User talk:Aline Gomes Zaffani

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Biological invasion and biodiversity loss

Biological invasion is a phenomenon in which a species of animal or plant occupies an area outside of its natural range. Biological invasion comprises four stages: transportation, colonization, settlement and landscape occupation (EMBRAPA, 2011). The theme of biological invasion has aroused the interest of researchers from different locations and areas due to its impacts in the ecosystem and even to the local economy. In this context there is an emphasis on exotic species which often become invasive. The losses become larger due to the lack of predators and adaptation to the new place. The competition with local species hinders development and can lead to the disappearance of typical plants.

1. Invasion Control Invasive species control is a complex issue because it involves aspects such as means of entry / transport; biological characteristics; relationship between human activities and dispersion of the species; socio-economic impacts; legal aspects and forms of management (Azevedo and Araújo, 2004). The ways of entrance and dispersion already impose great difficulties in controlling invasive species. As example we can name those species brought in ships, either in ballast water or attached to hulls, when they reach the coast they may take different paths and not be noticed until the population of the species reaches significant size or start causing damage. A clear and disturbing example of this is the golden mussel. See links: The management of invasive species also generate great debate and many questions in managers who deal with such problems. The lack of predators and the high degree of adaptation and reproduction of the species generate a situation difficult to control, with impossibility of use of chemicals, introduction of predators, mechanical or manual removal and other forms of management. Silva Matos and Pivello (2009) emphasize that control and eradicate invasive species requires a set of actions that still do not get much attention. Among them stands out: the population information programs, specific legislation for import and export of species, interception and potentially treatment material causing biological invasions and monitoring programs in natural areas.

2. Invasive species in Brazil The Instituto Horus provides on its website a invasive species database in Brazil. This database is part of the I3N network, the theme net of invasive exotic species IABIN - Network Inter American Biodiversity Information. The system has 438 records of exotic and invasive species in Brazil, including the butterfly lily.

3. The Hedychium coronarium (butterfly lily) Species taxonomy Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Magnoliophyta Class: Liliopsida Order: Zingiberales Family: Zingiberaceae Genre: Hedychium Species: Hedychium coronarium

The Hedychium coronarium also known as butterfly lily is a kind of macrophyte, original from Asia Tropical. The habitat is moist places, such as banks of rivers and marshes, and sub-boque forests. They reproduce by seeds and rhizomes. Despite the dispersion of seeds have the help of birds, the rhizome provides great advantage in the occupation of spaces.

4. Economic importance of Hedychium coronarium This species has commercial importance because of its various applications. - Ornamentation: its flowers are showy and fragrant, arousing interest for comercial purposes. - Perfumery industry: the sweet smell of flowers serves as essence in the manufacture of perfumes. - Paper: it was cultivated in southern Brazil to serve as raw material in paper production. - Food: eat up the flowers and the rhizome, which resembles ginger. - Medicine: for muscle pain - Sewage Treatment: It is used in several studies in the removal of water pollutants.

5. Invasiveness of Hedychium coronarium Invasiveness is the ability of certain species has to become invasive in a given location. The species invasiveness have, in general, a lot of seed, easily dispersion, rapid growth, high capacity to adapt to new conditions, to compete and to proliferate (Silva Matos and Pivello 2009;. Almeida, 2015). Macrophytes generally have characteristics that allow them rapid spread and growth even in suboptimal conditions such as intense competition with other species or modified environments. These characteristics favor the invasiveness of these species, endangering biodiversity and ecosystem processes in aquatic environments (Simberloff and Rejmánek, 2011; Castro, 2014). Reproduction of Hedychium coronarium by rhizomes provides the great power of proliferation, favoring the growth of the population and the expulsion of native local species. It is considered an aggressive invasor in wet and swampy lowlands, margins of lakes, streams and drainage channels. In places like this are formed dense populations, easily identifiable. In Brazil this species has been identified in 32 protected areas, such as the Tourist State Park of Alto Ribeira - PETAR; Porto Ferreira State Park, in São Paulo, where took place the following study. The lily of the marsh and other weeds have been used as an indicator of degraded areas. In urban and rural areas is very common to identify populations of this species on the edge of streams, reservoirs with large supply of nutrients and modification of riparian vegetation, which exposes the site to invasion.

6. Mapping the Hedychium coronarium in São Carlos City, SP, Brazil As a result of mapping Hedychium coronarium in São Carlos city we are showing here some points where it can be found in small populations. Data was collected with Open Street Map (OSM), using the DarwinCore-OSM Interface in order to facilitate discussions about the interferences of urban planning, lack of wastewater treatment and other factors in water quality and Hedychium coronarium population. Points: Point 1: Santa Maria do Leme river. Near the Kartodromo and the Santa Marta Wood. Latitude: 21º59’40,71”S or -21,994642 Longitude 47º54’11,5”W or -47,903193

Point 2: Santa Maria do Leme river. Inside the Santa Marta Wood. Lat: 21º59’28,54”S or -21,991262 Long: 47º54’16,39”W or -47,904552

Ponto 3: Mineirinho river. Near the mall roundabout. Lat: 22º0’59,69”S or -22,016580 Long: 47º54’45,05”W or -47,912515

Point 4: Monjolinho River. Near the Echologic Park, in São Carlos, SP. Lat: 21º59’12,91”S or -21,986920 Long: 47º52’27,64”W or -47,874345

References ALMEIDA, R.V. Invasividade de Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig em diferentes umidades do solo. Dissertação (Mestrado). Programa de Ecologia e Recursos Naturais. UFSCar. 2015. 72p.

AZEVEDO, C.P.; ARAUJO, G.C. Invasão biológica por plantas exóticas no parque municipal das mangabeiras - Belo Horizonte - MG – Brasil. Disponível em <>. Acesso em 19/05/2016.

Base de dados nacional de espécies exóticas invasoras I3N Brasil, Instituto Hórus de Desenvolvimento e Conservação Ambiental, Florianópolis – SC. Acesso em 19/05/2016.

CASTRO, W. A.C. 2014. Ecologia da invasora Hedychium coronarium J. Konig (Zingiberaceae). Tese (Doutorado). Programa de Ecologia e Recursos Naturais. UFSCar. 2014.

EMBRAPA Semiárido. 2011. Invasão da algarobeira: Impactos positivos. Petrolina. 2011. McDonough, K. (2012). [Review of the book Encyclopedia of biological invasions, by D. Simberloff & M. Rejmanek]. American Reference Books Annual, 1175. SILVA MATOS, D.M.; PIVELLO, V.R. O impacto das plantas invasoras nos recursos naturais de ambientes terrestres - alguns casos brasileiros. Ciência e Cultura. Vol.61 no.1. São Paulo, 2009.