Import/Catalogue/Aviation Obstacle Import Norway
This import provides mobile towers and other aviation obstacles for Norway.
- 1 Goals
- 2 Schedule
- 3 Import Data
- 4 Data Preparation
- 5 Data Merge Workflow
- 6 QA
- 7 Import list
- 8 See also
The goals of this import are to:
- Add vertical structures which are currently not present in OSM, in particular mobile towers (less than 5% of mobile towers in Norway are currently in OSM). The objects in the dataset are prominent and visually conspicuous structures.
- A secondary goal is to include tagging (lighting, obstacle heights) which is useful for aviation purposes such as x-plane flight simulation and for seamarks.
2018-04-14: Import plan submitted for review to the Norwegian OSM forum - Link
2018-04-18: Import plan submitted for review to the Import mailing list.
2018-04-30: Import to OSM completed.
Vertical structures higher than 15 meters in rural areas and higher than 30 meters in urban areas are required to be included in the dataset by law.
Data source site: Dataset provided by kartverket.no
Data license: CC-BY 4.0
Type of license (if applicable): Permission
Link to permission (if required): Explicit permission obtained 2014-08-18 - Permission
OSM attribution (if required): kartverket.no
ODbL Compliance verified: Yes, explicit permission obtained
OSM Data Files
All files are provided in this folder.
The original dataset is provided by Kartverket as GML files, one file per county. All obstacles except power lines have been extracted from the GML files and are provided as OSM files in the folder. Three counties have been tagged according to the tagging plan below for proof of concept and may be seen in the Pilot_import.osm file (not all objects have been included).
Update: There is now a python program which is used to extract the data from Kartverket for updates: obstacle2osm
Data Reduction & Simplification
Only nodes are provided for the obstacles so there is no need for simplification. The power lines are not included in this import.
Tagging for each obstacle type is described here. Traditional OSM tags, typically man_made=* features, will be used for the main objects. Objects with status=FJ (removed) and K (razed) will not be imported.
The table below shows tagging for attributes which are common across the different obstacles.
|Attribute||Original data||OSM tagging||Comment|
|Name||vertikalObjektNavn||name=*||Name given to the structure. Lowercase.|
|Reference||vertikalObjektNavn||ref=*||If the name is a number only it should be put in ref=* instead of name=*|
|Height||vertikalUtstrekning||height=*||Vertical length of structure|
|Elevation||posisjon/z||ele=*||Elevation at terrain level/foot of the structure.
Please check that maalested=FOT. If maalested=TOPP, the height of the structure must be subtracted. If neither ele nor height is known, then put the the top elevation in the top_ele tag.
||aeroaway:light=obstacle||The structure has a warning light. If lys=L then this is the only tag describing the light.|
||Colour of the light|
||Light intensity type according to ICAO light type|
|ICAO light type||
||ICAO light type according to Annex 14 volume 1, chapter 6. Full colour/character attributes must also be specified as shown above.|
The table below shows tagging for installasjon=Telemast, i.e. masts and towers used for communication. Please see the workflow section below for how to distinguish between the various tower and communication types.
|Attribute||Original data||OSM tagging||Comment|
|Tower type||tower:type=communication||For all objects in this category except radar stations.|
|Communication type||(derived from other sources)||communication:mobile_phone=yes||The tower is used as a mobile network base station (RAN). Most objects in the dataset are base stations unless observed otherwise on aerials. May be verified using finnsenderen.no.|
|communication:television=yes||The tower is used for the Norkring DTT network (TV broadcasting). Identified in NTV/RiksTV maps for DTT.|
|communication:microwave=yes||The tower has large microwave link antennas (not just smaller antennas for feeding the tower itself). Identified on aerials.|
|communication:radio=yes||The tower is used for the Norkring DAB network or for local FM broadcasting or for other radio transmissions. Identified using finnsenderen.no or in other sources.|
|The tower is used for shortwave or AM radio transmissions. Identified on Wikipedia or other sources.|
|communication:amateur_radio=yes||The tower is used for amateur radio transmissions. Identified on aerials or other sources.|
|Tower structure||(observed on aerials)||
||Construction type of the tower. Identified on aerials.|
|Building||building=tower||Free standing tower and communications_tower could be drawn as a building (not lattices)|
The table below shows suggested tagging for each obstacle type. Aerials will be used to identify and decide how to tag each obstacle.
|Attribute||Original data||OSM tagging||Comment|
||May need to identify and possibly map specific part of building, e.g. church tower.|
|Most cranes in the dataset have temporary locations at construction sites and should not be imported into OSM. They are quite easy to spot on aerials.|
||Many power stations are mapped already|
|Lighthouse||installasjon=Fyrtårn||All lighthouses in Norway are already in OSM with heights.
Please add obstacle lights, ele and height.
|May need to identify and possibly map building part|
|Offshore platform||installasjon=Oljerigg||Only for stationary platforms off shore, not during construction in a yard|
|Fixed balloon||installasjon=Forankret ballong|
|Power line||installasjon=Kraftledning||Not imported. Separate import which is also based on NVE data.|
|Wind farm||installasjon=Vindmøllepark||As above but for an area|
|Ski jumping tower||installasjon=Hopptårn||man_made=tower
|Petroleum facility||installasjon=Petroleumsinnretning||Only for stationary platforms off shore, not during construction in a yard|
|Surface lift (ski)||installasjon=Skitrekk||aerialway=draglift|
|Amusement park facility||installasjon=Fornøyelsesparkinnretning||man_made=tower|
The changesets will be tagged with "Imported <object type> for <county>", "source=Kartverket Luftfartshindre" and "source:date=2018-02-05" using import user accounts.
