Dar es Salaam/Ramani Huria

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Ramani Huria is a community-based mapping project that began in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, training university students and local community members to create highly accurate maps of the most flood-prone areas of the city. As the maps have taken shape – their benefits have multiplied and their potential magnified, now serving as foundational tools for development within all socio-economic spheres beyond flood resilience.

Data collected as part of Ramani Huria conforms to a model. The Data Model specifies what types of attributes are collected, what answers are possible, and the style in which they are displayed on the OpenStreetMap website's rendering, Ramani Huria's own atlases (essentially QGIS styles), and the Government of Tanzania data portal. The model consists of three basic layers:

  1. Items that appear in the OpenStreetMap standard rendering, and therefore conform to an essentially universal schema - they should look, by and large, identical in the street map in any country. Examples include the usual classifications of roads and buildings; the usual elements of the street map.
  2. Items that conform to OpenStreetMap standard tagging, but don't necessarily render on the standard map style. These should nevertheless be invariant across multiple countries and contexts. Examples include drainage, which does not appear in detail as part of the usual street map style, but is nevertheless universal and should be tagged consistently regardless of the local context.
  3. Items that are specific to the local context, which do not (fully) appear in the OpenStreetMap standard rendering and are not particularly universal, but which are useful to support the specific goals of the local project and community. Examples include local health-care infrastructure which is organized in a context-specific fashion by the national Ministry of Health, or administrative divisions that don't easily fit into an Adm1, Adm2, Adm3 schema.

OpenStreetMap core features

Administrative Levels

Key Value Comment
addr:city Dar es Salaam The name of the metropolitan area itself.
addr:municipality [Name of Municipality] Within the city there are municipalities; in the case of Dar es Salaam these include Ilala, Ubungo, Kinondoni, Kigamboni, and Temeke.
addr:ward [Name of Ward] Within the municipalities there are Wards (Kata in Swahili). Corresponds to Admin level 3 in GADM or level 7 in the OSM schema.
addr:sub-ward [Name of Sub-Ward] Within the Wards there are Sub-Wards (Mtaa in Swahili). Corresponds to Admin level 4 in GADM or level 9 in the OSM schema.
addr:shina [Number of Shina] Within the Sub-Wards there are areas administered by local officials known as Wajumbe (plural, singular is Mjumbe). These areas are known as Shinas (roughly translates to "Branch" in the sense of bank branch), and are numbered. These are not normally recognized as geographical administrative divisions, but in fact function as such since local citizens are often aware of the name of their Mjumbe, and the area of jurisdiction of a Mjumbe is usually compact and contiguous. The Shina numbers are documented in the Sub-Ward office and associated with a Mjumbe name; citizens typically do not know the number but do know the Mjumbe name. Correspond to level 9 in the osm schema.
addr:street [Name of Street] May be official or unofficial (see discussion of formal and informal street names above)
addr:housenumber [Address of the building] address number of the building, ie 25 or 19A. Often seen on the front of a building, though these may be out of date (and sometimes there are multiple contradictory house numbers).

Streets

Key Value Comment OSM style Street Map Atlas style Drainage Atlas style Flood Extent Atlas style Photo
highway trunk Major arteries, always paved and double-lane with median. There are only two or three of these in Dar es Salaam. Examples include Nyerere Road, Morogoro Road, and Ali Hassan Mwinyi Road. Rendering-highway trunk L3005 MF.png Rendering-highway trunk L3005 MF.png Rendering-highway trunk L3005 MF.png Rendering-highway trunk L3005 MF.png Nyere road.jpg
primary Major roads in the city. Always paved. Usually double-lane. Examples include Kawawa and Kilwa roads. Rendering-highway primary neutral.png Rendering-highway primary neutral.png Rendering-highway primary neutral.png Rendering-highway primary neutral.png Kilwa Road.jpg
secondary Connecting roads in the city. Paved, usually single-lane. Examples include Nelson Mandela and Kigogo roads. Rendering-highway secondary neutral.png Rendering-highway secondary neutral.png Rendering-highway secondary neutral.png Rendering-highway secondary neutral.png Kigogo Road.jpg
tertiary Roads connecting the primary and secondary roads into neighbourhoods. Often paved, but not universally so. Examples include Aga Khan road. Rendering-highway tertiary neutral.png Rendering-highway tertiary neutral.png Rendering-highway tertiary neutral.png Rendering-highway tertiary neutral.png Tertiary road.jpg
unclassified Mostly small residential roads in informal neighborhoods. Sometimes paved for the first few meters off the larger roads, but otherwise unpaved. Not usually gridded, rather meandering. Rendering-highway unclassified.png Rendering-highway unclassified.png Rendering-highway unclassified.png Rendering-highway unclassified.png Unclassified road in Kivulini.jpg
residential Small residential roads in planned neighbourhoods. Usually arranged in a recognisable grid. Sometimes paved for the first few meters off the larger roads, but otherwise unpaved. Rendering-highway residential.png Rendering-highway residential.png Rendering-highway residential.png Rendering-highway residential.png Residential road.jpg
footway Walking (or in a pinch, cycling or motorcycling) paths through neighbourhoods. Tend to meander between buildings. Too narrow and rough for car traffic. Path osm.png Path osm.png Path osm.png Path osm.png Footway.jpg
Key Value Comment Example image
name [Name of Street] Street name. If formal, recorded as is. Lukuledi street.jpg
name:informal [Name of Street] Used in case there is no formal name allocated to the street, but the residents have an informal name or descriptor (usually a well-known landmark or the name of a high-profile family or resident of the street). Displayed in the Ramani Huria atlas in parentheses to differentiate it from the formal name.
surface asphalt Tarmac, blacktop pavement. Chestnut Mt Rd, asphalt.jpg
concrete Cement mixed with rocks and sand. Concrete.jpg
unpaved Dirt, gravel, or sand. Unpaved road, Tanzania.jpg
cobblestones Small squared stones arranged in a relatively level surface
smoothness good Possible to drive consistently at the speed limit without worrying about imperfections Smoothness-Good.jpg
intermediate Occasional imperfections requiring caution or slow passage Smoothness Intermediate.jpg
bad Many imperfections, not possible to drive consistently at the speed limit
very_bad Impossible to ever drive at the speed limit, better to use 4-wheel drive Horrible road.jpg
horrible You'll know it when you see it. Horrible.jpg
width [dimension in meters] The distance in meters from one side of the driving surface to the other. N/A
ele:relative [elevation in meters] The elevation of the road surface above the surrounding land N/A
oneway yes (direction of traffic, NOT the number of lane)
no Cars may proceed in either direction
bridge yes Elevated pathway over watercourse
viaduct (add layer=1)
description [text] Optional field; if there is some important attribute of the road not captured in the above fields, this field should be used to briefly describe it. N/A

Buildings

Key Value Comment OSM style Street Map Atlas style
building residential Functions exclusively or primarily as a residence, without other permanent activities associated with it such as small-scale trading. Many residences have a small kiosk attached to them selling inexpensive items; these should be tagged 'commercial;residential'. Residential building.jpg Makazi.jpg
commercial Functions exclusively or primarily as a place of business, without a permanent resident (a guard sleeping overnight does not count as a residence, even if a mattress is present) Commercial building.png Jengo la Biashara.jpg
commercial;residential Functions as both a residence and a permanent place of business. A common example is a faily home with a small kiosk out front selling small items. Commercial residential.jpg Jengo la Biashara na makazi.jpg
apartments Contains multiple self-contained units, each with a discrete entry and locks. Distinct from a large family dwelling with multiple rooms, kitchens, etc. Apartment building.jpg Jengo la kupanga kwa makazi.jpg
industrial A business that is primarily engaged in production rather than sales, such as a factory, mill, or workshop. Jengo la kiwanda.jpg Industrial building.jpg
public Belongs to some level of government and is open to the public. Example: city hall, a Ward Office, or the Ministry of Lands office. Public building.jpg Public Building.jpg
school Where children go to learn. Jengo la shule.jpg School building.jpg
utility A public infrastructure site such as a power station or water tower. Jengo.jpg Utility.jpg
construction Any building that is currently incomplete, not in use, and under construction. Does not include a building that is in full use, even if construction appears to be ongoing (many Tanzanian buildings are left incomplete more or less permanently, and are fully occupied despite still having rebar stubs on the roof where construction may resume at some time in the future) This tag should be reviewed after several months (or whenever new imagery is available or a site visit is done) to update if construction is finished. Construction building.jpg Ujenzi.jpg
hospital Where sick people go for treatment. Hospital building.jpg Hospital Building.jpg
Key Value Comment Example image
building:material brick A building material consisting of individual squared-off units, typically made from fired clay with organic material mixed in to bind the clay. Bricks are stacked in orderly rows to form walls. Often red in color. Brick.jpg
cement_block A building material consisting of individual square blocks, often molded from lime or calcium silicate, typically hollow to reduce weight and material use. Stacked in orderly rows to form walls. Often grey in color. Cement Block.jpg
concrete A mix of cement, sand, and gravel formed into slabs. Concrete Zege.jpg
glass Transparent material made from silica, typically used for windows, but sometimes used for building material (generally when formed into blocks). Glass.jpg
plaster A protective coating material, usually made from gypsum, lime, or cement, covering a load-bearing material and protecting it from the elements. Plaster..png
wood A building material made from trees. Mbao.jpg
bamboo A building material made from evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae. Appears as round poles with a beige coloring. Bamboo.jpg
metal A hard element with a shiny appearance and good thermal conductivity, or alloys of such. Examples include steel and aluminum. Metal Building material.jpg
stone Naturally occurring minerals that can be stacked. May be squared off or not (if not they must be bound in a cement mortar to avoid the wall crumbling). Stone Building material.jpg
earthen Soil compacted into a hard building material. Earthen Material.png
waste_material Trash such as plastic bottles or old tires. Waste material.jpg
building:roof tiles Are building roofs designed mainly to keep out rain, and are traditionally made from locally available materials such as terracotta or slate. Modern materials such as concrete and plastic are also used and some clay tiles have a waterproof glaze. Tiles Roofing material.jpg
concrete A roofing system made from solid slabs of concrete capping the top of building composing cement, fine aggregates (sand) and coarse aggregates mixed with water which hardens with time.
metal Is a roofing system made from metal pieces or tiles characterized by its high resistance, impermeability and longevity. Commonly uses zinc, copper and steel alloys. Metal roofing material.jpg
wood Is the framing and roof covering which is found on most detached houses in cold and temperate climates Wood roofing.jpg
plastic These are roofing sheets that provide various colors and with better optical properties plus the maintance cost is low compared to other roofing materials. Plastic roofing.jpg
grass Is a roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and a growing medium, planted over a waterproofing membrane
building:structure confined_masonary Is a construction system where the walls are built first, and the columns and beams are poured in afterwards to enclose (confine) the wall.
reinforced_masonary Is a construction system where steel reinforcement in the form of reinforcing bars or mesh is embedded in the mortar or placed in the holes and filled with concrete or grout.
steel_frame Is a building technique with a "skeleton frame" of vertical steel columns and horizontal I-beams, constructed in a rectangular grid to support the floors, roof and walls of a building which are all attached to the frame.
wood_frame Is a traditional method of building with heavy timbers, creating structures using squared-off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs.
bamboo_frame Is a natural composite material with a high strength-to-weight ratio useful for structures. Bamboo has a higher compressive strength than wood, brick or concrete and a tensile strength that rivals steel
mud_made A building made from liquid or semi-liquid mixture of water and any combination of different kinds of soil such as loam, silt, and clay. Mud is a semi-fluid material that can be used to coat, seal, or adhere materials.
waste_material A building made from waste or unwanted materials that have been recycled. Waste material.jpg
Key
building:levels [Number of levels in the building] The ground floor is 1
building:age post_2000 Building built after the year 2000.
pre_2000 Building built before the year 2000.
building:condition poor A building in a very bad or poor condition.
good A building in a good condition, mostly modern buildings.
name [Name of Building] N/A
description [Description of Building] Optional: if there is some attribute of the building that is not captured by the above tags, it should be described here.

