Dar es Salaam/Ramani Huria

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Ramani Huria is a community-based mapping project that began in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, training university students and local community members to create highly accurate maps of the most flood-prone areas of the city. As the maps have taken shape – their benefits have multiplied and their potential magnified, now serving as foundational tools for development within all socio-economic spheres beyond flood resilience.

Data collected as part of Ramani Huria conforms to a model. The Data Model specifies what types of attributes are collected, what answers are possible, and the style in which they are displayed on the OpenStreetMap website's rendering, Ramani Huria's own atlases (essentially QGIS styles), and the Government of Tanzania data portal. The model consists of three basic layers:

  1. Items that appear in the OpenStreetMap standard rendering, and therefore conform to an essentially universal schema - they should look, by and large, identical in the street map in any country. Examples include the usual classifications of roads and buildings; the usual elements of the street map.
  2. Items that conform to OpenStreetMap standard tagging, but don't necessarily render on the standard map style. These should nevertheless be invariant across multiple countries and contexts. Examples include drainage, which does not appear in detail as part of the usual street map style, but is nevertheless universal and should be tagged consistently regardless of the local context.
  3. Items that are specific to the local context, which do not (fully) appear in the OpenStreetMap standard rendering and are not particularly universal, but which are useful to support the specific goals of the local project and community. Examples include local health-care infrastructure which is organized in a context-specific fashion by the national Ministry of Health, or administrative divisions that don't easily fit into an Adm1, Adm2, Adm3 schema.

OpenStreetMap core features

Streets

Key Value Comment OSM style Street Map Atlas style Drainage Atlas style Flood Extent Atlas style Photo
highway trunk Major arteries, always paved and double-lane with median. There are only two or three of these in Dar es Salaam. Examples include Nyerere Road, Morogoro Road, and Ali Hassan Mwinyi Road. Rendering-highway trunk L3005 MF.png Rendering-highway trunk L3005 MF.png Rendering-highway trunk L3005 MF.png Rendering-highway trunk L3005 MF.png Nyere road.jpg
primary Major roads in the city. Always paved. Usually double-lane. Examples include Kawawa and Kilwa roads. Rendering-highway primary neutral.png Rendering-highway primary neutral.png Rendering-highway primary neutral.png Rendering-highway primary neutral.png Kilwa Road.jpg
secondary Connecting roads in the city. Paved, usually single-lane. Examples include Nelson Mandela and Kigogo roads. Rendering-highway secondary neutral.png Rendering-highway secondary neutral.png Rendering-highway secondary neutral.png Rendering-highway secondary neutral.png Kigogo Road.jpg
tertiary Roads connecting the primary and secondary roads into neighbourhoods. Often paved, but not universally so. Examples include Aga Khan road. Rendering-highway tertiary neutral.png Rendering-highway tertiary neutral.png Rendering-highway tertiary neutral.png Rendering-highway tertiary neutral.png Tertiary road.jpg
unclassified Mostly small residential roads in informal neighborhoods. Sometimes paved for the first few meters off the larger roads, but otherwise unpaved. Not usually gridded, rather meandering. Rendering-highway unclassified.png Rendering-highway unclassified.png Rendering-highway unclassified.png Rendering-highway unclassified.png Unclassified road in Kivulini.jpg
residential Small residential roads in planned neighbourhoods. Usually arranged in a recognisable grid. Sometimes paved for the first few meters off the larger roads, but otherwise unpaved. Rendering-highway residential.png Rendering-highway residential.png Rendering-highway residential.png Rendering-highway residential.png Residential road.jpg
footway Walking (or in a pinch, cycling or motorcycling) paths through neighbourhoods. Tend to meander between buildings. Too narrow and rough for car traffic. Path osm.png Path osm.png Path osm.png Path osm.png Footway.jpg
Key Value Comment Example image
name [Name of Street] Street name. If formal, recorded as is.
name:informal [Name of Street] Used in case there is no formal name allocated to the street, but the residents have an informal name or descriptor (usually a well-known landmark or the name of a high-profile family or resident of the street). Displayed in the Ramani Huria atlas in parentheses to differentiate it from the formal name.
surface asphalt Tarmac, blacktop pavement.
concrete Cement mixed with rocks and sand.
unpaved Dirt, gravel, or sand.
cobblestones Small squared stones arranged in a relatively level surface
smoothness good Possible to drive consistently at the speed limit without worrying about imperfections
intermediate Occasional imperfections requiring caution or slow passage
bad Many imperfections, not possible to drive consistently at the speed limit
very_bad Impossible to ever drive at the speed limit, better to use 4-wheel drive
horrible You'll know it when you see it.
width [dimension in meters] The distance in meters from one side of the driving surface to the other.
ele:relative [elevation in meters] The elevation of the road surface above the surrounding land
oneway yes (direction of traffic, NOT the number of lane)
no Cars may proceed in either direction
bridge yes Elevated pathway over watercourse
viaduct (add layer=1)
description [text] Optional field; if there is some important attribute of the road not captured in the above fields, this field should be used to briefly describe it.

