Tag:power=transformer

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Public-images-osm logo.svg power = transformer
Trafostation Alter Hellweg IMGP4722.jpg
Description
A static device for stepping up or down electric voltage by inductive coupling between its windings. Large power transformers are typically located inside substations
Used on these elements
may be used on nodesshould not be used on waysshould not be used on areasshould not be used on relations
Useful combination
Wikidata
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Status: approvedPage for proposal

A power Power Transformer (421-01-01) static device which converts a given power voltage to another power voltage. A transformer is usually located within a power=substation.

In more technical terms, a power transformer is composed of two or more windings which, by electromagnetic induction, transforms a system of alternating voltage and current into another system of voltage and current for the purpose of transmitting electrical power. The delivery is done at the same frequency than the input.

How to map

A transformer is tagged as a Node. Transformers are usually located within substations and should be tagged as a node within an area tagged as power=substation.
It is not recommended to mix them with buildings. In case of indoor transformers, place a node inside the building area and add location=indoor on it.

For pole mounted transformers it is suggested to tag the pole as power=pole and add the tag transformer=distribution (or transformer=yes).

Advanced mapping

Many details about the transformer can be added using a more complete tagging scheme. It is particularly intended for mappers having some knowledge about power systems.

Where do I find such data ?

Power transformer datasheet.jpg

First of all, don't go inside power substations if you're not invited to do so please, it's dangerous and probably illegal.
Public information or aerial imagery will help to see outdoor transforming facilities safely.

High detailed information may be found on transformers themselves. A complete datasheet as exposed beside gives many figures on the machine capabilities and structure.
We basically need voltages, windings structure but manufacturer=* and start_date=* may also be completed.
Nevertheless, you may not be able to took picture of those plates and as a reminder : don't go inside restricted perimeters to get the one you couldn't. unless invited

Tagging

Key Value Comment Recommendation
power transformer Defines this node as a transformer. mandatory
transformer <purpose or type> The purpose or type of transformer (see below for possible values). This tag is not needed for most 'standard' transformers optional
location <location> The location of the transformer. See below for possible values. If the location of the transformer is the same as that of its substation this tag is optional recommended
frequency <frequency> in Hz The frequency of the transformer. Recommended if the frequency differs from that of the general power grid, for example 16.7 Hz for the German railway traction grid. optional
voltage:primary=*

voltage:secondary=*
...

<voltage> in Volts The operating voltage of a given interface of the transformer. Don't use voltage=* globally since it's not relevant for a transformer. See Transformer interfaces chapter below for more information optional
phases=*

phases:primary=*
phases:secondary=*
...

1, 3, .. Number of phases of the whole transformer or more precisely on a given interface. Recommended tag for single-phase transformers/interface. Default is 3. optional
rating=*

rating:primary=*
rating:secondary=*
...

<rating> in VA The power rating of the whole transformer or more precisely on a given interface. The value should be given in VA even if seen in kVA or MVA. This ease the process of data without any unit or multiple. optional
windings=*

windings:primary=*
windings:secondary=*
...

1,2,3... Number of windings in the whole transformer or more precisely on a given interface. See Transformers interfaces chapter below for more information optional

Transformer values

List of possible transformer=* values.
Key Value Comment
transformer distribution A distribution transformer transfers power from the distribution system to directly connected electricity consumers. Thus the output voltage is that of the low voltage grid in that region. For example 400/230 volt in Europe or 240/120 volt in the US. If the secondary voltage is above 1 kV it is not a distribution transformer. Note for pole mounted distribution transformers you should use this tag together with power=pole (thus no explicit power=transformer tag).
generator A generator unit transformer connects directly to the generator terminals and is used for stepping up the generator voltage to that of the transmission grid. It is almost always located physically close to the generator, typically directly outside the generator building. Unless the generator terminal voltage is known it is sufficient to tag only the secondary voltage.
converter A converter transformer is a special transformer used in HVDC converter plants. It is always located directly adjacent to the valve hall. If the voltage of the valve side is unknown it is sufficient to tag the AC switchgear side voltage.
traction A traction transformer feeds railway overhead contact lines. It is usually a single-phase transformer whose secondary voltage is that of the contact line, typically 15 kV or 25 kV.
auto An autotransformer is a transformer in which part of the winding is common to both primary and secondary circuits. Sometimes used at modest voltage ratios between the primary and secondary, such as 400000/275000 volt.
phase_angle_regulator A phase angle regulator is a special transformer for controlling the flow of power in a three-phase network by shifting the phase angle.
auxiliary Auxiliary transformers intend to supply power to substation internal systems. They're not feeding any subscriber connected to power grid but act as a load on the substation architecture. Use this value on transformer fully designed to this usage, transformers with a particular interface for auxiliary services among many other aren't covered by the value.
yes This generic value may be used to tag a transformer attached to another power feature such as a power pole (since power=transformer cannot be tagged in such cases). It is however recommended to specify the type of transformer (such as distribution) also in this case but mappers not familiar with the different flavours of transformers may use the value yes.