Drainage

Ditch

This refers to unlined trenches that are part of, or connect to, the city's drainage system.

Key Value Comment OSM style Drainage Atlas style Flood Extents Atlas style Government of Tanzania style Photo
waterway ditch A small man-made draining waterway, often found along roads. N/A Drain ditch open.jpg
covered yes Ditch is covered by either concrete, wood, steel or grating. N/A N/A
no Ditch is not covered. N/A
blockage dirt Ditch blocked by dirt such as mud or dust. N/A
concrete Ditch blocked by cement concrete. N/A
rubbish Ditch blocked by rubbish such as waste material; refuse or litter. N/A Waste material blockage.jpg
no Ditch flows without any blockage. N/A
width [Number of meters wide] Width of ditch in meters. N/A N/A
depth [Number of meters deep] Depth of ditch in meters. N/A N/A

Drain

The dimensions here are measured using tapes and staffs. Surveyors collect most dimensions in cm, which are then converted into decimal meters prior to placement in OSM in order to maintain consistent units.

Key Value Comment OSM style Sketch Photo
waterway drain Drains are ubiquitous in Dar es Salaam, and are not well-mapped. Challenged include placing drains correctly parallel to roads (GPS tracks tend to meander in and out of the roadway) and identifying various point features (vertical pipes/pools, connections, culverts, incoming building drains, blockages, etc). N/A 2D&3D.png Drain open trapezoid clean.jpg
covered yes Drain covered with either steel, concrete, wood, etc. such that water flows beneath it. N/A Concrete covered drain.png Drain cover concrete panel handles.jpg
no Drain is not covered such that water flowing is visible. N/A Uncovered trapezoid drain.png Drain open trapezoid 3.jpg
covered:material concrete Concrete slab covering drain N/A Concrete Covering Slab.png Concrete covering slab missing.jpg
grating Metal grating or grill; can be seen through but not fallen through N/A Sketch Grating drain Cover.png Drain grating metal covered.jpg
metal Solid metal covering N/A Material covered metal.jpg
wood Wood covering over drains, often made by local residents or businesses N/A Wood cover.jpg
material concrete A building material made from a mixture of broken stone or gravel, sand, cement, and water, which can be spread or poured into moulds and forms a mass resembling stone on hardening. N/A Concrete Material.jpg
steel A hard, strong grey alloy of iron with carbon and usually other elements, used as a structural and fabricating material. N/A
asphalt A mixture of dark bituminous pitch with sand or gravel, used for surfacing the floor of the drain. N/A
sand A substance that consists of very small grains of rock, found on beaches and in deserts. N/A Sand material drainage.jpg
plants Include grasses, rushes, etc. used as covering material or as a base. N/A
trees Usually wood; is a product of trees, and sometimes other fibrous plants, used for construction purposes when cut or pressed into lumber and timber. N/A
gravel A loose aggregation of rock fragments usually used to make concrete. N/A
blockage grass Drain blocked by grass. N/A Grass blockage.jpg
concrete Drain blocked by concrete. N/A Concrete blockage drainage.jpg
solid_waste Drain blocked by waste such as waste material; refuse or litter. N/A Point blockage solid waste.jpg
no Drain flows without any blockage. N/A Drain no blockage.jpg
width [Number of meters wide] If profile is rectangular or boxed_rectangular N/A N/A N/A
width_top [Number of meters wide at top] If profile is trapezoidal or elliptical N/A N/A N/A
width_bottom [Number of meters wide at bottom] If profile is trapezoidal N/A N/A N/A
depth [Number of meters deep] Depth of drain from the from top to bottom in meters N/A N/A N/A
profile open_rectangular A drain profile that is rectangular in shape and is open. The top and bottom width are always the same. N/A Rectangular drain profile.png Drain rectangular concrete.jpg
tabulated A drain profile with multiple angles; to measure the cross-sectional area several widths are necessary along with depth. N/A Tabulated drains.png Tabulated drain.jpg
trapezoid A drain profile with a flat bottom where the top width is larger than the bottom width. N/A Trapezoid profile.png Drain trapezoid silted high sides.jpg
elliptical A drain profile which appears as an elongated circle, stretched into an oval. An elliptical drain has a concave, curved bottom (usually made from curved concrete slabs). N/A Elliptical drain profile 2.png Elliptical drain.jpg
trapezoid_elliptical Not very common in Dar es Salaam; essentially a trapezoidal drain with a concave, curved bottom (usually made from curved concrete slabs). To measure the cross-sectional area the top and bottom width of the trapezoidal section must be measured (the bottom width being along the imaginary line across the top of the elliptical section), and two depth measurements: the overall depth and the depth of the elliptical section only (from the imaginary line across the top of the elliptical section to the bottom of the drain). N/A Trapezoid elliptical drain profile.png
Trapezoid with elliptical base.png
ele [Elevation - Number of meters above sea level] Cannot be reliably assessed by OSM mappers, therefore we use ele:relative_to_road (see below). If and when a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is available, elevation will be calculated. N/A N/A N/A
ele:relative_to_road [elevation difference to nearest road surface in meters] As OSM mappers do not usually have a method of measuring absolute elevation with the precision required for a drain, we measure the elevation difference to the nearest road surface. If and when a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is available, the road surfaces tend to be fairly accurate and can then be used to calculate the absolute elevation of the nearby drain using this difference. N/A N/A N/A

Underground drain

Note: it may not be obvious that an underground drain can be mapped! However, often a culvert or a short segment of drain that passes through an obstacle can be mapped by looking at the start and endpoints. In the event that the trajectory of an underground drain cannot be reliably assessed, only the start and endpoints will be taken as point features (see next table).

Key Value Comment OSM style Sketch Photo
waterway drain it is complex N/A N/A
tunnel yes N/A
culvert If feature is a culvert N/A Culvert Tunnel.png Culvert2.jpg
layer -1 If feature is underground and is below the ground level which is usually 1. N/A N/A N/A
profile round Culvert profile is round and diameter width measured in meters. N/A Round profile.png Round culvert entrance.jpg
boxed_rectangular Culvert profile is rectangular and width is measured in meters N/A Boxed Rectangular.png Rectangular culvert.jpg
channels [integer number of channels - only needed if more than 1 channel] Often rather than a single culvert pipe, large drains widen out before passing through a roadway, and have multiple pipes/channels. If they are identical in profile and size, it is easier for hydrologists to manage if the crossing is simply labelled as multi-channel, rather than attempting to map all channels as separate lines. N/A Multipe channel.png Drain culvert multichannel.jpg
diameter [Number of meters in diameter] if profile is round N/A N/A N/A
width [Number of meters width] if profile is boxed_rectangular N/A N/A N/A
height [Number of meters height] if profile is boxed_rectangular N/A N/A N/A
material concrete A building material made from a mixture of broken stone or gravel, sand, cement, and water, which can be spread or poured into moulds and forms a mass resembling stone on hardening. N/A Concrete culvert.jpg
steel_corrugated A building material composed of sheets of hot-dip galvanised mild steel, cold-rolled to produce a linear corrugated pattern in them. N/A Culvert metal blockage partial.jpg
steel_smooth N/A
blockage dirt Underground drain blocked by dirt such as mud or dust. N/A
concrete Underground drain blocked by cement concrete. N/A
solid_waste Underground drain blocked by waste such as waste material; refuse or litter. N/A
no Underground drain flows without any blockage. N/A
ele [Elevation - Number of meters above sea level] Cannot be reliably assessed by OSM mappers, therefore we use ele:relative_to_road (see below). If and when a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is available, elevation will be calculated. N/A N/A N/A
ele:relative_to_road [elevation difference to nearest road surface in meters] As OSM mappers do not usually have a method of measuring absolute elevation with the precision required for a drain, we measure the elevation difference to the nearest road surface. If and when a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is available, the road surfaces tend to be fairly accurate and can then be used to calculate the absolute elevation of the nearby drain using this difference. N/A N/A N/A

Drainage point feature

There are a number of features along drains in Dar es Salaam that occur at a specific point rather than along the whole line segment. These include features such as silt traps, small-diameter entry pipes from nearby buildings, bridges, pump sites, culvert entries, or areas in need of repair. These are nodes, rather than lines, and may or may not be rendered in the street map or atlas styles.