Buildings

Key Value Comment
addr:city Dar es Salaam The name of the metropolitan area itself.
addr:municipality [Name of Municipality] Within the city there are municipalities; in the case of Dar es Salaam these include Ilala, Ubungo, Kinondoni, Kigamboni, and Temeke.
addr:ward [Name of Ward] Within the municipalities there are Wards (Kata in Swahili). Corresponds to Admin level 3 in GADM or level 7 in the OSM schema.
addr:sub-ward [Name of Sub-Ward] Within the Wards there are Sub-Wards (Mtaa in Swahili). Corresponds to Admin level 4 in GADM or level 9 in the OSM schema.
addr:shina [Number of Shina] Within the Sub-Wards there are areas administered by local officials known as Wajumbe (plural, singular is Mjumbe). These areas are known as Shinas (roughly translates to "Branch" in the sense of bank branch), and are numbered. These are not normally recognized as geographical administrative divisions, but in fact function as such since local citizens are often aware of the name of their Mjumbe, and the area of jurisdiction of a Mjumbe is usually compact and contiguous. The Shina numbers are documented in the Sub-Ward office and associated with a Mjumbe name; citizens typically do not know the number but do know the Mjumbe name. Correspond to level 9 in the osm schema.
addr:street [Name of Street] May be official or unofficial (see discussion of formal and informal street names above)
addr:housenumber [Address of the building] address number of the building, ie 25 or 19A. Often seen on the front of a building, though these may be out of date (and sometimes there are multiple contradictory house numbers).
Key Value Comment OSM style Street Map Atlas style
building residential Functions exclusively or primarily as a residence, without other permanent activities associated with it such as small-scale trading. Many residences have a small kiosk attached to them selling inexpensive items; these should be tagged 'commercial;residential'. Residential building.jpg Makazi.jpg
commercial Functions exclusively or primarily as a place of business, without a permanent resident (a guard sleeping overnight does not count as a residence, even if a mattress is present) Commercial building.png Jengo la Biashara.jpg
commercial;residential Functions as both a residence and a permanent place of business. A common example is a faily home with a small kiosk out front selling small items. Commercial residential.jpg Jengo la Biashara na makazi.jpg
apartments Contains multiple self-contained units, each with a discrete entry and locks. Distinct from a large family dwelling with multiple rooms, kitchens, etc. Apartment building.jpg Jengo la kupanga kwa makazi.jpg
industrial A business that is primarily engaged in production rather than sales, such as a factory, mill, or workshop. Jengo la kiwanda.jpg Industrial building.jpg
public Belongs to some level of government and is open to the public. Example: city hall, a Ward Office, or the Ministry of Lands office. Public building.jpg Public Building.jpg
school Where children go to learn. Jengo la shule.jpg School building.jpg
utility A public infrastructure site such as a power station or water tower. Jengo.jpg Utility.jpg
construction Any building that is currently incomplete, not in use, and under construction. Does not include a building that is in full use, even if construction appears to be ongoing (many Tanzanian buildings are left incomplete more or less permanently, and are fully occupied despite still having rebar stubs on the roof where construction may resume at some time in the future) This tag should be reviewed after several months (or whenever new imagery is available or a site visit is done) to update if construction is finished. Construction building.jpg Ujenzi.jpg
