Seamarks/Categories of Objects

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Categories of objects

The tags defined on this page will render in various various charts. This page defines values for the "seamark:<object>:category" tags that require one or more enumeration values. The index of S-57/S-101 objects relating to these categories is here: seamark objects(en).

Category of berth (catbrt)

Classification of berths in inland waterways.

Category seamark:berth:category Definition
Loading loading A place where vessels may berth for loading cargo.
Unloading unloading A place where vessels may berth for unloading cargo.
Overnight accommodation overnight_accommodation Berths that are suitable/meant for berthing overnight.
Berth for pushing-navigation vessels pushing-navigation A place where pushing-navigation vessels may berth.
Berth for vessels other than pushing-navigation vessels non-pushing-navigation A place where vessels other than pushing-navigation vessels may berth.
Fleeting area fleeting A legally permitted area in or near the waterway designated for temporary barge mooring.
First class landing first_class A federally designated area that provides tie-ups and at least 9 feet (2.7m) of water depth during low water level.
Second class landing second_class A federally designated area that provides tie-ups and at least 9 feet (2.7m) of water depth normal pool level.

Category of bunker station (catbun)

Classification of bunker stations in inland waterways.

Category seamark:bunker_station:category Definition
Diesel oil diesel Diesel oil available.
Water water Water available
Ballast ballast Ballast available.

Cardinal marks (CATCAM)

Cardinal marks are classified according to the quadrant of space they occupy.

Category seamark:buoy_cardinal:category
North north Quadrant bounded by the true bearing NW-NE taken from the point of interest it should be passed to the north side of the mark.
East east Quadrant bounded by the true bearing NE-SE taken from the point of interest it should be passed to the east side of the mark.
South south Quadrant bounded by the true bearing SE-SW taken from the point of interest it should be passed to the south side of the mark.
West west Quadrant bounded by the true bearing SW-NW taken from the point of interest it should be passed to the west side of the mark.

Cables (CATCBL)

Classification of the cable based on the services provided.

Category seamark:cable_overhead:category
Power line power A cable used for the supply of electricity.
Transmission line transmission Multiple uninsulated cables usually supported by steel lattice towers.
Telephone telephone A cable used for the transmission of telephone signals.
Telegraph telegraph A cable used for the transmission of telegraph signals.
Mooring cable/chain mooring A cable or chain used to secure a mooring buoy or other floating structure.
Fibre optic cable optical A cable made of glass or plastic fibre designed to guide light along its length, fibre optic cables are widely used in fibre-optic communication, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher data rates than other forms of communication.
Ferry cable ferry A cable where a cable ferry is connected to

CEMT classes (catccl)

Classification of CEMT classes of vessels that may use a waterway.

Category seamark:wtwaxs:category
0: Small vessels and pleasure craft small_vessels Designated for small vessels and pleasure crafts only.
I: Peniche peniche Designated for barges of type "Peniche" (west of river Elbe) or of type "Gross Finow" (east of river Elbe).
II: Campine barge campine_barge Designated for barges of type "Kempenaar" (west of river Elbe) or of type "BM-500" (east of river Elbe).
III: Dortmund-Ems barge dortmund-ems_barge Designated for barges of type "Gustav Koenigs" (west of river Elbe) or of a similar type concerning the dimensions (east of river Elbe).
IV: Rhine-Herne barge rhine-herne_barge Designated for barges of type "Johann Welker".
Va: Large Rhine barge; 1-barge push-tow unit 1-barge_push-tow Designated for barges of type "Large Rhine barge" or pushed convoys with one barge.
Vb: 2-barge push-tow unit; long formation 2-barge_push-tow_long Designated for pushed convoys with two barges, long formation.
VIa: 2-barge push-tow unit; wide formation 2-barge_push-tow_wide Designated for pushed convoys with two barges, wide formation.
VIb: 4-barge push-tow unit 4-barge_push-tow Designated for pushed convoys with four barges.
VIc: 6-barge push-tow unit 6-barge_push-tow Designated for pushed convoys with six barges.
No CEMT class no_cemt_class Unclassified vessels.

Checkpoints (CATCHP)

Classification of a place where vehicles or travellers are stopped for identification or inspection.

Category seamark:checkpoint:category Definition
Customs customs An office, especially in ports, at which customs dues are collected or administrated.
Border border An office, at which immigration control takes place.

Communications (catcom)

Classification of radio communications.

Category seamark:calling-in_point:category
VTS centre vts_centre The centre from which Vessel Traffic Services are operated.
VTS sector vts_sector The service area of a VTS centre.
IVS point ivs_point A reporting point of the "Informatie en Volgsysteem voor de Scheepvaart" in the Netherlands.
MIB mib A reporting point of the "Melde- und Informationssystem Binnenschifffahrt" in Germany.
Lock lock A reporting point for vessels at a lock.
Bridge bridge A reporting point for vessels at a movable bridge.
Customs customs A reporting point of the customs services for vessels.
Harbour harbour A reporting point of a harbour.

