|Describes the surface of a feature.|
|Used on these elements|
|Documented values: 1|
|Tools for this tag|
- See also Landcover
To provide additional information about the physical surface of roads/footpaths and some other features, particularly regarding material composition and/or structure. Primarily concerned about the surface in relation to transport and sports and more commonly used on linear features. For broader descriptions of surfaces see Landcover.
For roads for motor vehicles there there is normally an assumption that the surface is surface=paved unless otherwise stated. Paved in OpenStreetMap is non-specific and may cover sealed, metalled, tarmac, asphalt, bitumen. surface=unpaved is treated as the opposite of paved. More specific tags can used used for surfaces which are normally classified into paved or unpaved for routing purposes. Navigation software should assume that roads-that-are-not-paved will have slower driving speed (and therefore longer driving time) and may be impassable in some weather conditions.
smoothness=* is also an important surface property and refers to surface regularity/flatness, regardless of material.
tracktype=* is also an important surface property and refers to surface firmness, regardless of shape.
Rendering software convention varies, but generally roads-that-are-not-paved are shown in a different colour but same width as their paved cousins or use the same colour but are dashed.
Marking surface of road with tag surface without adding it to parallel roads (or adding only tags surface) may lead to unwarranted understating priority of road relative to surrounding- so it is recommended to add also proposed tags smoothness=* and maxspeed:practical=*.
|surface||paved||A highway feature is predominantly sealed along its length; i.e., it is covered with paving stones, concrete or bitumen. This value gives only a rough description; use a more precise value if possible.|
|surface||asphalt||This is actually short for asphalt concrete. It does not mean that the road surface is only asphalt. Most such roads are tagged as surface=paved.|
|surface||cobblestone|| Cobblestones are used as they are, thus they have no regular shape and a rounded top-side (true cobblestone). Pavings with cobblestones are rough and uncomfortable. Have a look at Wikimedia Commons to see a comparison between cobblestone and sett.
In Europe cobblestone is used for setts with a rounded top side ("Kopfsteinpflaster" in german, see this picture as an example). True cobblestones were largely replaced by setts in the 19th century.
|surface||cobblestone:flattened||Consider to use surface=sett instead for flattened stones.|
|surface||sett||Flattened stone. These stones are manufactured to have a regular shape and near flat top-side. From Wikimedia Commons: "relatively even roughly rectangular stones that were laid in regular patterns". This gives relatively smooth surface wíth acceptable comfort.|
|surface||concrete||Specifies surface=paved in greater detail. Please use surface=concrete:plates or surface=concrete:lanes if you know how the concrete is laid out.|
|surface||concrete:lanes||Specifies surface=paved. long, narrow concrete plates laid out for a two-tracked vehicle (motorcars) so that the tires always hit the concrete. There might be sand, ground, grass, pavers, asphalt, etc. in between them. note that if you tag a single-tracked way you just use surface=concrete, since there are no lanes.|
|surface||concrete:plates||Specifies surface=paved. Heavy duty plates chained closely together on the short side. Might have tar or sand in between the connections.|
|surface||paving_stones||Paving stones are equally sized concrete stones, with a flat top. They are comparable to flattened cobblestones (and often used in the same cases), but the gaps between the paving stones are smaller because the stones have a perfectly regular shape (rectangular, or any surface-filling shape). Paving stones are often found in low-traffic streets (like pedestrian zones) because they can't endure heavy traffic.|
|surface||paving_stones:30||Square paving stones with 30cm sides.|
|surface||paving_stones:20||Square paving stones with 20cm sides.|
|surface||User defined||All commonly used values according to Taginfo.|
|surface||unpaved||A highway feature is predominantly unsealed along its length; i.e., it has a loose covering ranging from compacted stone chippings to earth. Unpaved roads may, in aerial imagery, show evidence of water along their course; in such circumstances, the waterway should not be tagged as a stream, though it might appear as such. This value gives only a rough description; use a more precise value if possible.|