No transformer attribute should be used for power transformers not belonging to any of the categories above.

Location values

List of possible location=* values.
Key Value Comment
location outdoor A transformer located outside in open air. Use this value even if the transformer is (partly) surrounded by protective walls. This is the default value.
indoor A transformer located inside a building.
underground A transformer located underground.
rooftop A transformer located on top of a building that is used for something else.
kiosk A transformer located inside a small, often prefabricated enclosure that is too small to be considered a "building". However, consider instead tagging such kiosks as power=substation with the attributes substation=minor_distribution and location=kiosk

Transformers interfaces

Power transformer structural example

Transformers are designed to adapt voltage between their windings connected to interfaces. Interfaces are used to be called primary, secondary and so on. Several windings can compose a single interface (we find sometimes 2 or more windings on secondary interfaces of distribution source transformers).
The primary side is always and the only connected to the power source, like power generator or distant power plant whereas secondary side is always connected to consumers. Tertiary, quaternary and further sides are intended for lower voltages auxiliary services inside power plants or substations.

Complex situations may occur and need extended keys to be accurately described in OSM. phases=*, rating=*, windings=* may be suffixed with :primary, :secondary, :tertiary... to give as specific values as it needs for a specific interface. If no suffix is used, the values will be considered as common to all interfaces of the transformer.
All windings related to an interface (primary, secondary,...) always operate at the same voltage. Different is the voltage, so does the interface.

Voltage tagging

Each interface is defined with its own voltage and transformers won't have a global voltage value. Use of voltage=* without suffix is discouraged on transformers.
You are invited to use voltage:primary=*, voltage:secondary=* or voltage:tertiary=* instead according to the interface's name.

Key Value Description
voltage:primary=* Primary interface's voltage The operating voltage of a given transformer's primary interface.
voltage:secondary=* Secondary interface's voltage The operating voltage of a given transformer's secondary interface.
voltage:tertiary=* Tertiary interface's voltage The operating voltage of a given transformer's tertiary interface.

voltage-high=* and voltage-low=* can be in use in many places. Some mappers may be more confident by using high and low voltages and such information may help to define primary, secondary, tertiary voltages as following :

  • voltage-high=* = voltage:primary=* and voltage-low=* = voltage:secondary=* in case of down transforming, like in power consuming places. The power is taken from high voltage grid to feed some distribution network at a lower voltage
  • voltage-high=* = voltage:secondary=* and voltage-low=* = voltage:primary=* in up transforming places like power plants. Generators produce pretty low voltage power whereas transmission power grids operate at very high voltage. According to definition, the power generator side is definitely the primary interface and here at lower voltage than the secondary.

Windings configuration

Since a transformer is composed of several windings, with many different possible configurations, see windings=* for more information.

Transformer sets

3 mono phase transformers on top of a wooden pole

In some situations and countries, polyphase transformers may not be contained in a single box. It's not unusual to find several mono phase transformers boxes assumed as an equivalent to a single polyphase transformer.
It is recommended to use transformer:devices=*, defaults to 1, to indicate how many different boxes you see, sharing the same figures and functions.

Such a key will factorise as many features as possible on a same node. Thus, all keys giving figures or functions will have to be valued for a single device.
More example are available below, here the principle : 2 similar three-phase 50Hz transformers may be factorised as this on the same node : devices=2 + phases=3 + frequency=50.

Please note that, according to IEC 151-12-11, such disposal of transformers can't be properly called a bank since transformers aren't connected together but each one connected to a different live cable (or even different power circuit). A set would be more appropriate.

An actual bank can't be factorised on the same node (even if at the top of a pole) and for sake of accuracy, you'll have to use as many nodes as devices in the bank. If not, we loose information about the bank structure and how transformers are working together.

