Map internationalization (India)

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India has hundreds of native languages, scheduled in 22 primary languages by the Indian Constitution[1]; 99 primary languages are still not scheduled, and may be pending addition, but may have limited recognition only in some States or Union territories (sometimes only in some districts).[2] Additonally a few other foreign languages are still significantly used with no sign of extinction, or have limited recognition for the preservation of culture or for mutual communication across national and foreign communities (including English throughout the country).

Internationalized OSM map renderings of India

States and Union territories of India 304716 (i J P2).
Note: Telangana is effectively number 29 on this map, out of normal alphabetic order of states names in English. Union territories are indicated by letters.
Scheduled languages in the Constitution of India
Language Usual script
(today in India)
Code Localized maps
Assamese Bengali (Eastern Nagari) as Wikimedia Maps
Bengali (also Bangla) Bengali (Eastern Nagari) bn Wikimedia Maps
Bodo (also Mech) Devanagari brx Wikimedia Maps
Dogri Devanagari doi Wikimedia Maps
Gujarati Gujarati gu Wikimedia Maps
Hindi Devanagari hi Wikimedia Maps
Kannada Kannada kn Wikimedia Maps, MapTiler
Kashmiri Arabic (Nastaliq variant) ks-arab Wikimedia Maps
Devanagari ks-deva Wikimedia Maps
Konkani (Goa) Devanagari gom Wikimedia Maps
Maithili Devanagari mai Wikimedia Maps
Malayalam Malayalam ml Wikimedia Maps
Manipuri (also Meitei or Meithei) Bengali (Eastern Nagari) mni Wikimedia Maps
Marathi Marathi mr Wikimedia Maps
Nepali Devanagari ne Wikimedia Maps
Odia (also Oriya) Odia or Wikimedia Maps
Punjabi Gurmukhi pa-guru Wikimedia Maps
Arabic (Nastaliq variant) pa-arab Wikimedia Maps
Sanskrit Devanagari sa Wikimedia Maps
Santali Ol Chiki sat-olck Wikimedia Maps
Devanagari sat-deva Wikimedia Maps
Sindhi Arabic (Nastaliq variant) sd Wikimedia Maps
Tamil Tamil ta Wikimedia Maps
Telugu Telugu te Wikimedia Maps
Urdu Arabic (Nastaliq variant) ur Wikimedia Maps
Other foreign or cultural languages with limited regional recognition in India
Language Usual script
(today in India)
Code Localized maps
English Latin en Wikimedia Maps
French Latin fr Wikimedia Maps
Kodava Kannada kfa Wikimedia Maps
Kokborok Bengali (Eastern Nagari) trp-beng Wikimedia Maps
Latin trp-latn Wikimedia Maps
Maldivian (also Dhivehi) Thaana dv Wikimedia Maps
Mizo (also Lushai) Latin lus Wikimedia Maps
Portuguese Latin pt Wikimedia Maps
Tulu Kannada tcy Wikimedia Maps

Languages of India by state or Union territory

The following table list the following languages that have a national or local official recognition or are significant minority language kept for preservation of culture; in order to keep the table as compact as possible, the following ISO 639-1 (or ISO 639-3 otherwise) language codes are used to represent them (underlined numbers in cells indicate their relative order of importance in each state or territory, by estimated speakers count, with 1 indicating the most important language used in that area); when a language is not officially recognized locally and there's no estimated count of speakers, no rank is given, but a note is added for the limited usage (this currently applies only to English in some states where the language is not official at state level, and where Hindi is also not used for inter-state communication at national level):

  • (as) Assamese (অসমীয়া)
  • (bn) Bangla (বাংলা)
  • (doi) Dogri (Dogri)
  • (en) English (English)
  • (fr) French (français)
  • (gom) Goan Konkani (गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni)
  • (gu) Gujarati (ગુજરાતી)
  • (hi) Hindi (हिन्दी)
  • (kfa) Kodava (ಕೊಡವ)
  • (kn) Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ)
  • (lus) Mizo (Mizo ţawng)
  • (ml) Malayalam (മലയാളം)
  • (mai) Maithili (मैथिली)
  • (mni) Manipuri (মেইতেই লোন্)
  • (mr) Marathi (मराठी)
  • (ne) Nepali (नेपाली)
  • (or) Odia (ଓଡ଼ିଆ)
  • (pa) Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ)
  • (sa) Sanskrit (संस्कृतम्)
  • (sat) Santali (ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ)
  • (ta) Tamil (தமிழ்)
  • (tcy) Tulu (ತುಳು)
  • (te) Telugu (తెలుగు)
  • (trp) Kokborok (Kókborok ককবরক)
  • (ur) Urdu (اردو)

