User talk:Ana Lucia Zandomeneghi

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Ecological and socio-economic utilization of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart Solms) (ESTUDO DA VIABILIDADE DA UTILIZAÇÃO DE ALGAS NO TRATAMENTO DO ESGOTO DOMÉSTICO)

Water is an indispensable natural resource on earth. All life including human being depends on water. Due to its unique properties, water is of multiple uses for all living organisms: "Water should be considered as a social and economic good with a value reflecting its most valuable potential use" (

1 Environmental testing and processing can be expensive

Related water management includes soil and water testing and treatment procedures. Such Soil and water testing and treatment can be expensive and beyond the resources of many people. A great, low cost and practical way to monitor and support the sustainability of your landscape is to incorporate plants appropriate for “biological water quality indication” and “biological water treatment”. (

2 The case of Eichhornia crassipes

Eichhornia crassipes, the water hyacinth, is a free-floating perennial aquatic plant (or hydrophyte) native to tropical and sub-tropical South America. Its habitat ranges from tropical desert to subtropical or warm temperate desert to rainforest zones. An erect stalk supports a single spike of 8-15 conspicuously attractive flowers, mostly lavender to pink in colour with six petals. Water hyacinth reproduces primarily by way of runners or stolons, which eventually form daughter plants. Being one of the fastest growing plants known, E. crassipes are considered as highly invasive. ( )

3 The case of Eichhornia crassipes – its application as “Indicator plant”

Eichhornia crassipes, the water hyacinth, is a common aquatic plant in many tropical countries which has the ability to take up and accumulate elements from water and has been successfully used as an indicator of heavy metal pollution (Ajmal et al., 1985b; Pfeiffer et al., 1986). !!!-Water hyacinth as indicator of heavy metal pollution in the tropic.pdf

4 The case of Eichhornia crassipes – its application as “Natural Wastewater Treatment Plant”

Water hyacinth is also considered as the most efficient aquatic plant used in removing vast range of pollutants such as organic matters, nutrients and heavy metals ( )

5 Spatial acquisition and analyses

Both applications, acquisition and management, must be studied based on primary biological data. Analyzing this data, we will know where rivers are polluted and where water hyacinth are available to trait them.

6 Freely available biological primary data about water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

Exploring the “Global Biodiversity Information Facility” by searching for the specie “Eichhornia crassipes” at “” we got the following result:


3839 Occurrences (all registers): 2516 Occurrences (only georeferenced registers):


610 Occurrences (all registers): 316 Occurrences (only georeferenced registers):

6 What is “Global Biodiversity Information Facility” (GBIF) and Darwin Core (Dwc) ?

The “Global Biodiversity Information Facility” (GBIF)” is an international open data infrastructure, funded by governments. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) is the world's premiere source for information on biological specimen and observational data, providing on-line access to more than 500 million data records from around the world. Brazil is an associated member state ( By encouraging and helping institutions to publish data according to common standards, GBIF enables research not possible before, and informs better decisions to conserve and sustainably use the biological resources of the planet ( Darwin Core (Dwc) is meant to provide a stable standard reference for sharing information on biological diversity. The Darwin Core standard has been used to mobilize the vast majority of specimen occurrence and observational records within the GBIF network.

7 Completing missing “official” environmental data with "community" data

A field campaign to complete the downloaded GBIF data because will be necessary, because we found only 14 occurrences from our state, Maranhão (9 of them are geo - referenced). Considering that “water hyacinth” can form (periodically) large, continues “carpets” over entire river segments and many years (, and our contributors are spatially distributed, a volunteered, asynchronous acquisition with Openstreetmap seems to be appropriate. We applied the proposed Openstreetmap (OSM)-Darwin Core (DWC) Interface representing “Eichhornia crassipes” – occurrences as Point-of-Interest and describing them with TAG´s composed by Darwin Core terms. The following link represents a “aguapes” - covered segment of river “poty” :

References / Links: