|Informações sobre a superfície física de estradas, caminhos, trilhas e áreas.|
|Usado nestes elementos|
|Situação: não definido|
A chave surface=* é uma etiqueta (tag) adicional que descreve o material que compõe a superfície de uma via. Os dois valores mais comuns são surface=paved como denominação genérica para vias pavimentadas, e surface=unpaved quando não há pavimentação.
Há uma variedade de outros valores que descrevem em detalhe a superfície (veja a tabela abaixo), mas cada um destes valores fazem parte de um dos dois grupos surface=paved e surface=unpaved. Por exemplo, surface=asphalt para vias asfaltadas pertence ao grupo surface=paved, enquanto surface=ground para vias em leito natural fazem parte do grupo surface=unpaved
Importante: na ausência da etiqueta surface=* assume-se o valor surface=paved, ou seja sem esta etiqueta a via é considerada pavimentada. Isto é particularmente problemático em paises onde o número de vias não-pavimentadas excede as vias com pavimentação.
A visualização de vias pavimentada/não-pavimentadas varia conforme o software de visualização, mas a tendência é mostrar as vias em cores diferentes dependendo do tipo de superfícies. A maioria dos roteadores leva em consideração a existência da etiqueta surface=*, reduzindo a prioridade das vias com surface=unpaved ou similar.
Mapeamento por imagens de satelite
É difícil determinar por imagens de satélite a composição do material da via. Neste caso use apenas valores genéricos como surface=paved (normalmente preto-azulado) e surface=unpaved (marrom ou marrom claro). Não assuma que seja asfaltada se for escura já que estradas pavimentadas com paralelepípedos (surface=cobblestone) também podem ter esta coloração. Estradas em cascalho (surface=gravel) também podem ter coloração escura nas fotos de satélite.
maxspeed:practical=* descreve a velocidade máxima em que uma via pode ser percorrida na prática, normalmente este valor é inferior ao oficial.
|surface||paved||A highway feature is predominantly paved along its length; i.e., it is covered with paving stones, concrete or bitumen. This value gives only a rough description; use a more precise value if possible.|
|surface||asphalt||This is actually short for asphalt concrete. It does not mean that the road surface is only asphalt. Most such roads are tagged as less clear surface=paved.|
|surface||sett||Sett paving. Sett surface is formed from stones quarried or worked to a regular shape. In OSM, this is a subset of "cobblestone", and it is far more common to tag these surfaces with surface=cobblestone instead.|
|surface||concrete||Cement based Concrete, forming a large, continuous surface, typically cast in place. For pre-fabricated plates, please use surface=concrete:plates or surface=concrete:lanes if you know how the concrete is laid out and one of these tags fits.|
|surface||concrete:lanes||Long, narrow concrete plates laid out for a two-tracked vehicle (motorcars) so that the tires always hit the concrete. There might be sand, ground, grass, pavers, asphalt, etc. in between them. note that if you tag a single-tracked way you just use surface=concrete, since there are no lanes.|
|surface||concrete:plates||Heavy duty plates chained closely together on the short side. Might have tar or sand in between the connections.|
|surface||paving_stones||Paving stones describe a relatively smooth surface paved with concrete or other artificial or natural stones, with a flat top. The gaps between the paving stones are smaller because the stones have a perfectly regular shape (rectangular, or any surface-filling shape).|
|surface||cobblestone||Cobblestone paving. "Cobblestone" is used in the colloquial meaning here, and therefore includes the type of stones that would more precisely be called "setts".|
|surface||cobblestone:flattened||One of three tags used to describe sett surface. This is neither a correct name, like sett (cobblestone is by definition not shaped into any form), nor a colloquially used name, like cobblestone.|
|surface||metal||Used for bridges, or for temporary tracks over fields for normal road vehicles or site traffic.|
|surface||wood||Used for bridges, plank walkways, and garden decking|
|surface||User defined||All commonly used values according to Taginfo.|
|surface||unpaved||A highway feature is predominantly unsealed along its length; i.e., it has a loose covering ranging from compacted stone chippings to earth. Unpaved roads may, in aerial imagery, show evidence of water along their course; in such circumstances, the waterway should not be tagged as a stream, though it might appear as such. This value gives only a rough description; use a more precise value if possible.|