If additional languages are used in only one state or territory and their recognition is limited to only a part of it for a minority of people, they is indicated with a "+" in the "other" column with a note to list them (these minorities may still be quite large with often more than 1 million people, when compared to official languages of other countries).

India has many more (hundreds) languages: not all of them are recognized, or they are often used along with another locally recognized language for vernacular usage between communities (and sometimes considered minor variants or dialects of another language because they don't benefit of some minimal level of standardization or educational support by local authorities), so their number may increase over time if they get protected by local academic efforts for preservation of their culture, and these local efforts get some constitutional support at national or state level.

State or Union territory Code Official languages (green) and additional languages with limited or local recognition (yellow)[3]
Numbers in cells indicate the rank of importance (by estimated native speakers) of the language for each state or Union territory.

on
map
as bn doi en fr gom gu hi kfa kn lus ml mai mni mr ne or pa sa sat ta tcy te trp ur other
Andhra Pradesh AP [3] 1 01
Arunachal Pradesh AR 1 02
Assam AS 1 2 [3] 3 +[4] 03
Bihar BH 1 3 4 2 04
Chhattisgarh CH 1 05
Goa GA [3] 1 2 06
Gujarat GU 1 2 07
Haryana HR 1 2 08
Himachal Pradesh HP 3 2 1 09
Jammu and Kashmir JK 2 [3] 1 10
Jharkhand JH 1 3 2 11
Karnataka KA [3] 4 3 1 5 2 +[5] 12
Kerala KL 2 1 13
Madhya Pradesh MP 1 14
Maharashtra MH [3] 1 15
Manipur MN 2 1 16
Meghalaya ML 1 +[6] 17
Mizoram MZ 2 3 1 4 18
Nagaland NL 1 19
Odisha OR 2 1 3 20
Punjab PB [3] 1 21
Rajasthan RJ 2 1 22
Sikkim SK 1 +[7] 23
Tamil Nadu TN 2 1 24
Tripura TR 1 2 4 3 25
Uttar Pradesh UP 1 2 26
Uttarakhand UK 1 2 27
West Bengal WB 1 3 2 5 4 +[8] 28
Telangana TG [3] 1 2 29
Andaman and Nicobar Islands AN 2 1 'A'
Chandigarh CH 1 'B'
Dadra and Nagar Haveli DN 2 1 3 'C'
Daman and Diu DD [3] 1 2 3 'D'
Lakshadweep LD 1 2 +[9] 'E'
Delhi DL 2 1 4 3 'F'
Puducherry PY [3] 5 3 1 2 'G'

Translation tools and websites

Notes and references

  1. Census India, Distribution of the 22 scheduled languages, 2001.
  2. Census India, Paper 1 - Languages of India, States and Union Territories (Table C-16) (PDF), 2018
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 In every state or Union territory that does not recognize Hindi as one of their official languages, English is also used as a vernacular interchange language by the population, or English is used for the purpose of official communication of the state or territory with the Union of India.
  4. In Assam, the Bodo (or Mech) language is recognized in the Bodoland Territorial Council areas.
  5. In Karnataka, the Beary (or Byari) language is recognized as a minority language and a symbol of the state.
  6. In Meghalaya, the Khasi and Garo languages are recognized as minority languages.
  7. In Sikkim, ten additional official languages (Bhutia, Gurung, Lepcha, Limboo, Mangar, Mukhia, Newari, Rai, Sherpa and Tamang) are recognized for the purpose of preservation of culture and tradition.
  8. In West Bengal, the Rangpuri (or Kamtapuri) and Kurukh languages are recognized in specific areas.
  9. In Lakshadweep, the Mahl language, a local variety of Maldivian (or Divehi) is also recognized as an official language in Minicoy Island.

See also