Key Value Comment Photo
waterway drain:silt_trap Vertically-walled pools, somewhat deeper than the drains themselves, where water slows down and silt settles in a single spot where it is easily removed. Silt trap.jpg
drain:culvert_entrance Point where a drain goes underground - to be used where the culvert cannot be mapped as a line segment (as when the culvert is too long to reliably know where it goes underground). If the culvert can be reliably mapped as a line segment, that should be done instead of using this tag. Drain Culvert entrance.jpg
drain:outflow Point where a drain empties into a water body such as a stream, river, lake, or ocean. Drain Outflow.jpg
drain:ends A place where a drain appears to stop without any outflow (on the downhill side)
drain:begins A place where a drain or ditch begins (on the uphill side)
drain:pipe_inflow Drains frequently have small-gauge pipes entering them from nearby buildings. Pipe inflow.jpg
drain:building_drain A place where a building's drainage outflow (a drain, not a pipe) enters the drain Building drain.jpg
drain:bridge A small pedestrian bridge where people can cross the drain. This tag specifically refers to a bridge that is not part of an existing road or track (if the bridge is part of an existing road or footway trace, it does not need to be rendered as a point feature). May be concrete, as in the case of those installed by the drain installers, or a wooden structure placed by local residents or businesses. Walkway over drain concrete.jpgWalkway wooden bridge pedestrian.jpg
drain:crossing Any crossing that hasn't been identified in some other way (i.e. not a culvert or ditch).
drain:needs_repair A damaged or blocked drain that needs to be repaired.
ele:relative_to_road [elevation difference to nearest road surface in meters] As OSM mappers do not usually have a method of measuring absolute elevation with the precision required for a drain, we measure the elevation difference to the nearest road surface. If and when a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is available, the road surfaces tend to be fairly accurate and can then be used to calculate the absolute elevation of the nearby drain using this difference. N/A

Public water source

Key Value Comment OSM style Atlas style
amenity drinking_water A drinking water source provides potable water for consumption.
Drinking water.png
water_point A place where you can get large amounts of drinking water. Water point OSM.png
name
man_made water_tower Structure with a water tank at an altitude to increase pressure in water network. Water-tower OSM.png
water_well A structural facility to access ground water, created by digging or drilling. N/A
water_tap Is a man-made construction providing access to water, supplied by centralized water distribution system. Publicly usable press button water tap. N/A
bore_hole Publicly usable press button water tap. N/A
water_pump
protected_spring Mechanically drilled borehole N/A
water_works A place where drinking water is found and applied to the local waterpipes network. N/A
water_tank A large water basin or tank for a fire department to take water. It is designed to get fast access to water for extinguishing fires whenever the water pipes are not adequate and no natural water is close by. N/A
pump powered A well that has a powered pump where water is drawn using a electric or gasoline powered pump. These wells are usually either drilled or bored and fitted with a pipe that the pump can draw from. N/A
manual A well that has a human powered pump. These wells are usually either drilled or bored and fitted with a pipe. N/A
no A generic open hand-drawn well where water is drawn without a pump. Typically dug wells where water is drawn using buckets that are pulled by hand. N/A
pump:active yes
no
natural creek N/A
stream A naturally-forming waterway that is too narrow to be classed as a river. N/A
spring A place where ground water flows naturally from the ground Spring OSM.png
water A broad category covering the cosatline, the marine environment including marine navigation; also waterways and water management. N/A
drinking_water yes Indicates whether a feature provides drinking water, respectively whether water is drinkable for humans and animals. Drinking water.png
no Indicates that a feature does not provide drinking water, respectively whether water is drinkable for humans and animals. N/A
operational_status operational Current status of a feature is operational/operating.
needs_maintenance Current status of a feature is in need of maintenance.
closed Current status of a feature is closed.
out_of_order Current status of a feature is out of order.

Public toilets

Key Value Comment OSM style Atlas style Government of Tanzania style
amenity toilets A publicly accessible toilet. Toilets OSM.png
toilets:disposal flush
pitlatrine A hole or pit into which human excrement is deposited. Known as an outhouse or privy when sheltered by a small building. N/A
bucket waste drops into a container which is periodically removed by hand. N/A
chemical waste falls into a lined pit filled with a chemical. N/A
toilets:access public explicitly public and open to whoever walks up N/A
permissive(private but access is not restricted) while nominally private, no visible attempt is made to restrict access, and casual use appears to be tolerated by the owners. N/A
customers while open to the public, the clear policy is to require a purchase prior to use. N/A
wheelchair yes Wheelchairs have full unrestricted access N/A
no Wheelchairs have no unrestricted access (e.g. stair only access). N/A
limited Wheelchairs have partial access (e.g some areas can be accessed and others not, areas requiring assistance by someone pushing up a steep gradient). N/A
fee yes a fee is usually charged N/A
no no fee usually charged N/A
cost [Value of fee]
name [Name of toilet]
toilets:num_chambers [Number of toilets]
operator [Name of operator] For example: "Ilala Municipal Council" or "Tandale Saccos"
opening_hours [Opening hours of toilet] In a 24 hours, ranged format: 08:30­15:45
toilets:handwashing yes
no

Solid waste

Key Value Comment OSM Style Drainage Atlas style Flood Extents Atlas style Government of Tanzania style
amenity waste_disposal
recycling
waste_basket A single small container for depositing garbage that is easily accessible for pedestrians.
waste trash For trash/rubbish
organic Compost or food waste
oil For motor oil, diesel and emulsions
operator <name of operator>
landuse dump

Open areas

Key Value Comment OSM style Atlas style Government of Tanzania style
landuse brownfield Brownfield is a piece of land that has been previously built up and then cleared (a good example is the large field in Ndugumbi where they have been launching the drones).
greenfield Greenfield describes undeveloped land scheduled for development
cemetery Used to mark a cemetery area .
grass A smaller area of mown and managed grass.
park Is an area of open space provided for recreational use, usually designed and in semi-natural state with grassy areas, trees and bushes.
playground These are outdoor (sometimes indoor) areas for children to play. Often they provide equipment such as swings, climbing frames and roundabouts. Playground OSM.png
recreation_ground Often part of a larger park, but are also found in residential areas.
natural water Any body of water, from natural such as a lake or pond to artificial like moat or canal
wetland Ramani Huria's focus is flood resilience, and therefore emphasises mapping historical flood extents. For the moment, we include these in the database as wetlands.
name <name of open area>

Education

Key Value Comment OSM style Atlas style Government of Tanzania style
name <name of facility>
amenity kindergarten A place for looking after preschool children and (typically) giving early education.
school A place where pupils, normally between the ages of about 6 and 18 are taught under the supervision of teachers. This includes primary and secondary schools. School.png
college A place for further education, usually a post-secondary education institution. Chuo.png
university An educational institution designed for instruction, examination, or both, of students in many branches of advanced learning.
opening_hours <days/time of opening> N/A N/A
contact:phone N/A N/A
operator <name of operator(operating authority)> N/A N/A
operator:type government An education facility that is owned and/or operated by the government.
ngo An education facility that is owned and/or operated by a Non-Governmental Organization.
community An education facility or institution that is owned and/or operated by the community members.
religious An education facility that is owned and/or operated by a religious institution such as church, mosque, etc.
public An education facility that is publicly owned.
private An education facility that is owned and/or operated by a private individual.
religion christian Classify a religious feature (e.g. church) as Christian Christian OSM.png
muslim Classify a religious feature (e.g. a mosque) as Islamic. Muslim OSM.png
sikh Classify a religious feature (e.g. temple) as Sikhism Sikh OSM.png
hindu Classify a religious feature (e.g. temple) as Hindu Hindu OSM.png
capacity <number of student/pupills> N/A N/A
fee yes Indicates that this facility charges money for its services or access. N/A N/A
no Indicates that this facility does not charge money for its services or access. N/A N/A
building:levels is used for marking the number of above-ground levels of a building
building condition it can be documented how good the condition of the original building is.