hospital Where sick people go for treatment. Hospital building.jpg Hospital Building.jpg
Key Value Comment Example image
building:material brick A building material consisting of individual squared-off units, typically made from fired clay with organic material mixed in to bind the clay. Bricks are stacked in orderly rows to form walls. Often red in color.
cement_block A building material consisting of individual square blocks, often molded from lime or calcium silicate, typically hollow to reduce weight and material use. Stacked in orderly rows to form walls. Often grey in color.
concrete A mix of cement, sand, and gravel formed into slabs.
glass Transparent material made from silica, typically used for windows, but sometimes used for building material (generally when formed into blocks).
plaster A protective coating material, usually made from gypsum, lime, or cement, covering a load-bearing material and protecting it from the elements.
wood A building material made from trees.
bamboo A building material made from evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae. Appears as round poles with a beige coloring.
metal A hard element with a shiny appearance and good thermal conductivity, or alloys of such. Examples include steel and aluminum.
stone Naturally occurring minerals that can be stacked. May be squared off or not (if not they must be bound in a cement mortar to avoid the wall crumbling).
earthen Soil compacted into a hard building material.
waste_material Trash such as plastic bottles or old tires.
building:roof tiles
concrete
metal
wood
plastic
grass
building:structure confined_masonary
reinforced_masonary
steel_frame
wood_frame
bamboo_frame
mud_made
waste_material
Key Value Comment OSM symbol Atlas POI symbol
amenity atm Automated Teller Machine where people can withdraw cash using a card or mobile money account. ATM.png
bank Business that lends money at interest and provides interest on deposits, as well as providing other financial services. Bank.png
bar Serves alcoholic beverages. Baa.png
cafe Serves caffeinated beverages. Mgahawa.png
clinic Provides primary healthcare services. Clinic amenity.jpg
college Chuo.png
courthouse Mahakamani.png
embassy
fire_station Zima moto.png
fuel Sheli ya mafuta.png
hospital Hospitali.png
kindergarten
library
marketplace Market Place.png
parking
place_of_worship
pharmacy Famasi.png
police Askari.png
post_office
pub
public_building
restaurant Mkahawa.png
school School.png
townhall
Key Value Comment
shop alcohol
art
bakery
beauty
beverages
bicycle
books
butcher
car
car_parts
car_repair
chemist
clothes
convenience
copyshop
cosmetics
doityourself
electronics
furniture
greengrocer
hairdresser
houseware
jewellery
kiosk
mobile_phone
pastry
salon A hairdressing and beautification service for women. Distinct from "Saloon," which is a drinking establishment typically associated with the American Old West. Nevertheless, many salons in Tanzania feature signs advertising "Saloon" but should be tagged as shop:salon.
shoes
stationary
supermarket
tailor
building:levels [Number of levels in the building] The ground floor is 1
building:age post_2000
pre_2000
building:condition poor
good
office company
government
insurance
lawyer
political_party
tourism attraction
guest_house,
hotel
hostel
motel
museum
name [Name of Building]
description [Description of Building] Optional: if there is some attribute of the building that is not captured by the above tags, it should be described here.