|surface||compacted||A mixture of larger (e.g., gravel) and smaller (e.g., sand) parts, compacted (e.g., with a roller), so the surface is more stable than loose gravel. Used, for example, for park paths, better tracks, some service ways, … Best sort of ways below paving with asphalt, concrete, paving stones. Sometimes known as water-bound macadam. Mixture and compacting leads to more grip and stability.|
|surface||dirt||Probably very similar to surface=ground. Like all this, it is prone to erosion and therefore often uneven. This value gives only a rough description; if possible, use a more precise value such as earth, clay or sand. Gravel is sometimes mistakenly called dirt. Some compacted roads are sometimes called dirt too, please consider the definition of compacted.|
|surface||earth||Probably a type of surface=ground. Usually natural, but may also apply to artificial preparations of soil.|
|surface||fine_gravel||A multilayer pavement with a stone or gravel basis and a topmost surface of firm, granular grit, basalt or quartz, as invented by the Roman empire. Easy to walk, jog, cycle or ride on. In hilly areas mostly with drainage channels and convex cross-section for proper water shedding. Motorized vehicles will not move stones if the way is maintained properly, and bicycles tires will not leave any imprints at least in dry weather. If the topmost surface is heavily eroded or loose gravel aggravate going please use surface=gravel instead.|
|surface||grass||Grass covered ground. Mostly nice to walk. Less prone to erosion than pure ground. Might degrade through heavy usage.|
|surface||grass_paver||A sort of permeable paving using regular cell structure, where the voids in this structure enable rainwater to drain into the ground and the structure itself increases the load bearing capability. Often used for parking lots or infrequent used ways like for emergency-vehicles.|
|surface||gravel||Broken/crushed rock with sharp edges, known as ballast on railways. Usually loosely arranged. Typical size for road and surface construction range between 4 and 8 cm. Gravel can be used as a ground-layer for surface=compacted.|
|surface||ground||No special surface, the ground itself has marks of human or animal usage. This value gives only a rough description; if possible, use a more precise value such as grass, earth, clay, sand, gravel, pebblestone or rock.|
|surface||ice||Ice roads, winter roads|
|surface||metal||Sometimes used for bridges, or for temporary tracks over fields for normal road vehicles or site traffic.|
|surface||mud||Similar to surface=ground but most of the year wet which gives a soft ground with low carrying capacity. Mostly found on wetland like swamps or in tidal areas. Sometimes also found on slopes draining onto a way.|
|surface||pebblestone||Pebbles are stones rounded by waves or river flow. Typical size range from 2 to 8 cm. Describing a surface in OSM they are loosely arranged. Like gravel pebbles can be used as a building part of surface=compacted.|
|surface||sand||Small to very small fractions (less than 2mm) of rock.|
|surface||wood||Sometimes used for bridges and plank walkways for foot traffic through swampy areas.|
|surface||User defined||All commonly used values according to Taginfo.|
|Special (sports, etc.)|
|surface||tartan||A synthetic, all-weather surface typically used in running and other sport tracks. Although Tartan is a trademark, it is used as a generic term due to its widespread usage.|
|surface||artificial_turf||An all-weather surface made from synthetic fibres to look and feel like natural grass. Often used for tracks and pitches of sports such as football, baseball, etc.|
|surface||decoturf||DecoTurf is an artificial surface used for some tennis courts.|
|surface||clay||Used for some tennis- and soccerpitch.|
This table is a wiki template with a default description in English. Editable here.
Surface for foot- and cycleways
Or if there is a foot- or cycleway only at one side from street, or there are different surfaces at both sides, you can use right and left (or both, to tag explicit both sides):
- Proposed features/Surface:all_weather, a proposal for value hierarchy and all_weather value
- for example, if there is one good unpaved road, where practical speed is 60 km/h, and second bad road with concrete:lanes surface and practical speed 10 km/h, if you add only tag surface=unpaved to first road, navigators can choose second road for routing, because they can think, that second road has asphalt surface (default for surface) and big practical speed