Cranes (CATCRN)

Classification of machines used for hoisting and moving heavy objects.

Category seamark:crane:category Definition
Container crane/gantry container A high speed, shore-based crane used in the lift-on/lift-off operation of specially constructed containers.
Sheerlegs sheerlegs A tripodal structure used in dockyards and harbours for stepping masts or lifting loads in to and out of vessels.
Travelling crane travelling A crane mounted on rails (track) that can move (usually parallel to the wharf face) in order to load and unload cargo vessels.
A-frame a-frame They are often positioned on river banks or the coastline and are used for lifting logs from logging trucks and depositing them in the water.

Control points (CATCTR)

Classification of control points.

Category seamark:control_point:category Definition
Triangulation point triangulation A recoverable point on the earth, whose geographic coordinates have been determined by angular methods with geodetic instruments. A triangulation point is a selected point, which has been marked with a station mark, or it is a conspicuous natural or artificial object.
Observation spot observation A point used by surveyors for determining precise position by astronomical means.
Fixed point fixed A point whose position has been accurately determined and plotted.
Bench-mark benchmark A permanent, stable object containing a marked point of known elevation with respect to a datum used as a reference level for tidal observations or as a control point for levelling.
Boundary mark boundary A marker identifying the location of a surveyed boundary line.
Horizontal control, main station horizontal_main A station in a network of permanently marked control points having their geographic positions established to form third order accuracy or better.
Horizontal control, secondary station horizontal_secondary A station in a network of control points of a localized nature utilized for shoreline plots, sounding marks, stadia work, etc., whose geographic position may be established to a slightly lower order than main control points.

Dumping grounds (CATDPG)

Classification of an area based on the type of waste being disposed of.

Category seamark:dumping_ground:category Definition
Chemical waste dumping ground chemical An area at sea where chemical waste is dumped.
Nuclear waste dumping ground nuclear An area at sea where nuclear waste is dumped.
Explosives dumping ground explosives An area at sea where explosives are dumped.
Spoil ground spoil An area at sea where dredged material is deposited.
Vessel dumping ground vessel An area at sea where disused vessels are scuttled.

Exceptional structures (catexs)

Classification of exceptional navigational structures.

Category seamark:exceptional_structure:category Definition
Lift-Lock lift-lock A lock of which the lock chamber itself is lifted vertically to level with the next waterway section.
Aqueduct aqueduct A structure (similar to the ancient aqueducts), for conveying a canal over a river or hollow.
Sloping plane lock sloping_plane_lock A lock of which the lock chamber itself travels over a sloping plane to level with the next waterway section.
Water slope lock (Pente d'Eau) water_slope_lock A lock of which the lock chamber is formed by a sloping plane and moving gate, which is pushing a triangular section of water up along the slope to level with the next waterway section.
Other other Other categories of an exceptional structure.

Fishing facilities (CATFIF)

Classification of fishing facility provided based on different fishing methods.

Category seamark:fishing_facility:category Definition
Fishing stake stake A pole or stake placed in shallow water to outline a fishing ground or to catch fish.
Fish trap trap A structure (usually portable) for catching fish.
Fish weir weir A fence of stakes or stones set in a river or along the shore to trap fish
Tunny net tunny A net built at sea for catching tunny

Forts (CATFOR)

Classification of the different types of fortified structure.

Category seamark:fortified_structure:category Definition
Castle castle A large fortified building or structure.
Fort fort A fortified enclosure, building, or position able to be defended against an enemy.
Battery battery A fortified structure on which artillery is mounted.
Blockhouse blockhouse A concrete structure strengthened to give protection against enemy fire, with apertures to allow defensive gunfire.
Martello tower martello_tower A round fort for coastal defence.
Redoubt redoubt An outwork or fieldwork usually square or polygonal and without flanking defences.

Ferries (CATFRY)

Classification of the manoeuvrability of the ferry vessel, not the various types of ferry vessel.

Category seamark:ferry_route:category Definition
Free-moving ferry free A ferry which may have routes that vary with weather, tide and traffic.
Cable ferry cable A ferry that follows a fixed route guided by a cable.
Ice ferry ice A winter-time ferry which crosses a lead.
Swinging wire ferry swinging Ferry connected to a fixed point (e.g., an anchor in the middle of the waterway) and swings around this point from shore to shore via a cable to an anchor. The cable runs more or less parallel to the current.

Gates (CATGAT)

Classification of a structure that can be swung, drawn, or lowered to block an entrance or a passageway.

Category seamark:gate:category Definition
Gate in general general Non-specific gate
Flood barrage gate flood_barrage An opening gate used to control flood water.
Caisson caisson A steel structure used for closing the entrance of locks, wet and dry docks.
Lock gate lock Lock gates are the massive hinged doors at each end of a lock.
Dyke gate dyke An opening gate in a dyke.
Sluice sluice A sliding gate or other contrivance for changing the level of a body of water by controlling the flow into or out of it.

