| +/- waterway=riverbank
For tagging wide rivers which need to be defined by an area rather than just shown as a linear way.
This describes the tagging scheme for large rivers, or sections of a river which are wide enough to "require" mapping of distinct areas of water/river banks. Example: River Thames as it flows through Central London.
For small rivers it is not necessary to draw an area for the riverbank, but it might still be interesting, especially if it is irregular.
How to map
The area of the river should be marked by a closed way (which represents an area in this case here) drawn along the riverbanks, and closed at each end (last node on the way is also the first on that way). In practice, as wide rivers tend to be long, the river will be drawn as a series of adjacent areas (ways 1 & 3 in image above). These areas should be tagged as waterway=riverbank.
In addition (and like it is done for smaller rivers) a way tagged as waterway=river (way 4 in image above), must be drawn in the direction of the river flow (i.e. from source to sea) along the thalweg or the deepest points of the riverbed. Make sure that these ways are topologically correct like the highway=* tags.
The ways around a river can still be tagged as waterway=riverbank (as they still are riverbanks), although this isn't needed, and riverbanks aren't treated as areas any more.
A multipolygon relation should be defined and the island and the main river bank included in the relation. The main riverbank way (way 1 in image above) will have the role 'outer' and the way for the island (way 2 in image above) will have the role 'inner'.
Unification of the island case and normal case with a multipolygon relation
Another way to tag those large rivers using multipolygon relations would be to create only one relation for the whole river. This avoids the need to create arbitrary cuts along the river. However, longer rivers mapped with that approach cause problems for some data users. As multipolygons for the entire river offer no tangible advantages, but place an unnecessary burden on data consumers, they should not be used. Use multiple small multipolygons instead.
Tags used are :
- Common tagging: type=multipolygon + waterway=riverbank + name=* + ... for the relation containing ways 1 to 7
- Members ways 1 to 6 have role outer and way 7 has role inner
- Ways 1 to 6 are tagged waterway=riverbank. Way 7 can have no tag at all or if it is itself something tag it with what it is.
- As waterway=riverbank is normally only used on areas (see this page), this tagging conflicts with that definition. You could also use natural=riverbank for this to avoid confusion about weather it's an area or not.
- Direction of ways does not matter
For the river banks there are several possible approaches.
- Simple tagging on ways - Rivers like this can be mapped with simple closed ways where 3,4 and 5 would all be the same way, with an additional section closing the loop at the top somewhere, and the tag waterway=riverbank. Likewise 6,4,7,8 and some additional closing segments would be mapped as a single closed way. The section at 4 would be sharing the same nodes in both ways.
- Multipolygon relations - Rather than closed ways you can use Relation:multipolygons , containing the ways 4 and 6 to 8 for the horizontal river, and 3 to 5 for the vertical river. Multipolygons are more complex but have some advantages. They can be bigger, and they can exclude islands areas ('inner'). The tags would be: type=multipolygon + waterway=riverbank
The above two approaches have an inaccuracy, because the way between the two rivers in a junction (number 4) isn't a riverbank, so it ideally shouldn't be tagged as one either. The new water=river tagging approach combined with multipolygons, offers an alternative:
- Multipolygon with accurate riverbank tagging - The two different river areas would be mapped as type=multipolygon + natural=water + water=river + name=* + ... Then in addition to the multipolygon tagging, the individual ways 3 to 8 get the tag waterway=riverbank, except way 4 which isn't a riverbank. (Note that even though using waterway=riverbank on ways fits better with the meaning of the word "riverbank" in natural language, it is incompatible with the mainstream definition of waterway=riverbank as an area tag. So use this interpretation at your own risk. You could also use the tag natural=riverbank to circumvent this ambiguity.)
Varying water level river
Many rivers vary strongly in water levels over time making it difficult to decide where exactly the boundary between water and land should be drawn. There is no definitive agreement on what water level should be taken as reference but there are a few guidelines that can help:
- In case of rivers with tidal variation of the water level the high tide level should be mapped like in case of natural=coastline.
- In case of rivers with strongly varying water levels but without a marked flooding period it is usually better to map the high rather than the low water level.
- In the very common case of rivers subject to seasonal flooding with much higher water levels for a relatively short period for example during monsoon season or snow melt and low and relatively constant water levels for the rest of the year it is best not to map the water extent during flooding. A useful rule of thumb would be to map the median of the maximum water levels of all months of the year. For those areas water covered during floods there are some ideas for tagging like Proposed features/floodplain and Key:flood_prone.
- Rivers with a fairly constant water level for most of the year often have a clearly visible (though sometimes frequently changing) river bed indicating the normal extent of the river even during the dry season when the actual water levels are much lower.
- In case of intermittent rivers it makes sense to map the water extent at times the river is not dry and add intermittent=yes. Care should be taken in regions were water is diverted from the river for irrigation and other purposes since the river often does no more fill the river bed even during the wet season in such cases.
In general these rules can be followed more closely if we have better data (ideally someone living locally observing the river's position). When sketching from imagery, it is acceptable to just do our best based on what we can see (e.g., assume visible sandbanks get washed over as pictured below) Note that you should always be careful to avoid overriding valuable on-the-ground mapping with information sketched from imagery.
River islands and sandbanks
It is fairly common practice not to map non-permanent and quickly changing islands (sandbanks) in rivers. Vegetation cover on river islands can sometimes be used as an indicator for their permanency although it can also be misleading - there are many examples of vegetation free river islands that are stable for many years. When mapping from aerial or satellite imagery comparing images from different years can be very helpful.
Riverbank mapping hint
This describes how to use the "create parallel way" tool in Potlatch 2 to create a riverbank from a river. This method works best when mapping a section of river that has a consistent width and each side of the riverbank is nearly identical in shape.
- Create a waterway=river down the middle of the river
- Select a section of the river that has a consistent width
- Select the parallel tool or type "p"
- Adjust the new parallel way's distance from the original way so the new way is half the width of the river (zooming in helps)
- Create a parallel way on the opposite side of the original river
- Label both new ways identically as waterway=riverbank
- Connect the ends of each new riverbank to create a closed loop
- Use the "merge ways" tool to merge these into a single way representing the riverbank area.