, CHW, CSXT, CWR, GVT/Military, NCVA, NPBL, NS, SV, VSRR, WMAT, WW,
OPER_VGIN N/A badly-formatted name "CSX RR Dahlgren Spur", "CSX Railroad", "Chesapeake Western Railway", "Clinchfield Railroad", "Conrail Railroad", "EDIT, "EDIT_EXTENSION", "Eastern Shore Railroad", "Interstate Railroad", "Metro Railroad", "Norfolk Portsmouth Belt Line R", "Norfolk Southern Railroad", "Post Railroad", "Princess Anne Railroad", "Railroad", "US Government Railroad", "WMAT", "Winchester and Western RR"
HEARTLAND usage=tourism? For tourism? Perhaps Heartland Corridor? "Y", "N", null
PASSENGER N/A For passenger use "Y", "N", null
MILITARY usage=military For military use "Y", "N", null

Other sources of railroad data:

Most likely the VBMP data is the most spatially accurate, since it was created from 6- and 12-inch aerial imagery, however these other data sets might have better attribution.