Drainage

Ditch

This refers to unlined trenches that are part of, or connect to, the city's drainage system.

Key Value Comment OSM style Drainage Atlas style Flood Extents Atlas style Government of Tanzania style Photo
waterway ditch Drain ditch open.jpg
covered yes
no
blockage dirt
concrete
rubbish
no
width [Number of meters wide]
depth [Number of meters deep]

Drain

The dimensions here are measured using tapes and staffs. Surveyors collect most dimensions in cm, which are then converted into decimal meters prior to placement in OSM in order to maintain consistent units.

Key Value Comment OSM style Sketch Photo
waterway drain Drains are ubiquitous in Dar es Salaam, and are not well-mapped. Challenged include placing drains correctly parallel to roads (GPS tracks tend to meander in and out of the roadway) and identifying various point features (vertical pipes/pools, connections, culverts, incoming building drains, blockages, etc). 2D&3D.png Drain open trapezoid clean.jpg
covered yes Concrete covered drain.png Drain cover concrete panel handles.jpg
no Uncovered trapezoid drain.png Drain open trapezoid 3.jpg
covered:material concrete Concrete slab covering drain Concrete Covering Slab.png Concrete covering slab missing.jpg
grating Metal grating or grill; can be seen through but not fallen through Sketch Grating drain Cover.png Drain grating metal covered.jpg
metal Solid metal covering
wood Wood covering over drains, often made by local residents or businesses
material concrete
steel
asphalt
sand
plants
trees
gravel
blockage dirt
concrete
solid_waste Point blockage solid waste.jpg
no
width [Number of meters wide] If profile is rectangular or boxed_rectangular
width_top [Number of meters wide at top] If profile is trapezoidal or elliptical
width_bottom [Number of meters wide at bottom] If profile is trapezoidal
depth [Number of meters deep]
profile open_rectangular Rectangular drain profile.png Drain rectangular concrete.jpg
tabulated A drain profile with multiple angles; to measure the cross-sectional area several widths are necessary along with depth. Tabulated drains.png Tabulated drain.jpg
trapezoid Trapezoid profile.png Drain trapezoid silted high sides.jpg
elliptical Elliptical drain profile 2.png Elliptical drain.jpg
trapezoid_elliptical Very common in Dar es Salaam; essentially a trapezoidal drain with a concave, curved bottom (usually made from curved concrete slabs). To measure the cross-sectional area the top and bottom width of the trapezoidal section must be measured (the bottom width being along the imaginary line across the top of the elliptical section), and two depth measurements: the overall depth and the depth of the elliptical section only (from the imaginary line across the top of the elliptical section to the bottom of the drain). Trapezoid elliptical drain profile.png
Trapezoid with elliptical base.png
ele [Elevation - Number of meters above sea level] Cannot be reliably assessed by OSM mappers, therefore we use ele:relative_to_road (see below). If and when a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is available, elevation will be calculated.
ele:relative_to_road [elevation difference to nearest road surface in meters] As OSM mappers do not usually have a method of measuring absolute elevation with the precision required for a drain, we measure the elevation difference to the nearest road surface. If and when a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is available, the road surfaces tend to be fairly accurate and can then be used to calculate the absolute elevation of the nearby drain using this difference.

Underground drain

Note: it may not be obvious that an underground drain can be mapped! However, often a culvert or a short segment of drain that passes through an obstacle can be mapped by looking at the start and endpoints. In the event that the trajectory of an underground drain cannot be reliably assessed, only the start and endpoints will be taken as point features (see next table).

Key Value Comment OSM style Sketch Photo
waterway drain
AND
tunnel yes
culvert If feature is a culvert Culvert Tunnel.png Culvert2.jpg
layer -1 (why -1?)
profile round Round profile.png Round culvert entrance.jpg
boxed_rectangular Boxed Rectangular.png Rectangular culvert.jpg
channels [integer number of channels - only needed if more than 1 channel] Often rather than a single culvert pipe, large drains widen out before passing through a roadway, and have multiple pipes/channels. If they are identical in profile and size, it is easier for hydrologists to manage if the crossing is simply labelled as multi-channel, rather than attempting to map all channels as separate lines. Multipe channel.png Drain culvert multichannel.jpg
diameter [Number of meters in diameter] if profile is round
width [Number of meters width] if profile is boxed_rectangular
height [Number of meters height] if profile is boxed_rectangular
material concrete Concrete culvert.jpg
steel_corrugated Culvert metal blockage partial.jpg
steel_smooth
blockage dirt
concrete
solid_waste
no
ele [Elevation - Number of meters above sea level] Cannot be reliably assessed by OSM mappers, therefore we use ele:relative_to_road (see below). If and when a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is available, elevation will be calculated.
ele:relative_to_road [elevation difference to nearest road surface in meters] As OSM mappers do not usually have a method of measuring absolute elevation with the precision required for a drain, we measure the elevation difference to the nearest road surface. If and when a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is available, the road surfaces tend to be fairly accurate and can then be used to calculate the absolute elevation of the nearby drain using this difference.

Drainage point feature

There are a number of features along drains in Dar es Salaam that occur at a specific point rather than along the whole line segment. These include features such as silt traps, small-diameter entry pipes from nearby buildings, bridges, pump sites, culvert entries, or areas in need of repair. These are nodes, rather than lines, and may or may not be rendered in the street map or atlas styles.