Examples

Transmission transformers

Photo Location Tagging Note
6kV => 63kV elevation transformer
France

power=transformer
location=outdoor
voltage:primary=6000
voltage:secondary=63000
windings=3
windings:primary=2
windings:secondary=1
phases=3
rating=20000000

This transformer intends to stup up 6kV power output from a 2 units hydraulic power plant to the 63kV local power grid.


It has 2 windings as primary side (connected to generators) and a single winding on the secondary side connected to consumers through power grid.

380/110 kV Trafo, Kriegenbrunn
Germany

Nodepower=transformer
location=outdoor
voltage:primary=380000
voltage:secondary=110000
voltage:tertiary=20000
manufacturer=Alstom
phases=3
windings=3
frequency=50

Large outdoor power transformer
225kV => 63kV + 10kV
France

power=transformer
location=outdoor
voltage:primary=225000
voltage:secondary=63000
voltage:tertiary=10000
windings=3
windings:primary=1
windings:secondary=1
windings:tertiary=1
phases=3
rating=70000000

This transformer has 3 windings operating at 3 different voltages. 225kV side is on the foreground while 63kV is hidden at the back


Tertiary winding is dedicated to 10kV, certainly for auxiliary services including transformer cooling system

Description of a 225kV to 20 kV transformer
France

power=transformer
location=indoor
voltage:primary=225000
voltage:secondary=20000
windings=2
windings:configuration=star
windings:primary=1
windings:secondary=1
phases=3
rating=70000000

This plate can be seen on transformer themselves (picture taken with power grid operator acknowledgement) and gives the windings configuration with several other figures. All tags can be defined with it.


Upside schema on the left informs us that all windings (A, B, C and a, b, c) are connected to neutral point (N), which match the IEC 421-10-01 of star connection definition.
70 MVA rating is taken from the last column of the left table.

Distribution transformers

Photo Location Tagging Note
Pole mounted transformer, Denmark
Denmark

Nodepower=pole
transformer=distribution
voltage:primary=10000
voltage:primary=400
windings=2
phases=3

Typical pole mounted 10 kV transformer.
Transformer on power pole
France

power=pole
transformer=distribution
voltage:primary=20000
voltage:secondary=400
windings=2
phases=3

Tranformers can directly be hosted on poles to save ground place and prevent complex infrastructure building when not needed.
Multiple mono phase transformers on a single pole
--

power=pole
transformer=distribution
voltage:primary=20000
voltage:secondary=400
windings=2
transformer:devices=3
phases=1

Multiple mono phase transformers used on a 3-phase network
63kV => 20kV
France

power=transformer
voltage:primary=63000
voltage:secondary=20000
windings=2
windings:primary=1
windings:secondary=1
phases=3
location=outdoor
rating=20000000

20kV => 15kV autotransformer
France

power=transformer
transformer=auto
voltage:primary=20000
voltage:secondary=15000
windings=2
windings:primary=1
windings:secondary=1
phases=3
location=outdoor

Such transformer are used in France to feed legacy 15kV distribution zones from current 20kV infrastructures.


Visible sign show us operational voltages of both sides and that the transformer works as an auto-transformer.

Modern transformer compact station
Germany

Nodepower=substation
substation=minor_distribution
location=kiosk
voltage=10000;400

Modern transformer station, often used to replace former transformer tower stations. The electrical connection is usually via a ground cable. The node is focused on substation instead of the transformer since other devices like switches can also be installed in the box.

Traction transformers

Photo Location Tagging Note
225kV => 25kV transformer
France

power=transformer
transformer=traction
voltage:primary=225000
voltage:secondary=25000
windings=2
windings:primary=1
windings:secondary=1
phases=2
location=outdoor

High speed rail lines are fed from transmission power grid with such biphase transformers.


More information about French 25kV traction system on this chart

-25kV feeder => 25kV catenary auto-transformers
France

On one of each transformer inside of the substation power=transformer
transformer=traction
voltage:primary=-25000
voltage:secondary=25000
windings=2
windings:primary=1
windings:secondary=1
phases=1
location=outdoor

Due to pretty long distances, high speed rail 25kV catenaries have to be regularly fed by auto-transformers which take power from a -25kV feeder line going along railways.

Auxiliary transformers

See also