|surface||compacted||A mixture of larger (e.g., gravel) and smaller (e.g., sand) parts, compacted (e.g., with a roller), so the surface is more stable than loose gravel. Used, for example, for park paths, better tracks, some service ways, … Best sort of ways below paving with asphalt, concrete, paving stones. Sometimes known as water-bound macadam. Mixture and compacting leads to more grip and stability.|
|surface||dirt||Probably very similar to surface=ground. Like all this, it is prone to erosion and therefore often uneven. Gravel is sometimes mistakenly called dirt. Some compacted roads are sometimes called dirt too, please consider the definition of surface=compacted.|
|surface||earth||Probably a type of surface=ground. Usually natural, but may also apply to artificial preparations of soil. Duplicate of surface=dirt.|
|surface||grass||Grass covered ground. Mostly nice to walk. Less prone to erosion than pure ground. Might degrade through heavy usage.|
|surface||grass_paver||A sort of permeable paving using regular cell structure, where the voids in this structure enable rainwater to drain into the ground and the structure itself increases the load bearing capability. Often used for parking lots or infrequent used ways like for emergency-vehicles.|
|surface||gravel_turf||It is a mostly 30cm thick one layer surface pavement. It consits out of natural gravel (or recycling materials for construction) and is mixed with soil. On top grasses and herbs are planted. In the end it is a green but also compacted surface with a high level of water infiltration. It is used for example for parking areas, fairgrounds or campsites.|
|surface||fine_gravel||A multilayer pavement with a stone or gravel basis and a topmost surface of firm, granular grit, basalt or quartz, as invented by the Roman empire. Easy to walk, jog, cycle or ride on. In hilly areas mostly with drainage channels and concave cross-section for proper water shedding. Motorized vehicles will not move stones if the way is maintained properly, and bicycles tires will not leave any imprints at least in dry weather. If the topmost surface is heavily eroded or loose gravel aggravate going please use surface=gravel instead.|
|surface||gravel||Broken/crushed rock with sharp edges, known as ballast on railways. Usually loosely arranged. Typical size for road and surface construction range between 4 and 8 cm. Gravel can be used as a ground-layer for surface=compacted.|
|surface||ground||No special surface, the ground itself has marks of human or animal usage. This value gives only a rough description; if possible, use a more precise value such as grass, clay, sand, earth, gravel, pebblestone or rock.|
|surface||ice||Ice roads, winter roads|
|surface||mud||Similar to surface=ground but most of the year wet which gives a soft ground with low carrying capacity. Mostly found on wetland like swamps or in tidal areas. Sometimes also found on slopes draining onto a way.|
|surface||pebblestone||Pebbles are stones rounded by waves or river flow. Typical size range from 2 to 8 cm. Describing a surface in OSM they are loosely arranged. Like gravel pebbles can be used as a building part of surface=compacted.|
|surface||sand||Small to very small fractions (less than 2mm) of rock.|
|surface||woodchips||Woodchips as a surface|
|surface||User defined||All commonly used values according to Taginfo.|
|Special (sports, etc.)|
|surface||tartan||A synthetic, all-weather surface typically used in running and other sport tracks. Although Tartan is a trademark, it is used as a generic term due to its widespread usage.|
|surface||artificial_turf||An all-weather surface made from synthetic fibres to look and feel like natural grass. Often used for tracks and pitches of sports such as football, baseball, etc.|
|surface||decoturf||DecoTurf is an artificial surface used for some tennis courts.|
|surface||clay||Most common on tennis courts. Sometimes used for other sports: soccer, athletic tracks, boules, etc.|
|surface||metal_grid||Metal grids are often used as a surface on industrial-style bridges or stairs. When wet, the surface can become very slippery, especially for bikes. The surface can also be unsuitable for dogs, due to the sharp edges and the look-through effect.|
This table is a wiki template with a default description in English. Editable here.