Healthcare

Key Value Comment OSM style Atlas style Government of Tanzania style
name
amenity hospital Where sick people go for treatment. Hospital OSM style.png Hospitali.png
clinic Provides primary healthcare services. CLinic OSM style.png Clinic amenity.jpg
doctors A place you can go to get medical attention or a check up. Doctors OSM.png
dentist A place where a professional dental surgeon who specializes in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and conditions on oral care is stationed. Dentist OSM.png
pharmacy A shop where a pharmacist sells medications. Famasi.png
traditional A place that provides traditional medical services. N/A N/A
nature clinic_no_beds Clinic that does not admit patients. N/A N/A
clinic_beds Clinic that admits patients. N/A N/A
first_referral_hospital N/A N/A
second_referral_hospital A hospital which can support licensed physicians in pediatrics, obstetrics, and gynecology, general surgery and other supporting medical services. N/A N/A
tertiary_hospital A hospital that provides tertiary care, which is health care from specialists in a large hospital after referral from primary care and secondary care. N/A N/A
scope all N/A N/A
specialized A hospital that specializes in a certain type of patients to care for example children, cancer, etc. N/A N/A
general_acute_care a branch of secondary health care where a patient receives active but short-term treatment for a severe injury or episode of illness, an urgent medical condition, or during recovery from surgery. In medical terms, care for acute health conditions is the opposite from chronic care, or longer term care. N/A N/A
rehabilitation_care Health care services that helps keep, get back, or improve skills and functioning for daily living that have been lost or impaired because you were sick, hurt, or disabled. N/A N/A
hospice_care Care designed to give supportive care to people in the final phase of a terminal illness and focus on comfort and quality of life, rather than cure. The goal is to enable patients to be comfortable and free of pain, so that they live each day as fully as possible. N/A N/A
ancillary_services operating_theater A room in a hospital in which surgical operations are performed. N/A N/A
laboratory Is where clinical pathology tests are carried out on clinical specimens to obtain information about the health of a patient to aid in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. N/A N/A
imaging_equipment An equipment used for creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology). N/A N/A
intensive_care_unit A special department of a hospital or health care facility that provides intensive treatment medicine for patients who are seriously ill, very badly injured, or who have just had an operation. N/A N/A
emergency_department A medical treatment facility specializing in emergency medicine, the acute care of patients who present without prior appointment. Its purpose is to treat critically ill patients and to prevent cardiac arrest in patients presenting with signs of physiological instability. N/A N/A
activities medicine The science or practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease (in technical use often taken to exclude surgery). N/A N/A
surgery The treatment of injuries or disorders of the body by incision or manipulation, especially with instruments. N/A N/A
maternal_care The health of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. It encompasses the health care dimensions of family planning, preconception, prenatal, and postnatal care N/A N/A
pediatric_care Deals with the health and medical care of infants, children, and adolescents from birth up to the age of 18. N/A N/A
mental_care Relating to services devoted to the treatment of mental illnesses and the improvement of mental health in people with mental problems. N/A N/A
social_care Provides social work, personal care, protection or social support services to children or adults in need or at risk, or adults with needs arising from illness, disability, old age or poverty. N/A N/A
bed_count (for hospitals,clinics;the number of beds) The number of beds in a hospital, clinic, dispensary, etc. N/A N/A
emergency yes Used to indicate to indicate whatever given hospital is equipped to deal with emergencies. N/A N/A
no Used to indicate to indicate whatever given hospital is not equipped to deal with emergencies. N/A N/A
dispensing yes A pharmacy with a dispensing pharmacist able to sell prescription drugs as well as over the counter drugs. Pharmacy nondispensing.png N/A
no A pharmacy with a pharmacist that does not fill prescriptions, but does sell pharmacist-only drugs. N/A N/A
opening_hours <days/times of opening> N/A N/A
operator N/A
operator:type government A healthcare center that is operated by the government. N/A N/A
ngo A healthcare center that is operated by an NGO. N/A N/A
community A healthcare center that is operated by the community. N/A N/A
religious A healthcare center that is operated by a religious facility such as church or mosque. N/A N/A
public A healthcare center that is operated by the public. N/A N/A
private A healthcare center that is privately owned. N/A N/A
healthcare:specialty community The healthcare facility that provides services to a specific community. N/A N/A
emergence A healthcare facility that deals with emergency services. N/A N/A
general A healthcare facility that has generalized its services N/A N/A
women A healthcare facility that specializes its services to women. N/A N/A
traditional A traditional healthcare facility. N/A N/A
paediatrics A health care facility that specializes in providing services to children. N/A N/A
contact:phone
staff_count:doctors
staff_count:nurses
description

Services

Religious facilities

Key Value Comment OSM style Atlas style Government of Tanzania style
amenity place_of_worship This covers mosques, churches, cathedrals, synagogues, temples, etc.
name
religion christian Classify a religious feature (e.g. church) as Christian Christian OSM.png
muslim Classify a religious feature (e.g. a mosque) as Islamic. Hindu OSM.png
buddhist Describes that a feature is related to buddhism Buddhist OSM symbol.png
jewish Classify a religious feature (e.g. church) as Jewish Jewish OSM.png
hindu Classify a religious feature (e.g. temple) as Hindu Hindu OSM.png
sikh Classify a religious feature (e.g. temple) as Sikhism Sikh OSM.png
denomination catholic Classify a Christian facility under the Roman Catholic denomination. N/A N/A
orthodox Classify a Christian facility under the Orthodox denomination. N/A N/A
protestant Classify a Christian facility under the Protestant denomination. N/A N/A
pentecostal Classify a Christian facility under the Pentecostal denomination. N/A N/A
sunni Classify a Muslim facility under the Sunni denomination. N/A N/A
shia Classify a Muslim facility under the Shia denomination. N/A N/A
sufi Classify a Muslim facility under the Sufi denomination. N/A N/A
building cathedral A building that was built as a cathedral. which contains the seat of a bishop.
mosque A building that was built as a mosque.
chapel A building that was built as a chapel often pretty small. One can enter in it to pray or meditate..
church A building that was built as a church.
service_times <time of services>

Shops and markets

Key Value Comment OSM style Atlas style Government of Tanzania style
amenity marketplace A location where goods and services are exchanged daily or weekly. or where trade is regulated. Marketplace OSM.png Market Place.png
shop alcohol A liquor store or a shop selling alcoholic drinks to takeaway. Alcohol OSM.png
art A shop which sells works of art example paintings, sculpture, or other types of art. Art OSM.png
bakery A shop selling bread, pastries, cakes, etc. Bakery OSM.png
beauty A non-hairdresser beauty shop, spa, nail salon, etc. Beauty OSM.png
beverages A shop focused on selling alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages Beverages OSM.png
bicycle A store where you can buy and/or repair your bike and buy accessories. N/A
books A shop selling books. Books OSM.png
butcher A shop selling meat or meat products. Butcher OSM.png
car A place that primarily sells cars (automobiles). Car OSM.png
car_parts A place selling auto parts, auto accessories, motor oil, car chemicals, etc. Car parts OSM.png
car_repair A shop/service that primarily repairs cars/automobiles. Car repair OSM.png
chemist A shop selling articles of personal hygiene, cosmetics, and household cleaning products. Chemist OSM.png
clothes A shop where clothes are being sold like shirts, jeans etc. Clothes OSM.png
convenience A small local shop carrying a variety of everyday products, mostly including single-serving food items such as milk, bread, snacks, groceries to over-the-counter medications, household items, stationery, etc. Concenience OSM.png
copyshop A shop that offers photocopying and printing services. Copyshop OSM.png
craft A place producing or processing customized goods N/A
cosmetics A shop exclusively selling cosmetics. Cosmetics OSM.png
doityourself A shop similar to hardware stores, except they are generally larger and stock a wider range of products such as hand tools, power tools, self-assembly furniture, decorating products, etc. Doityourself OSM.png
electronics A shop selling consumer electronics such as TVs, radios and fridges. Electronics OSM.png
furniture A shop selling furniture. Furniture OSM.png
greengrocer A shop which sells fruits and vegetables. Greengrocer OSM.png
hairdresser A shop where you can get hair related services such as washing, shaving, colouring, extensions etc, and often other beauty/grooming treatments services and products are on offer. Hairdresser OSM.png
hardware A shop which sells timber, tools and other building products Hardware OSM.png
houseware A shop that focuses on small household items, like cutlery, crockery and decorative items. Houseware OSM.png
jewelery A shop that sells rings, necklaces, earrings, watches, etc. Jewelry OSM.png
kiosk A little stand-alone pavillon selling products like cigarettes, newspapers, sweets, snacks and beverages. Kiosk OSM.png
laundry A shop that primarily sells mobile phones and accessories. Laundry OSM.png
mobile_phone A shop that primarily sells mobile phones and accessories. Mobile phone OSM.png
pastry A shop where sweet bakery products are produced and sold. Pastry OSM.png
shoes A type of retailer that specialises in selling shoes. Shoes OSM.png
stationery A shop selling office supplies such as paper, notebooks, festive cards, envelopes, pens, pencils and other related supplied for home, school and office use. Stationery OSM.png
supermarket A large store for groceries and sells a variety of non-food products. Supermarket OSM.png
tailor A place where clothing is made, repaired, or altered professionally, especially suits and men's clothing.
video A shop that sells or rents out videos/DVDs Video OSM.png
name
opening_hours
contact:phone

Offices

Key Value Comment OSM style Atlas style Government of Tanzania style
office government An office of a national, regional or local government agency or department N/A N/A
company An office of a private company. N/A N/A
political_party An office of a political party. N/A N/A
ngo An office for a non-government organisation. N/A N/A
charity An office of a charitable organization. N/A N/A
estate_agency Arranges the selling, renting, or management of properties and other buildings. N/A N/A
telecommunication An office for a telecommunication company N/A N/A
travel_agent An office providing travel related products and services N/A N/A
lawyer An office for a lawyer, solicitors, notaries, attorneys and many other local variations. N/A N/A
insurance An office at which you can take out insurance policies. N/A N/A
name
opening_hours
contact:phone
description

Financial services

Key Value Comment OSM Style Atlas style Government of Tanzania style
amenity mobile_money_agent Uses e-money in cashing out money for customers. N/A N/A
bureau_de_change An office that exchanges foreign currency and travellers cheques. Bureau de Change OSM.png
bank Business that lends money at interest and provides interest on deposits, as well as providing other financial services. Bank OSM symbol.png Bank.png
microfinance_bank Provides microloans to poor entrepreneurs and small businesses lacking access to bank and related services. N/A N/A
atm Automated Teller Machine where people can withdraw cash using a card or mobile money account. ATM OSM symbol.png ATM.png
saccos Savings and Credit Co-Operative Society - save money and to make loans to each other in the group at reasonable rates of interest. N/A N/A
money_transfer A place that offers money transfers, especially cash to cash N/A N/A
post_office A place where letters and parcels may be sent or collected. N/A N/A
name <name of facility>
operator CRDB Bank Cooperative Rural Development Bank - privately owned but formerly a government bank providing commercial banking services to individuals, small to medium businesses and large corporations. N/A N/A
National Microfinance Bank (NMB) One of the largest commercial banks in Tanzania that is owned by the government, providing banking services to individuals, small to medium sized corporate clients, as well as large businesses. N/A N/A
Stanbic Bank Tanzania Limited A full service commercial bank which specializes in providing facilities and services to public and private sector corporations, diplomatic missions and international organisations. N/A N/A
National Bank of Commerce (Tanzania) National Bank of Commerce (Tanzania) is a commercial bank in Tanzania. N/A N/A
Standard Chartered Bank A British multinational banking and financial services company. N/A N/A
Barclays Bank of Tanzania A bank in Tanzania that is part of Absa Group Limited, an African financial services group that aims to be the pride of the continent. N/A N/A
Exim Bank (Tanzania) A a locally established, privately owned commercial bank. N/A N/A
Akiba Commercial Bank A small commercial bank in Tanzania that focuses on serving the poorest of poor Tanzanians and their enterprises. N/A N/A
Commercial Bank of Africa (Tanzania) A commercial Bank in Tanzania that is a subsidiary of the Commercial Bank of Africa Group. N/A N/A
Covenant Bank For Women A bank in Tanzania that provides quality and competitive financial services with a strong focus on women entrepreneurs and development services. N/A N/A
network Tigo Pesa A comprehensive mobile financial service under the Tigo company that simplifies sending and receiving money, and provides other services. N/A N/A
MPESA Is a mobile banking service under the Vodacom company that allows users to store and transfer money through their mobile phones N/A N/A
Airtel Money A mobile commerce service that enables the user to use Airtel mobile to send and receive money across networks. N/A N/A
HaloPesa Is a mobile banking service under the Halotel company that allows users to store and transfer money through their mobile phones N/A N/A
ZPESA Is a mobile banking service under the Zantel company that allows users to store and transfer money through their mobile phones N/A N/A
Visa Processes payments between the banks of merchants and the card issuing banks or credit unions of the purchasers who use the "Visa" brand debit, credit and prepaid to make purchases. N/A N/A
MasterCard Processes payments between the banks of merchants and the card issuing banks or credit unions of the purchasers who use the "Mastercard" brand debit, credit and prepaid to make purchases. N/A N/A
Maestro A multi-national debit card service owned by Mastercard, its cards are obtained from associate banks and can be linked to the cardholder's current account, or they can be prepaid cards N/A N/A
Interswitch A provider of secure electronic payment solutions (e-payment) N/A N/A
Western Union It provides various options to receive funds including cash at an agent location, direct to a bank account or to a mobile phone, where available. For transactions to a bank account or to a mobile phone Western Union will transfer the funds to the account information provided by the Sender. N/A N/A
MoneyGram A money transfer service similar to Western Union and it uses cash, credit or debit card, or a bank account to give MoneyGram the money. There are also fees added on depending on the method of transaction and also the location of the money's destination. N/A N/A
Remit Transmits or sends money or check to a person that owes money N/A N/A
<if atm>

visa,mastercard,maestro,interswitch, other?

N/A N/A
opening_hours

Other points of interest

Safety and security (police, fire services), tourism, fuel stations, communications towers, etc.

Key Value Comment OSM style Atlas style Government of Tanzania style
amenity bar A place where letters and parcels may be sent or collected. Bar OSM.png Baa.png
cafe Serves caffeinated beverages. Cafe OSM symbol.png Mgahawa.png
car_wash Is a facility used to clean the exterior and, in some cases, the interior of motor vehicles. Car wash OSM.png
cinema A movie theater, a place showing movies. Cinema OSM.png
community_centre A place mostly used for local events, festivities and group activities. Community centre OSM.png
courthouse A place where justice is dispensed. Courthouse OSM.png Mahakamani.png
embassy Diplomatic, consular and liaison missions of foreign governments and parastatal entities in a host country. Embassy OSM symbol.png Maki-embassy-15.svg
fast_food A place concentrating on very fast counter-only service and take-away food. Fast food OSM.png
fire_station A station from which the fire brigade operates. Fire station OSM symbol.png Zima moto.png
fuel A retail-type facility where motor vehicles can be refueled. It is also known as a filling station, petrol station, gas station and petrol garage. Fuel OSM style.png Sheli ya mafuta.png
fitness_centre Is a place with exercise machines and/or fitness/dance classes. Fitness centre OSM.png
library A place to read and/or lend books. Library OSM symbol.png
parking An area where cars, bicycles, motorcycles and other vehicles are parked. Parking OSM.png
police A place where police officers patrol from. Police OSM Symbol.png Askari.png
post_office A place where letters and parcels may be sent or collected. Post office OSM.png
prison A building or other facility to which people are legally committed as punishment for a crime or while awaiting trial or after . Prison-16.svg
pub An establishment that sells alcoholic drinks that can be consumed on the premises. Pub OSM symbol.png
restaurant A restaurant sells full sit-down meals with servers, and may sell alcohol. Restaurant OSM symbol.png Mkahawa.png
social_centre A building or facility where a support group, or other social group, meets. These facilities may be accessible to the general public, restricted to members, or otherwise controlled access.
social_facility Is any place where social services are conducted and is committed to the pursuit of social justice, to quality of life, and to the development of the full potential of each individual, group and community in a society Social facility OSM.png
studio Is used for creating radio or television programmes and broadcasting them. It can also be used to mark a music recording studio.
theatre A place where live theatrical performances are held. Theatre OSM.png
townhall A place which serves as a community administrative center or meeting place. Townhall OSM style.png
veterinary A place that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease in animals. This can range from a small office to a large animal hospital. Veterinary OSM.png
tourism hotel An establishment that provides paid lodging, usually on a short-term basis. Hotel OSM.png
motel Short term accommodation, particularly for people travelling by car. Motel OSM.png
guest_house Accommodation without hotel license that is typically owner-operated, such as bed&breakfasts etc. Guest house OSM.png
museum An institution which has exhibitions on scientific, historical, cultural topics typically open to the public as a tourist attraction. Museum OSM.png
attraction Object of interest for a tourist.
camp_site An area usually divided into a number of pitches where people can camp overnight using tents, camper vans or caravans. Campsite OSM.png
gallery An area or building that displays a variety of visual art exhibitions. The most common exhibits being paintings, sculpture or photography. Gallery-14.svg
hostel Provides accommodation where guests can rent a bed, sometimes a bunk bed in a dormitory and share a bathroom, kitchen and lounge. Hostel OSM.png
information Information for tourists, travellers and visitors, including information offices Information OSM.png
picnic_site A locality that is pleasant and suitable for outdoors eating, with a number of facilities to aid a picnic such as toilets, water tap, BBQ, benches, table with benches and covered pavilions for bad weather Picnic site OSM.png
viewpoint A place worth visiting, often high, with a good view of surrounding countryside or notable buildings. Viewpoint OSM.png
rooms <number of rooms available in a hotel,guesthouse etc> Amount of rooms available for guests N/A N/A
beds <number of beds available in a hotel,guesthouse etc> The number of beds in a hotel or hospital. N/A N/A
fuel <type of fuel;electric,petrol,diesel,kerosene> A retail-type facility where motor vehicles can be refueled. It is also known as a filling station, petrol station, gas station and petrol garage. Fuel OSM style.png Sheli ya mafuta.png
operator <company running the amenity> N/A N/A
studio audio A shop that sells or rents out audio/CDs.
video A shop that sells or rents out videos/DVDs. Video OSM.png
television A communication tower as a TV station.
radio A communication tower as a radio station.
man_made yes N/A N/A
communications_tower A huge tower for transmitting radio applications Communication tower OSM.png
mast A vertical structure built to hold, for example, antennas. Mast OSM.png
tower A tower is a building, which is higher than it is wide. Towers are typically built from wood, steel, bricks, stone or concrete.
contact:phone <phone number> N/A N/A
name N/A N/A

Ramani Huria Datasets

Historical Flood Extents

Historical flood extents conducted from August 24th, 2017 to April 12th, 2018 covered areas that are mostly affected by floods during rainy seasons in Dar es Salaam. Household surveys were conducted to capture details in subwards of the respective wards across the Msimbazi River and stream that outflow to the main river to help in the designing of the lower Msimbazi River catchment area, using the data to understand the extent to which houses are affected from Msimbazi valley.

The information captured aimed to know whether the respondent had been affected by floods in the previous years, the flood depth and flood occurrence years–historical flood events. Since the community members did not know the units of measurements in metrics, this posed a problem to the team during data collection. The team re-designed the questions to simplify the community members’ estimation of flood depths using human-scale measurements i.e. knee-deep, chest-deep, waist-deep, etc.

Spatial Extent

The historical flood extents project was conducted in 11 wards in Dar es Salaam city found along the Msimbazi River. The wards are as listed below:

ID Ward Name ID Ward Name
1. Buguruni 7. Mchikichini
2. Hananasifu 8. Mzimuni
3. Ilala 9. Ndugumbi
4. Jangwani 10. Tabata
5. Kigogo 11. Upanga Magharibi
6. Magomeni

Methodology

Using an OpenDataKit survey form and asking questions to community members about their experience of floods in their neighborhoods. Community members of the respective wards were trained on how to collect data using ODK and were the ones to collect these information in their own neighborhood. A team of five people, with knowledge in planning and added skills of ODK, OpenMapKit and OSM was tasked to train community members on how to use ODK in filling the survey and managing the flowing data.

