Converting to WGS84
OpenStreetMap uses the GPS units. However, many other coordinate systems also exist and are in widespread use, depending on the region and application. Every country tends to use its own standard or preferred coordinate system; so that the maps for that region are as undistorted as possible and the coordinates are reasonably simple to use. These coordinates need to be converted to WGS-84 before being used in OSM.coordinate system, as do most
Potlatch 2 and JOSM
The map editors, Potlatch 2 and JOSM (via the OpenData plugin), are both technically able to convert between coordinate systems, however the number supported is very limited. In Potlatch use Background->Vector File..., and in JOSM File->Open.
Proj is a library and command-line tool for Linux and Unix systems. It is available at http://trac.osgeo.org/proj/ , and is included in many Linux distributions.
Geotrans is an open-source GUI and command-line tool which can be used to convert between most coordinate systems. It is available for Windows and Linux, at http://gcmd.nasa.gov/records/GEOTRANS.html . It is also included in some Linux distributions as the geotranz package.
QGIS is a free GIS application that can be used to convert between Coordinate Reference Systems (CRS) in two simple steps. First, open the input data making sure to select the correct CRS. Finally, use Layer->Save As... to export the layer with a different CRS (you may choice between the 'Project CRS' or select a CRS from QGIS's extensive list).
There are several online services for converting coordinates.
Converting to and from BMN using proj.4 on meridian strips
M28: +proj=tmerc +lat_0=0 +lon_0=10d20 +k=1 +x_0=150000 +y_0=-5000000 +ellps=bessel M31: +proj=tmerc +lat_0=0 +lon_0=13d20 +k=1 +x_0=450000 +y_0=-5000000 +ellps=bessel M34: +proj=tmerc +lat_0=0 +lon_0=16d20 +k=1 +x_0=750000 +y_0=-5000000 +ellps=bessel
In order to convert between WGS84 and MGI add
You cannot use "proj" directly but have to use "cs2cs" instead. Only this "allows translation between any pair of definable coordinate systems, including support for datum translation" (from the man-page of proj).
An example for M28 looks like this:
cs2cs +proj=tmerc +lat_0=0 +lon_0=10d20 +k=1 +x_0=150000 +y_0=-5000000 +ellps=bessel \ +towgs84=577.326,90.129,463.919,5.137,1.474,5.297,2.4232 \ +to \ +proj=longlat +ellps=WGS84 +datum=WGS84
There are two projection systems used in Belgium : Lambert 72 and Lambert 2008.
Lambert 72: +proj=lcc +lat_1=51.16666723333333 +lat_2=49.8333339 +lat_0=90 +lon_0=4.367486666666666 +x_0=150000.013 +y_0=5400088.438 +ellps=intl +towgs84=-99.059,53.322,-112.486,0.419,-0.830,1.885,-1 Lambert 2008: +proj=lcc +lat_1=51.16666723333333 +lat_2=49.8333339 +lat_0=90 +lon_0=4.367486666666666 +x_0=150000.013 +y_0=5400088.438 +ellps=intl +towgs84=-106.8686,52.2978,-103.7329,-0.3366,0.457,-1.8422,-1.2747 +units=m +no_def
There are several projection systems used in France, depending on the use (just an area/the whole land) and the current standards (yes, it's a mess...). The IGN detailed it.
Here are the EPSG codes for Metrolitan France :
- Lambert Zone I = (ESPG:"Lambert Nord") code EPSG:27561
- Lambert Zone II = (ESPG:"Lambert Centre") code EPSG:27562
- Lambert Zone III = (ESPG:"Lambert Sud") code EPSG:27563
- Lambert Zone IV = (ESPG:"Lambert Corse") code EPSG:27564
- Lambert I Carto = (ESPG:"Lambert zone I") code EPSG:27571
- Lambert II Carto/étendu = (ESPG:"Lambert zone II étendu") code EPSG:27572
- Lambert III Carto = (ESPG:"Lambert zone III") code EPSG:27573
- Lambert IV Carto = (ESPG:"Lambert zone IV") code EPSG:27574
Converting to and from OS Grid (OSGB), using the
PROJECTION "proj=tmerc" "lat_0=49.000000000" "lon_0=-2.000000000" "k=0.999601" "x_0=400000.000" "y_0=-100000.000" "ellps=airy" "towgs84=375,-111,431,0,0,0,0" END
See gps.gov.uk for the calculations behind this.
Coordinates used in Israel are mostly Israeli Transverse Mercator. The unit of measurement is meters.
+proj=tmerc +lat_0=31.73439361111111 +lon_0=35.20451694444445 +k=1.0000067 +x_0=219529.584 +y_0=626907.39 +ellps=GRS80 +towgs84=-24.0024,-17.1032,-17.8444,-0.33009,-1.85269,1.66969,5.4248 +units=m +no_defs
Coordinates used in The Netherlands are mostly Rijksdriehoek coordinates (Amersfoort / RD new). The unit of measurement is meters. The EPSG code is 28992.
+proj=sterea +lat_0=52.15616055555555 +lon_0=5.38763888888889 +k=0.9999079 +x_0=155000 +y_0=463000 +ellps=bessel +units=m +no_defs
Spanish publications generally use ED50 (Geotrans ref EUR-D), UTM 31 north.
Converting to and from RT90, Using the proj tool.
# from GPS (15.806283 == 15d48.377) $ proj -r +ellps=WGS84 +proj=tmerc +lat_0=0 +lon_0=015d48.377m +k=1.0000056 +x_0=1500064.1 +y_0=-668.0 # from RT 90 $ invproj -r +ellps=WGS84 +proj=tmerc +lat_0=0 +lon_0=015d48.377m +k=1.0000056 +x_0=1500064.1 +y_0=-668.0