The Bureau publishes lists of weather monitoring stations giving latitude and longitude for their Australian and Antarctic installations, in textual, fixed-column format. Although much of their data is subject to a mix of Australian Commonwealth Government and CC-by copyright, such items as this are available without significant restriction.
Response to Permission Equiry
User:M526244 has contacted officers of the Bureau to clarify the use of location data as described for use in OpenStreetMap and has received gracious permission to do so subject to:
Thanks for the email asking permission to generate maps for public access. It is acceptable to display this information on a map provided that you abide by the conditions specified on the Bureau's copyright page:
There are a few caveats associated with these station locations which you should be aware of before using them. For example, station moves over history are not displayed, there is no listing of the reference datum associated with geographic location, and the 4 decimal point precision does not necessary imply an equivalent certainty in the metadata. Following your request, we are going to include this information in the data file, but I will email you a copy once it has been produced (hopefully within the next couple of weeks).