Statistics

Approximately 30,000 houses were surveyed during the historical flood extents

Number of Houses Percentage (%)
5,960 (flooded) 19.9
24,040 (not flooded) 80.1

Visualizations

Historical flood extents, 2017

Drainage Mapping

Drainage mapping was conducted on August 2017 to April 2019 in the most flood-prone areas across Dar es Salaam using cheap and practical methods. This information will be used to develop a flood model which requires accurately collected specifications of drains such as depth, width, blockage (by either vegetation or material), connectivity, and diameter (typically for culverts).

Spatial Extent

Drainage data covers 44 prioritized Ramani Huria wards most of which are along the Msimbazi and Ng’ombe rivers. 90% of the wards in the table below have been mapped; the remaining 10% will be mapped by the Resilience Academy in August - September 2019.

Drainage mapping progress as in April 2019

Methodology

Preparation of survey forms in KoBo Toolbox for the ODK application for drain segments and points. Field mappers then installed ODK on their Android phones and with the URL for the server to be used, they downloaded the survey forms, filled the required information from the field and uploaded the forms.

For data collection, measuring tapes and measuring rods━special wooden measuring sticks created by the RH team to measure the bottom width and depth of drains━were used. In some cases where trapezoidal drains are covered with water, the use of measuring rods was the best option. It enables taking measurements without the mapper having to get into the drainage channel, while for drains with narrow width the use of measuring tape was most efficient.

A 2016 COWI imagery was used for data cleaning due to its high resolution which effects fixing GPS errors. Some Android smartphones installed with ODK Collect have a GPS with an accuracy of 5 meters or which results to a +/- 5 meters error from the real position - using a high resolution imagery in data cleaning helps fixing this problem.

A small team of 12 student volunteers was trained in the specifics of drainage mapping i.e. using a measuring rods and measuring tapes to acquire dimensions of a drainage shape and size. Apart from drainage linear features━drain, culvert and ditch━the team was also taught how to map point features which support linear features, i.e. when attached to each other. For instance, drain points when explaining the uppermost part of drain and showing the blockage points. Although this team comprised of students with various backgrounds, no one had prior knowledge of drainage mapping - rather some of them had been involved in other mapping activities, such as cadastral survey.

A detailed description on how to conduct drainage mapping, tools that are used, data collection, data cleaning and running the data in the model can be found in the pocket guide to drainage mapping and the urban drainage mapping wiki.

Statistics

18350 segments of culverts, drains, ditches, and decommissioned drainage infrastructure totaling 705.739 kilometer. Whereby lined drains cover 56.69%, culverts cover 37.37% while unlined drains (ditches) cover 5.25%.

13385 drain points have been collected whereby 3.9% are blockage/damage points with either solid waste materials or sands and 4.9%are  points with no_exit(drainage channel ends with no outflow)

Data Visualization

Drainage in Flood Risk Area

Community Assets and Threats Mapping

Flood risk identification of flood-prone areas of the city was conducted through a series of meetings with influential community members and leaders to identify assets, threats, and evacuation centers and issues that contribute to flooding in their subwards.

Flood risk identification of flood prone areas of the city from June 2018 to January 2019 by conducting a series of meetings with key people on specific subwards. Use of influential community members and leaders to identify assets, threats and evacuation centers and issues that contribute to flooding in their subwards.

Assets are things that are important to the community but are not at risk of flooding, threats are things that the community "thinks" may flood if the hazard continues unabated and evacuation centers are areas that the community members who have been affected by floods flee to for a safe stay. This information can only be provided by the community itself since they understand their neighborhoods better.

Spatial Extent

The inventory covered 243 subwards in 49 wards of Dar es Salaam.

ID Ward Name ID Ward Name ID Ward Name ID Ward Name
1. Bonyokwa 13. Kinyerezi 26. Manzese 38. Sandali
2. Buguruni 14. Kipawa 27. Mburahati 39. Saranga
3. Gongo la Mboto 15. Kisukuru 28. Mchikichini 40. Segerea
4. Hananasifu 16. Kunduchi 29. Mikocheni 41. Sinza
5. Ilala 17. Kwembe 30. Mnyamani 42. Tabata
6. Jangwani 18. Liwiti 31. Msasani 43. Tandale
7. Kariakoo 19. Mabibo 32. Msigani 44. Temeke
8. Kawe 20. Magomeni 33. Mwananyamala 45. Ubungo
9. Kigogo 21. Makongo 34. Mzimuni 46. Ukonga
10. Kijitonyama 22. Makuburi 35. Ndugumbi 47. Upanga Magharibi
11. Kimanga 23. Makumbusho 36. Pugu 48. Upanga Mashariki
12. Kinondoni 24. Makurumla 37. Pugu Station 49. Vingunguti
49 Wards covered during the Community Assets and Threats mapping inventory

Methodology

Meetings were set with community leaders and influential people i.e. religious leaders in the specific wards. We first introduced how the data can help in reducing flooding, then asked them to identify and trace their boundaries on a map printed on A1 and point out assets and disaster threats in their neighbourhoods. We also printed satellite image maps of the respective subward to simplify identification of areas in their subwards.

Each meeting had 10 to 12 participants—2 religious leaders, 1 leader of community based organisation (CBO) and NGO available at the subward, 3 representatives from Subward’s Health, and Environment committees, 1 prominent elderly person with good knowledge of the neighbourhood, 1 prominent young person with good knowledge about the neighbourhood and 1-6 shina leaders. These participants were chosen following gender balance, religion, social relations and their local knowledge of the neighborhood—and 6 student mappers to facilitate the process. Student mappers split community members into three groups, each group guided by two students.

The discussion was based on three major key points:

  1. Assets (Important things in the subward)
  2. Assets under threats (in case the subward floods)
  3. Main causes of flood in the subward

To develop a complete detailed map the following process was followed:

  • Mapping all important features in the subward in collaboration with community members using free Android Applications such as OpenDataKit and OpenMapKit—This component was true to the wards that were not previously mapped by Ramani Huria.
  • Data Entry, Cleaning and Map Making using QGIS to prepare first draft maps to be used in community meetings.
  • Conducting community meeting using the first draft maps as guide basemaps in risk identification.
  • Collecting missing data that community members mentioned and were not found on the map using ODK and OMK.
  • Lastly, cleaning the collected data, writing reports of the meetings and producing maps that correspond with the reports.

Over 300 university students with guidance from 12 supervisors during the 2018 Industrial Training, after receiving two weeks’ worth of training in community engagement, data collection tools, and map making. More detailed descriptions to the methodology and human resources that were used in the Assets and Threats project can be found in the Community Asset and Threat Handbook.

Statistics

A total of 5020 asset points, road and road names and 1538 landmarks were collected during the project. These include:

Points of Interest Total number of points collected
Assets at risk but not important 28
Evacuation centers 42
Important assets and at risk 857
Important assets but not at risk 4,093
Roads and road names (ways) 65,868
Landmarks 1,538

Points that were used as evacuation centers were mostly government facilities such as schools, subward and ward offices, open areas and also religious institutions. For areas with no evacuation centers, residents would evacuate to their neighbors and relatives.

Data Visualization

Asset and Threat Mapping, 2018

Data for Waste Management

To support waste management in the city, Ramani Huria conducted a number of activities and provided data that supported cleanup during the World Clean-up Day in 2018. The team also went further into working with trash collection companies and providing support for tracking their clients and creating effective systems of waste collection on three pilot wards. The pilot was done in both formal and informal settlement.

Trash Points Mapping in Dar es Salaam

On 2018-07-30 to 2018-08-03 Ramani Huria collaborated with Nipe Fagio (“give me the broom” in Swahili), a civil society organisation founded in 2013, to map trash sites in Dar es Salaam. The trash mapping initiative was part and parcel of the large Let’s-Do-It-World campaign, a civic-led mass movement to clean up countries.

The mapped data helped to identify the locations of the areas with poorly managed waste materials, type and size of waste and clean up methods. This process helped ease cleaning the city on September 15th, 2018, a celebration of World Clean Up Day.

Spatial Extent
ID Ward Name ID Ward Name ID Ward Name ID Ward Name ID Ward Name
1 Buguruni 11 Kigogo 21 Magomeni 31 Mikocheni 41 Sinza
2 Buza 12 Kijitonyama 22 Makongo 32 Msasani 42 Tabata
3 Charambe 13 Kimanga 23 Makuburi 33 Msigani 43 Tandale
4 Gongo la Mboto 14 Kimara 24 Makumbusho 34 Mwananyamala 44 Tandika
5 Hananasif 15 Kinondoni 25 Makurumla 35 Mzimuni 45 Temeke
6 Ilala 16 Kinyerezi 26 Manzese 36 Ndugumbi 46 Ubungo
7 Jangwani 17 Kipawa 27 Mbezi 37 Pugu 47 Ukonga
8 kariakoo 18 Kunduchi 28 Mburahati 38 Sandali 48 Upanga Mashariki
9 Kawe 19 Kwembe 29 Mchikichini 39 Saranga 49 Upanga Magharibi
10 Kigamboni 20 Mabibo 30 Mianzini 40 Segerea 50 Vingunguti
Map showing wards mapped for the trash mapping initiative in Dar es Salaam
Methodology

Using OpenDataKit to collect trash points in the city and filling out the survey on the type of waste (debris, glass, metal), and the size of trash (hand full, bag full, truckload, cart etc) to ease cleaning process. Before field work, introduction letters were sent to ward officers so they can be in- formed and for mappers’ security in case there is any assistance needed from the ward office.

Statistics

A total of 20,392 points were collected and reduced to 9,452 after cleaning.

Data Visualization
Trash points collected in 50 wards in Dar es Salaam

Trash Mapping in Formal Settlement

Ramani Huria and Green Waste Pro Ltd. (GWPL) partnered in August to November 2018 to provide datasets for waste management. Green Waste Pro is a private company specialized in waste management with the aim to offer eco-friendly solutions in cleaning and waste management. They mostly operate in formal settlements. The company needed digital methodology to obtain clients’ information including locations, clients contacts etc, so they can track clients and provide services accordingly.

Spatial Extent
ID Ward Name
1 Gongo la Mboto
2 Kisutu
3 Kivukoni
4 Mchafukoge
Map showing the mapped wards with GreenWaste Pro Limited
Methodology

Collection of building data for each structure and resident/client data for each unit (residence or business) within the buildings in Kisutu and Mchafukoge wards in Dar es Salaam. Robust barcode stickers were placed at the entry of each unit, and a survey was completed for each unit where possible. The building data was uploaded to OSM, along with some amenity information gleaned from the unit surveys, and the remainder of the per-unit data was provided to GWPL.

Statistics

A total of 4706 clients mapped. Around 4500 client data points are used by the company to collect trash.

Data Visualization
Detailed collected points at Kisutu Ward
Dashboard for GWPL Client Tracking System


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Trash Mapping in Informal Settlement

Ramani Huria partnered with Joshemi Company Limited (JCL), a company dealing with trash collection in Tabata ward with eight subwards therein. JCL needed to know the number of clients as it was very difficult to track them all revenue flow and an effective feedback system on services provided by the company. The aim was shifting JCL’s analogue system of trash collection to a digital system by providing them with their own maps of clients’ locations and a system of tracking them. This way, JCL would improve their services to clients, increase their revenues and create an effective waste collection mechanism.

Spatial Extent

2 pilot subwards (Msimbazi Magharibi and Msimbazi Mama) out of eight subwards in Tabata ward.

Methodology

OpenDataKit (ODK) Collect and OpenMapKit (OMK) an extension of ODK which is a free and open android application for data collection were used. The team worked with revenue collectors to map the clients as they have a better understanding of the area to simplify the process of data collection.

Ramani Huria team switched to working with local community leaders (wajumbe) who better understand their area of administration which normally ranges from 30 to 200 households. Among other things, wajumbe are responsible for allocating resident leases and titles, therefore were able to provide clients’ details even when the clients were absent. Tabata ward is 50% informally developed hence most houses do not have house numbers. In order to connect the buildings’ geo locations with client information we developed unofficial numbers as a baseline for the use of collected data.

A system to track the monthly income revenue of the clients was created as a final output of the data. This was created in a Google spreadsheet containing client details and wajumbe names. The Ramani Huria team trained JCL revenue collectors how to update the monthly income generation column in the spreadsheet. The sheet was also integrated to OMK to ensure every customer is reached by the revenue collectors.

A team of 4 student volunteers working with revenue collectors from JCL to collect clients’ information in the 2 subwards—Msimbazi Magharibi and Msimbazi Mama—in Tabata ward. A detailed description on how the project was conducted, achievements, challenges and next plans for the trash mapping in informal settlements can be found in the Tabata Trash Mapping Report.

Statistics

20163 client points collected in 2 subwards of Tabata ward.

Data Visualization
Client distribution, houses and hyperlocal boundaries in Msimbazi Magharibi Subward, Tabata Ward
Client distribution, houses and hyperlocal boundaries in Msimbazi Mama Subward, Tabata Ward


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Building Footprint Digitization

Re-digitization of the city was conducted to update and improve the quality of already digitized layers using imagery with 10cm resolution provided by the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Human Settlements, which was done bythe consulting firm COWI. Previously the city was digitized using either Bing, Mapbox or Maxar (formerly Digital Globe) imagery, all of which have lower resolutions compared to the COWI imagery.

Aligning buildings with a higher resolution image of 10cm provided by COWI company using Mbtiles created in GDAL (gdaladdo)—a utility used to build or rebuild overview images. Using the 2016 COWI imagery in combination with the HOT Tasking Manager, buildings were re-digitized in JOSM and validation of the re-digitization was done by the validation team.

Spatial Extent

28 out of 44 Ramani Huria prioritized wards in Dar es Salaam have been re-digitized.

ID Ward Name ID Ward Name ID Ward Name ID Ward Name
1. Upanga Mashariki 13. Upanga Magharibi 25. Kimanga 37. Segerea
2. Makurumla 14. Kinondoni 26. Tandale 38. Kurasini
3. Mburahati 15. Pugu 27. Kijitonyama 39. Msasani
4. Sandali 16. Buguruni 28. Tabata 40. Temeke
5. Vingunguti 17. Makumbusho 29. Saranga 41. Kwembe
6. Mzimuni 18. Makuburi 30. Mwananyamala 42. Makongo
7. Magomeni 19. Msigani 31. Mchafukoge 43. Kipawa
8. Mchikichini 20. Kinyerezi 32. Ilala 44. Kunduchi
9. Jangwani 21. Hananasifu 33. Mikocheni 45. Kawe
10. Mabibo 22. Gongo la Mboto 34. Kariakoo 46. Manzese
11. Gerezani 23. Keko 35. Ndugumbi 47. Kigogo
12. Kimara 24. Sinza 36. Ubungo 48. Ukonga
28 prioritized Ramani Huria wards re-digitized

Methodology

Aligning buildings with higher resolution image of 10cm provided by COWI company using Mbtiles created in GDAL (gdaladdo)—a utility used to build or rebuild overview images. Supervisors of the team created mapping projects on HOT Tasking Manager which were then assigned to the digitization team. Using the 2016 COWI imagery, buildings were re-digitized in JOSM and validation of the re-digitization was done by the validation team.

25 digitizers who participated in this activity were just part of 100 that were trained to digitize buildings on the mini-grids project in early 2018. They were trained for 3 weeks in order to achieve good quality data. Based on the skills that they obtained, they have been participating in mapping buildings and roads as well.

Statistics

Before redigitization, buildings were fewer in number compared to after redigitization using the 2016 high resolution COWI imagery, this was due to different facts including:

  • The imagery that were used before were not very clear, hence when digitizing the buildings, some would blur or would be mistaken for other features such as cars.
  • The imagery used were outdated compared to the 2016 COWI imagery. In this case, the number of buildings had increased over the years.
Analytics of the buildings and roads mapped from 2014-2019
Buildings Roads
Year Number of Buildings Year Kilometers of Roads
2014 3,386 2014 2,501
2015 3,491 2015 3,079
2016 302,810 2016 4,754
2017 460,169 2017 5,949
2018 946,936 2018 17,895
Present 1,004,267 Present 18,069

Data Visualizations

Magomeni ward before re-digitization using UAV imagery
Magomeni ward after re-digitization using UAV imagery

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Hyperlocal Administrative Boundary Mapping

Shinas, are divisions within subwards regarded as political boundaries administered by local leaders (wajumbe). Previously referred to as Ten Cell divisions as they were originally comprised of ten households, these divisions now comprise of 30 to 200 households due to the increase in population. Wajumbe are increasingly functioning as non-partisan public servants, often the first point of interaction between the government and citizens.

Given the rate of urbanization in Dar es Salaam, it is very difficult to locate people and their respective addresses due to the unplanned and informal settlements nature of these communities. Using more granular boundaries, however, makes it easier to locate people and provide services more precisely. The Ramani Huria team mapped hyperlocal boundaries in Dar es Salaam from September to December, 2018

Spatial Extent

36 out of 44 prioritized Ramani Huria wards in Dar es Salaam.

ID Ward Name ID Ward Name ID Ward Name ID Ward Name
1. Tandale 10. Makurumla 19. Mchikichini 28. Mnyamani
2. Hananasifu 11. Upanga Mashariki 20. Jangwani 29. Buguruni
3. Kinyerezi 12. Kigogo 21. Magomeni 30. Kimanga
4. Temeke 13. Ukonga 22. Mzimuni 31. Pugu
5. Ubungo 14. Kipawa 23. Tabata 32. Liwiti
6. Ndugumbi 15. Kinondoni 24. Gongo la Mboto 33. Segerea
7. Ilala 16. Kimara 25. Makuburi 34. Kisukuru
8. Sandali 17. Upanga Magharibi 26. Manzese 35. Vingunguti
9. Mburahati 18. Mabibo 27. Kariakoo 36. Pugu Station
Wards mapped by Ramani Huria collaboration with Data Zetu in the Hyperlocal Administrative Boundaries Mapping

Methodology

  • Introduction of the project from subward offices followed bytraining of selected community mappers on how to use ODK.
  • Trained mappers worked with wajumbe to trace their administrative boundaries. The boundaries were traced using ODK trace and then added to QGIS for further processing. With assistance from supervisors, the collected data is checked and uploaded to the server.
  • Data cleaning was done using excel and map creation using QGIS.

Mapping of the hyperlocal administrative boundaries was done by 15 student volunteers with guidance from community members, mainly wajumbe and subward officers.

Statistics

The Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team under the Ramani Huria project was able to map more than 3000 hyperlocal boundaries in Dar es Salaam with the sole focus of incorporating a layer of health access information and issues to flood plans. This will better inform emergency responders and flood response plans.

Data Visualization

Hyperlocal boundaries mapped in Dar es Salaam

Soil Sediment Sampling

Ramani Huria and JBA Consulting partnered in October 2018 to develop a surface soil sediment dataset for the greater Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania. This was intended to support a geomorphological assessment taking into account soil sediment characteristics for erosion and flood risk studies. A national-level soil profile had existed for Tanzania prior to this effort but contained only a single sample from Dar es Salaam. This was not sufficient to analyze erosion potential across the city.

Spatial Extent

Dar es Salaam and neighboring districts of Pwani region i.e. Bagamoyo, Kibaha and Kisarawe.

A geo-referenced set of soil sediment profiles in Dar es Salaam and Pwani regions

Methodology

A 2km by 2km grid for site selection was created. A set of data was recorded at each site using OpenDataKit’s Android application ODK Collect. Each field sampling team of two people carried the following equipment: trowel or small shovel, plastic “ziploc” bags with 1 kg capacity, Android phone pre-loaded with ODK Collect, a separate maps and navigation application, Maps.me—pre-loaded with the locations to be visited, first aid kit, marker pens, permission letter for the sampling activity from the municipal authorities and a tape measure.

A geomorphologist provided training to the team and set up our own citizen-style (local) lab to analyze the soil samples. The pair of samples—top and bottom—from each site was passed through a set of progressively finer-mesh sieves, resulting in nine separate fractions. Each fraction was weighed. The resulting measurements, which represent the proportion of each sediment particle size at each site, were recorded.

In the office, materials were used for analysis: a set of metal sieves, scales, hand wash station and gloves, brush, cloth and towel for cleaning sieves, an Android phone with ODK Collect and sieving survey.

A team of 14 recent university graduates; 10 were field mappers to collect soil data and 4 office technicians to do analysis (sieving and measurements) were trained in two days by JBA Consulting. A detailed Soil Sediment Sampling Wiki was prepared by the HOT team explaining all the procedures that were conducted by the team to obtain sediment material from all over the city and some parts of Pwani region.

Statistics

731 soil sample points created using a 2 km grid. 643 points sampled and sieved; 88 sample points were either inaccessible or hard to collect sample e.g. paved areas, military base.

Data Visualization

A detail of the map showing the soil particle size in Dar es Salaam. The upward-facing histogram bars represent the top (surface) samples, and the downward-facing bars represent the bottom samples.

Community Flood Response

As a response to heavy rainfall in March and May 2019 which resulted to heavy flooding in some wards of Dar es Salaam, the Ramani Huria team conducted field mapping to engage affected communities with the aim of conducting a rapid assessment and producing impact maps. With reference to the past flood responses done in the city, the Ramani Huria team led the way to identify effects in the communities and create maps to help responders on the ground. The team responded by visiting flooded areas to assess the impact.

Through using a local leaders’ contact database that contains more than 3000 phone numbers, the team was able to contact these local leaders to remotely identify the subwards affected and the effects. This information will be used to conduct a damage assessment of the affected areas. The data has been shared with the Red Cross in Tanzania, which will help them to prepare for the next rainy season and for risk prevention analysis.

Spatial Extent

ID Ward Name
1. Hananasifu
2. Jangwani
3. Tandale
Wards mapped during the March community flood response
Wards mapped during the May flood response
1 Mwananyamala 8 Tabata
2 Kigogo 9. Mzimuni
3 Kunduchi 10. Saranga
4 Vingunguti 11. Liwiti
5 Mnyamani 12. Manzese
6 Mabibo 13. Kimara
7 Tandale 14. Makumbusho

Methodology

Meetings with ward leaders in the three most affected subwards and zone the affected areas on a printed map with tracing paper and calculate the number of affected houses. Field visit to survey the affected area and take points to verify what community leaders zoned on the map.

A team of volunteers reached several wards in Dar es Salaam to collect data on affected buildings in the rains that hit the city on March and May, 2019. The team used printed maps to work with the community members to determine the affected areas. The team prepared a detailed Community Flood Response report that explains all the activities conducted during both flood responses in Dar es Salaam city.

Statistics

The survey conducted in 3 wards in Dar es Salaam by the Ramani Huria team showed that a total of 1907 houses were flooded during the heavy rains in March.

An overview summary of wards and subwards affected during the heavy rains in March, 2019
Ward Subward Total number of houses flooded
Hannanasifu Mkunguni B 150 houses
Tandale Mkunduge 1100 houses
Tandale Sokoni 230 houses
Jangwani Mtambani 427 houses
Total 1907 houses

After the rains that hit Dar es Salaam city in May, 2019, the Ramani Huria team conducted a community flood response in 14 wards which showed that a total of 7263 buildings were flooded with 80 buildings completely destroyed and infrastructure (roads, storm water drains) left destroyed.

An overview summary of wards and subwards affected during the heavy rains in May, 2019
S/N Ward Subward # of buildings flooded S/N Ward Subward # of buildings flooded
1 Mwananyamala Bwawani 1130 buildings 14 Tabata Msimbazi 161 buildings
2 Kigogo Mbuyuni 1151 buildings 15 Vingunguti Majengo 150 buildings
3 Kunduchi Kilongawima 615 buildings 16 Mwananyamala Kwa kopa 138 buildings
4 Vingunguti Mtambani 520 buildings 17 Manzese Uzuri 112 buildings
5 Mnyamani Faru 469 buildings 18 Tabata Mandela 111 buildings
6 Mabibo Mabibo Farasi 419 buildings 19 Mwananyamala Msisiri A 100 buildings
7 Tandale Muhalitani 371 buildings 20 Kunduchi Pwani 70 buildings
8 Tabata Tenge 360 buildings 21 Kimara Mavurunza 64 buildings
9 Mwananyamala Msisiri B 274 buildings 22 Kigogo Kigogo kati 62 buildings
10 Mzimuni Mwinyimkuu 233 buildings 23 Manzese Mvuleni 55 buildings
11 Saranga Stop over 211 buildings 24 Makumbusho Mbuyuni 50 buildings
12 Vingunguti Miembeni 209 buildings 25 Kimanga Tembomgwaza 38 buildings
13 Liwiti Amani 190 buildings 26 Kijitonyama Mpakani B 0 buildings
Total 7263 buildings

Data Visualization

Flood response map at Mandela Subward in Tabata Ward, 2019

Ramani Huria Base Data

Ramani Huria teams collect and create a wide range of base-map data, which primarily go to the OpenStreetMap platform. This is the underlying map layer upon which specific datasets important to resilience are overlaid—the equivalent of common web based maps such as Google Maps, but freely available open data backed by a global community and extensive quality assurance.

This includes roads, buildings, health care facilities, schools and universities, transportation infrastructure such as bus stops and Rapid Transit lines, businesses such as restaurants, shops, salons and hotels, public offices, recreation facilities, natural features such as rivers and wetlands, parks, etc. This data is being constantly updated as the physical features of the city change and evolve, as well as when users or the community choose to focus on a particular feature type (for example, if a local agency wishes to visualize where people get drinking water, volunteers—including Ramani Huria students—may specifically focus on features relevant to that need for a time.

Most Ramani Huria data is available on OpenStreetMap, but specific resilience related datasets (including most of those described in the preceding sections) are collated in static for to platforms such as the Resilience Academy GeoNode. The base data described here is not generally kept in a static form, but is viewed on the OpenStreetMap website or accessed via tools such as the HOT Export tool or Overpass API. These tools provide an up-to-the minute snapshot of the latest data at any time, and are therefore preferable to static repositories.

Spatial Extent

OpenStreetMap is a global map! There is no particular boundary or extent to this data. However, the Ramani Huria team's efforts are focused on greater Dar es Salaam, with a particular focus on the 49 Ramani Huria 2.0 wards (just about 50\% of the wards in the city):

ID Ward Name ID Ward Name ID Ward Name ID Ward Name ID Ward Name
1. Bonyokwa 11. Kimanga 21. Magomeni 31. Msasani 41. Sinza
2. Buguruni 12. Kimara 22. Makongo 32. Msigani 42. Tabata
3. Gongo la Mboto 13. Kinondoni 23. Makuburi 33. Mwananyamala 43. Tandale
4. Hananasifu 14. Kinyerezi 24. Makumbusho 34. Mzimuni 44. Temeke
5. Ilala 15. Kipawa 25. Makurumla 35. Ndugumbi 45. Ubungo
6. Jangwani 16. Kisukuru 26. Manzese 36. Pugu 46. Ukonga
7. Kariakoo 17. Kunduchi 27. Mburahati 37. Pugu Station 47. Upanga Magharibi
8. Kawe 18. Kwembe 28. Mchikichini 38. Sandali 48. Upanga Mashariki
9. Kigogo 19. Liwiti 29. Mikocheni 39. Saranga 49. Vingunguti
10. Kijitonyama 20. Mabibo 30. Mnyamani 40. Segerea

Methodology

Ramani Huria base data is collected and created using a range of tools in the OpenStreetMap and Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team ecosystem, including but not limited to:

  • The Java OpenStreetMap Editor (JOSM)
  • OpenDataKit (ODK) Collect
  • OpenMapKit (OMK)
  • ID Editor
  • HOT Tasking Manager
  • QGIS

The two main categories of data creation are remote mapping and field mapping. Remote mapping is done using aerial or satellite imagery, usually with the JOSM tool, a desktop editing software that provides a comprehensive suite of tools for viewing imagery and creating vector features upon the raster background.

Ramani Huria teams alongside global OpenStreetMap volunteers have digitized essentially every visible feature in the aerial imagery of the greater Dar es Salaam city, including over one million individual buildings and virtually all roads.

Field mapping, usually using OpenDataKit or its derivative OpenMapKit, involves physically visiting features to add local information such as road names, building type, amenities, etc.

Ramani Huria teams sometimes directly digitize base data from aerial or satellite imagery, particularly when there is a specific need. However, more often the Ramani Huria supervisors teach and mentor volunteers to digitize, either during the Industrial Training programs or during mapathon events.

The Ramani Huria motto has been "Local People, Local Devices, Open Knowledge." The key to the success of the project has been empowering citizens of Tanzania to map their own environment. While some field mapping━such as the technically demanding drainage mapping━is carried out directly by Ramani Huria teams, much of the work is done by students during the Industrial Training programs, or even by community members themselves, who are trained to use OpenDataKit and encouraged (often with a small stipend or donation of mobile credit) to survey their own neighborhoods.