Key Value Comment Photo
waterway drain:silt_trap Vertically-walled pools, somewhat deeper than the drains themselves, where water slows down and silt settles in a single spot where it is easily removed. Silt trap.jpg
drain:culvert_entrance Point where a drain goes underground - to be used where the culvert cannot be mapped as a line segment (as when the culvert is too long to reliably know where it goes underground). If the culvert can be reliably mapped as a line segment, that should be done instead of using this tag.
drain:outflow Point where a drain empties into a water body such as a stream, river, lake, or ocean.
drain:ends A place where a drain appears to stop without any outflow (on the downhill side)
drain:begins A place where a drain or ditch begins (on the uphill side)
drain:pipe_inflow Drains frequently have small-gauge pipes entering them from nearby buildings.
drain:building_drain A place where a building's drainage outflow (a drain, not a pipe) enters the drain
drain:bridge A small pedestrian bridge where people can cross the drain. This tag specifically refers to a bridge that is not part of an existing road or track (if the bridge is part of an existing road or footway trace, it does not need to be rendered as a point feature). May be concrete, as in the case of those installed by the drain installers, or a wooden structure placed by local residents or businesses. Walkway over drain concrete.jpgWalkway wooden bridge pedestrian.jpg
drain:crossing Any crossing that hasn't been identified in some other way (i.e. not a culvert or ditch).
drain:needs_repair
ele:relative_to_road [elevation difference to nearest road surface in meters] As OSM mappers do not usually have a method of measuring absolute elevation with the precision required for a drain, we measure the elevation difference to the nearest road surface. If and when a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is available, the road surfaces tend to be fairly accurate and can then be used to calculate the absolute elevation of the nearby drain using this difference.

Public water source

Key Value Comment OSM style Atlas style Photo
addr:city Dar es Salaam
addr:street
amenity drinking_water
water_point
name
man_made water_tower
water_well
water_tap
bore_hole
water_pump
protected_spring
water_works
water_tank
pump powered
manual
no
pump:active yes
no
natural creek
stream
spring
water
drinking_water yes
no
operational_status operational
needs_maintenance
closed
out_of_order

Public toilets

Key Value Comment OSM style Atlas style Government of Tanzania style Photo
addr:city Dar es Salaam
addr:street
amenity toilets
toilets:disposal flush
pitlatrine
bucket
chemical
toilets:access public
permissive(private but access is not restricted)
customers
wheelchair yes
no
limited
fee yes
no
cost [Value of fee]
name [Name of toilet]
toilets:num_chambers [Number of toilets]
operator [Name of operator] For example: "Ilala Municipal Council" or "Tandale Sacco"
opening_hours [Opening hours of toilet] In a 24 hours, ranged format: 08:30­15:45
toilets:handwashing yes
no

Solid waste

Key Value Comment OSM Style Drainage Atlas style Flood Extents Atlas style Government of Tanzania style
addr:city Dar es Salaam
addr:street
amenity waste_disposal
recycling
waste_basket
waste trash For trash/rubbish
organic Compost or food waste
oil For motor oil, diesel and emulsions
operator <name of operator>
landuse dump

Open areas

Key Value Comment OSM style Atlas style Government of Tanzania style
addr:city
addr:street
landuse brownfield Brownfield is a piece of land that has been previously built up and then cleared (a good example is the large field in Ndugumbi where they have been launching the drones).
greenfield Greenfield describes undeveloped land scheduled for development
cemetery
grass
park
playground
recreation_ground
natural water
wetland Ramani Huria's focus is flood resilience, and therefore emphasises mapping historical flood extents. For the moment, we include these in the database as wetlands.
name <name of open area>

Administrative boundaries

Key Value Comment OSM style Atlas style Government of Tanzania style
admin_level [Administration level] 9 = ward

10 = subward

boundary administrative
name [Name of Ward]
place ward; subward

Education

Key Value Comment OSM style Atlas style Government of Tanzania style
addr:city Dar es Salaam
addr:street
addr:housenumber
name <name of facility>
amenity kindergarten
school
college
university
opening_hours <days/time of opening>
contact:phone
operator <name of operator(operating authority)>
operator:type government
ngo
community
religious
public
private
religion christian
muslim
sikh
hindu
capacity <number of student/pupills>
fee yes
no
building:levels
building condition

