|地物 : 洞窟|
Speleology is a cross-disciplinary field that combines the knowledge of chemistry, biology, geology, physics, meteorology and cartography to develop portraits of caves as complex, evolving systems. For many nations there are cave cadastres (land registers). Most of them are measured in 3D and have a special "cave plan" or a 3d model of it.
This page is about natural caves, for man made underground objects which are sometimes also called "cave" some of the following might be helpful:
- man_made=cellar_entrance - Entrance to a man made vault (e.g. cellar).
- Proposed features/man made=tunnel
- man_made=adit - Entrance to man made adit (horizontal entrance to an underground mine).
- man_made=mineshaft - Entrance to man made shaft (vertical entrance to an underground mine).
Protection of bats (in Europe)
In winter (around Mid of October till April) entering caves is prohibited. Bats are having winter sleep in that time. They reduce their energy expenditure down to 1%! Waking them would cause a high energy consumption, that could lead to their death.
Tagging in OSM
Mouth/entrance of a cave
Mapping the cave
Some paths in caves are mapped in this example. discuss.
has been proposed as part of Proposed features/natural=cave, some mappers think it is sufficient to indicate a relation with cave:ref or variants.
cave:ref=* can be used to hold an official identifier. Because such identifiers are typically valid statewide or issued by private organisations variations such as cave:ref:es:CEA=... can be used for a Spanish cave with an id issued by the CEA club. It could also happen that one cave has several cave:ref type identifiers.
cave:ref and variants can be also used to relate together unconnected features belonging to a single cave, however a relation has also been proposed for this and other purposes, see Proposed features/natural=cave
- cave:equipment=* (none|light|helmet|climbing_gear)
- cave:features=* (stalactites|cave-paintings|corpses|…)
- cave:depth=### (maximum depth)
- cave:length=#### (measured total entire length)
- cave:difficulty=* (tourist|easy|climbing_gear|dangerous)
- tourist for developed caves with regular guided tours
- easy for undeveloped caves which are safely accessible without equipment other than light
- equipment when specialized equipment is necessary, or there are moderately dangerous places like narrow points dangerous when special hazards (e.g. flooding, very branched) are present
- cave:size=* (small|medium|large)
- small when there's a single hall or passage
- medium when there are several halls or branching passages
- large when it's bigger than medium. :-)
Note: depth and length are useful, but often not known. So the rougher size Tag could be used to specify what to expect.
Ideas that probably should not be used as they are solved by generic tags:
- Caves all over the world
- Caves by country
- caves by continent (german)
- caves in Europe (german)
- Caves in the US
- Caves in Australia
- Show caves