Dar es Salaam/Ramani Huria
Ramani Huria is a community-based mapping project that began in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, training university students and local community members to create highly accurate maps of the most flood-prone areas of the city. As the maps have taken shape – their benefits have multiplied and their potential magnified, now serving as foundational tools for development within all socio-economic spheres beyond flood resilience.
Data collected as part of Ramani Huria conforms to a model. The Data Model specifies what types of attributes are collected, what answers are possible, and the style in which they are displayed on the OpenStreetMap website's rendering, Ramani Huria's own atlases (essentially QGIS styles), and the Government of Tanzania data portal. The model consists of three basic layers:
- Items that appear in the OpenStreetMap standard rendering, and therefore conform to an essentially universal schema - they should look, by and large, identical in the street map in any country. Examples include the usual classifications of roads and buildings; the usual elements of the street map.
- Items that conform to OpenStreetMap standard tagging, but don't necessarily render on the standard map style. These should nevertheless be invariant across multiple countries and contexts. Examples include drainage, which does not appear in detail as part of the usual street map style, but is nevertheless universal and should be tagged consistently regardless of the local context.
- Items that are specific to the local context, which do not (fully) appear in the OpenStreetMap standard rendering and are not particularly universal, but which are useful to support the specific goals of the local project and community. Examples include local health-care infrastructure which is organized in a context-specific fashion by the national Ministry of Health, or administrative divisions that don't easily fit into an Adm1, Adm2, Adm3 schema.
- 1 OpenStreetMap core features
- 1.1 Administrative Levels
- 1.2 Streets
- 1.3 Buildings
- 1.4 Drainage
- 1.5 Public water source
- 1.6 Public toilets
- 1.7 Solid waste
- 1.8 Open areas
- 1.9 Education
- 1.10 Healthcare
- 1.11 Services
- 1.12 Other points of interest
OpenStreetMap core features
|addr:city||Dar es Salaam||The name of the metropolitan area itself.|
|addr:municipality||[Name of Municipality]||Within the city there are municipalities; in the case of Dar es Salaam these include Ilala, Ubungo, Kinondoni, Kigamboni, and Temeke.|
|addr:ward||[Name of Ward]||Within the municipalities there are Wards (Kata in Swahili). Corresponds to Admin level 3 in GADM or level 7 in the OSM schema.|
|addr:sub-ward||[Name of Sub-Ward]||Within the Wards there are Sub-Wards (Mtaa in Swahili). Corresponds to Admin level 4 in GADM or level 9 in the OSM schema.|
|addr:shina||[Number of Shina]||Within the Sub-Wards there are areas administered by local officials known as Wajumbe (plural, singular is Mjumbe). These areas are known as Shinas (roughly translates to "Branch" in the sense of bank branch), and are numbered. These are not normally recognized as geographical administrative divisions, but in fact function as such since local citizens are often aware of the name of their Mjumbe, and the area of jurisdiction of a Mjumbe is usually compact and contiguous. The Shina numbers are documented in the Sub-Ward office and associated with a Mjumbe name; citizens typically do not know the number but do know the Mjumbe name. Correspond to level 9 in the osm schema.|
|addr:street||[Name of Street]||May be official or unofficial (see discussion of formal and informal street names above)|
|addr:housenumber||[Address of the building]||address number of the building, ie 25 or 19A. Often seen on the front of a building, though these may be out of date (and sometimes there are multiple contradictory house numbers).|
|building:levels||[Number of levels in the building]||The ground floor is 1|
|building:age||post_2000||Building built after the year 2000.|
|pre_2000||Building built before the year 2000.|
|building:condition||poor||A building in a very bad or poor condition.|
|good||A building in a good condition, mostly modern buildings.|
|name||[Name of Building]||N/A|
|description||[Description of Building]||Optional: if there is some attribute of the building that is not captured by the above tags, it should be described here.|
This refers to unlined trenches that are part of, or connect to, the city's drainage system.
The dimensions here are measured using tapes and staffs. Surveyors collect most dimensions in cm, which are then converted into decimal meters prior to placement in OSM in order to maintain consistent units.
Note: it may not be obvious that an underground drain can be mapped! However, often a culvert or a short segment of drain that passes through an obstacle can be mapped by looking at the start and endpoints. In the event that the trajectory of an underground drain cannot be reliably assessed, only the start and endpoints will be taken as point features (see next table).
Drainage point feature
There are a number of features along drains in Dar es Salaam that occur at a specific point rather than along the whole line segment. These include features such as silt traps, small-diameter entry pipes from nearby buildings, bridges, pump sites, culvert entries, or areas in need of repair. These are nodes, rather than lines, and may or may not be rendered in the street map or atlas styles.
Public water source
|Key||Value||Comment||OSM Style||Drainage Atlas style||Flood Extents Atlas style||Government of Tanzania style|
|waste_basket||A single small container for depositing garbage that is easily accessible for pedestrians.|
|organic||Compost or food waste|
|oil||For motor oil, diesel and emulsions|
|operator||<name of operator>|
Shops and markets
|Key||Value||Comment||OSM style||Atlas style||Government of Tanzania style|
|office||government||An office of a national, regional or local government agency or department||N/A||N/A|
|company||An office of a private company.||N/A||N/A|
|political_party||An office of a political party.||N/A||N/A|
|ngo||An office for a non-government organisation.||N/A||N/A|
|charity||An office of a charitable organization.||N/A||N/A|
|estate_agency||Arranges the selling, renting, or management of properties and other buildings.||N/A||N/A|
|telecommunication||An office for a telecommunication company||N/A||N/A|
|travel_agent||An office providing travel related products and services||N/A||N/A|
|lawyer||An office for a lawyer, solicitors, notaries, attorneys and many other local variations.||N/A||N/A|
|insurance||An office at which you can take out insurance policies.||N/A||N/A|
Other points of interest
Safety and security (police, fire services), tourism, fuel stations, communications towers, etc.