A few minor transformations have been done:
- Elevation has been extracted from the xyz coordinates in the dataset.
- Name has been moved to ref if it is a number only.
Data Transformation Results
The OSM files after transformation are included in this folder.
Data Merge Workflow
Volunteers from the Norwegian OSM community will do the import, county by county.
The web service finnsenderen.no displays all mobile and tv/radio towers for a given geographical location.
The 47 main communication towers are listed here. They constitute the Norkring backbone network.
All obstacles in the dataset are available as a WMS service.
- Please make a new entry in the Import List section at the end of this page to notify others that you have started importing a county.
- Load the prepared osm file in JOSM
- Delete all objects with status=FJ or K (they do not exist anymore)
- For each obstacle category in the dataset, use the To-do plugin to walk through each object in the chosen category
- Check the aerials to identify the object on the ground. The shadow of the object may often be seen in the aerials.
- Move the object to a more correct location if that can determined using the aerials. Inspect the N50 topo imagery in JOSM to check if you need to modify ele=* after moving the object.
- If the obstacle cannot be verified using the aerials, then check other sources such as finnsenderen.no for communication towers/masts. If the obstacle still cannot be verified, then exclude it from the import.
- If maalested=TOP then the height of the structure must be subtracted from ele=*. If the height of the tower is not known, them set top_ele to the elevation.
- Specifically for communication towers/masts (Telemast):
- The majority of these obstacles are man_made=mast + tower:type=communication + communication:mobile_phone=yes. They often have a small building located next to the mast. Examples of structures to look for in the aerials: Google image search mobilmast
- The largest towers are candidates for man_made=tower. Look for clues like large free standing structures in the aerials, prominent locations on elevated terrain, a service road leading to the tower and large microwave antennas on the tower.
- For a free standing concrete tower structure, tag with man_made=tower + tower:construction=freestanding.
- For a lattice tower structure with four legs, tag with man_made=tower + tower:construction=lattice.
- Include communication:microwave=yes if large microwave antennas may be identified on the aerials. Towers which are part of the Norkring backbone network carries microwave antennas.
- The towers should always have tower:construction tagging. It will impact how they are rendered.
- Please also check installasjon=Tårn to find a few more of the largest Norkring towers.
- Include communication:tv=yes if the tower/mast is identified on the WMS service for TV towers.
- Some obstacles are radio amateur structures or private tv antennas. They often lack the small building next to the mast and the antennas look different than for all the other communication masts. Tag with communication:radio_amateur=yes, or with man_made=antenna for private tv receiver antennas.
- Some Telemast obstacles are radar stations. Look for the rotating horizontal radar bar at the top and tag it with tower:type=radar.
- Specifically for cranes (Kran):
- The majority of cranes are located temporarily at construction sites and should be excluded from the import. The construction site may in most cases be identified on the aerials, or it can be determined that the site in question is not likely to be a port or another permanent location for a crane.
- For mobile cranes on rail there will often be two or more objects, for example one at each end of the rail and one or more in between. Tag with crane:mobile=rail.
- For each obstacle category, conflate with existing data in OSM and upload.
- In a different layer, download all corresponding objects from OSM using for example Overpass API.
- Using the Conflation plugin in JOSM, select existing features as subject and the corresponding obstacles in the dataset as reference.
- Work through the matches one-by-one and decide how to deal with conflicting tags and locations.
- Then copy the other new obstacles which did not match any existing objects into the new layer.
- Delete non-OSM tags
- Upload to OSM from the new layer containing the existing and conflated objects.
- Repeat 4-7 for the other obstacle categories.
- Update the import list at the end of this page to let others know that the county import has been completed.
Conflation will be done using the Conflation plugin in JOSM as described in the Workflow section.
Imported communication masts/towers may be seen on openinframap.org.
Please list here the county you plan to import + date for start end completion of the county import.
The import has not started yet, except for pilot imports in Aust-Agder, Vest-Agder and Telemark counties.
The following counties has been made ready for import of communication towers/masts: Telemark, Vestfold, Buskerud, Akershus, Oslo, Østfold, Hedmark, Oppland, Møre- og Romsdal, Sogn og Fjordane.
- Forskrift om rapportering, registrering og merking av luftfartshinder - Related law regarding the obligation for owners of air obstacles to update the dataset
- Produktspesifikasjon Luftfartshindre - Product specification for the dataset
- ICAO Annex 14 Volume 1 Chapter 6 - Obstacles - ICAO definition and requirements for lighting of aviation obstacles
- AIXM data model - Obstacles - AIXM data model for describing aviation obstacles
- finnsenderen.no - All TV/radio transmitters and mobile base stations in Norway (including rooftops)
- NTV map - Overview of DTT transmitters in Norway
- Main communication towers in Norway - Candidates for man_made=tower (in Norwegian)
- Norwegian AM transmitters - Ditto (in Norwegian)
- Avinor AIP Norway - Please see "Visual Approach Chart" for each aerodrome
- obstacle2osm - Python program for extracting the obstacles from Kartverket and for generating the OSM files