Healthcare

Key Value Comment OSM style Atlas style Government of Tanzania style
addr:city Dar es Salaam
addr:street <street name>
addr:housenumber
name
amenity hospital
clinic
doctors
dentist
pharmacy
traditional
nature clinic_no_beds
clinic_beds
first_referral_hospital
second_referral_hospital
tertiary_hospital
scope all
specialized
general_acute_care
rehabilitation_care
hospice_care
ancillary_services operating_theater
laboratory
imaging_equipment
intensive_care_unit
emergency_department
activities medicine
surgery
maternal_care
pediatric_care
mental_care
social_care
bed_count (for hospitals,clinics;the number of beds)
emergency yes
no
dispensing yes
no
opening_hours <days/times of opening>
operator
operator:type government
ngo
community
religious
public
private
healthcare:specialty community
emergence
general
women
traditional
paediatrics
contact:phone
staff_count:doctors
staff_count:nurses
description

Services

Religious facilities

Key Value Comment OSM style Atlas style Government of Tanzania style
addr:city Dar es Salaam
addr:street
amenity place_of_worship
name
religion christian
muslim
buddhist
jewish
hindu
sikhi
denomination catholic
orthodox
protestant
pentecostal
sunni
shia
sufi
building cathedral
mosque
chapel
church
service_times <time of services>

Shops and markets

Key Value Comment OSM style Atlas style Government of Tanzania style
addr:city Dar es Salaam
addr:street
amenity marketplace
shop alcohol
art
bakery
beauty
beverages
bicycle
books
butcher
car
car_parts
car_repair
chemist
clothes
convenience
copyshop
craft
cosmetics
doityourself
electronics
furniture
greengrocer
hairdresser
hardware
houseware
jewellery
kiosk
laundry
mobile_phone
pastry
shoes
stationary
supermarket
tailor
video
name
opening_hours
contact:phone

Offices

Key Value Comment OSM style Atlas style Government of Tanzania style
addr:city Dar es Salaam
addr:street
office government
company
political_party
ngo
charity
estate_agency
telecommunication
travel_agent
lawyer
insurance
name
opening_hours
contact:phone
description

Financial services

Key Value Comment OSM Style Atlas style Government of Tanzania style
addr:city Dar es Salaam
addr:street
amenity mobile_money_agent
bureau_de_change
bank
microfinance_bank
atm
sacco
money_transfer
post_office
name <name of facility>
operator CRDB Bank
National Microfinance Bank (NMB)
Stanbic Bank Tanzania Limited
National Bank of Commerce (Tanzania)
Standard Chartered Bank
Barclays Bank of Tanzania
Exim Bank (Tanzania)
Akiba Commercial Bank
Commercial Bank of Africa (Tanzania)
Covenant Bank For Women
network Tigo Pesa
MPESA
Airtel Money
HaloPesa
ZPESA
Visa
MasterCard
Maestro
Interswitch
Western Union
MoneyGram
Remit
<if atm>

visa,mastercard,maestro,interswitch, other?

opening_hours
building:levels
building

Other points of interest

Safety and security (police, fire services), tourism, fuel stations, communications towers, etc.

Key Value Comment OSM style Atlas style Government of Tanzania style
addr:city Dar es Salaam
addr:street
amenity bar
cafe
car_wash
cinema
community_centre
courthouse
embassy
fast_food
fire_station
fuel
gym
library
parking
police
post_office
prison
pub
restaurant
social_centre
social_facility
studio
theatre
townhall
veterinary
tourism hotel
motel
guest_house
museum
attraction
camp_site
gallery
hostel
information
picnic_site
viewpoint
rooms <number of rooms available in a hotel,guesthouse etc>
beds <number of beds available in a hotel,guesthouse etc>
fuel <type of fuel;electric,petrol,diesel,kerosene>
operator <company running the amenity>
studio audio
video
television
radio
man_made yes
communications_tower
mast
tower
contact:phone <phone number>
name