Hulks (CATHLK)

Classification of an old or unseaworthy ship used for a new function.

Category seamark:hulk:category Definition
Floating restaurant floating_restaurant A permanently moored floating structure, such as an old ship, used as a restaurant.
Historic ship historic A ship of historical interest permanently moored as a tourist attraction.
Museum museum A permanently moored floating structure, such as an old ship, used as a museum.
Accommodation accommodation A permanently moored floating structure, such as an old ship, used for accommodation.
Floating breakwater floating_breakwater A permanently moored floating structure, often constructed from old ships, used as a breakwater.
Casino boat casino_boat A permanently moored floating structure, such as an old ship, used as a casino boat

Lateral marks (CATLAM)

Classification of lateral buoys and beacons

Category seamark:buoy_lateral:category
Port-hand lateral mark port Marks the port side limit of the fairway when heading inland. This will be towards the right bank.
Starboard-hand lateral mark starboard Marks the starboard side limit of the fairway when heading inland. This will be towards the left bank.
Preferred channel to starboard lateral mark preferred_channel_starboard Where the fairway divides either way around an obstacle, the primary channel is to the starboard side of this mark.
Preferred channel to port lateral mark preferred_channel_port Where the fairway divides either way around an obstacle, the primary channel is to the port side of this mark.
Right-hand side of the waterway waterway_right Marks the limit of the waterway closest to the right bank.
Left-hand side of the waterway waterway_left Marks the limit of the waterway closest to the left bank.
Right-hand side of the channel channel_right Marks the limit of a channel closest to the right bank.
Left-hand side of the channel channel_left Marks the limit of a channel closest to the left bank.
Bifurcation of the waterway waterway_separation Marks the conjunction of two waterways.
Bifurcation of the fairway channel_separation Marks the conjunction of two channels within a waterway.
Channel near the right bank channel_right_bank The navigable channel lays closest to the right bank.
Channel near the left bank channel_left_bank The navigable channel lays closest to the left bank.
Channel cross-over to the right bank crossover_right The navigable channel crosses over to the right bank.
Channel cross-over to the left bank crossover_left The navigable channel crosses over to the left bank.
Danger point or obstacles at the right-hand side danger_right Marks obstacles close to the right bank.
Danger point or obstacles at the left-hand side danger_left Marks obstacles close to the left bank.
Turn off at the right-hand side turnoff_right Indicates a turn off at the right-hand side
Turn off at the left-hand side turnoff_left Indicates a turn off at the left-hand side
Junction at the right-hand side junction_right Indicates a junction at the right-hand side
Junction at the left-hand side junction_left Indicates a junction at the left-hand side
Harbour entry at the right-hand side harbour_right Indicates a harbour entry at the right-hand side
Harbour entry at the left-hand side harbour_left Indicates a harbour entry at the left-hand side
Bridge pier mark bridge_pier Marks the presence of bridge piers.

Marine farms (CATMFA)

Classification of an area of water devoted to the raising, breeding, or production of a specific aquatic animal.

Category seamark:marine_farm:category Definition
Crustaceans crustaceans Hard shelled animals, for example crabs or lobsters.
Oysters/mussels oysters_mussels Edible bivalve molluscs.
Fish fish Vertebrate cold blooded animal with gills, living in water.
Seaweed seaweed The general name for marine plants of the Algae class which grow in long narrow ribbons.
Pearl culture farm pearl_culture An area where pearls are artificially cultivated.

Military practice areas (CATMPA)

Classification of area by military use.

Category seamark:military_area:category Definition
Torpedo exercise area torpedo An area within which exercises are carried out with torpedoes.
Submarine exercise area submarine An area within which submarine exercises are carried out.
Firing danger area firing Areas for bombing and missile exercises.
Mine laying practice area mine-laying An area within which mine laying exercises are carried out.
Small arms firing range small_arms An area for shooting pistols, rifles and machine guns, etc. at a target.

Obstructions (CATOBS)

Classification of objects that impede movement.

Category seamark:obstruction:category Definition
Snag/stump stump A tree, branch or broken pile embedded in the ocean floor, river or lake bottom and not visible on the surface, forming thereby a hazard to vessels.
Wellhead wellhead A submarine structure projecting some distance above the seabed and capping a temporarily abandoned or suspended oil or gas well.
Diffuser diffuser A structure on an outfall through which liquids are discharged. The structure will usually project above the level of the outfall and can be an obstruction to navigation.
Crib crib A permanent structure set in the water, framed with wooden beams and filled with rocks or boulders. They are used to anchor log booms or support other constructions, e.g. submerged outfalls, diffusers etc. They may always be dry, submerged or cover and uncover.
Fish haven fish_haven Areas established by private interests, usually sport fishermen, to simulate natural reefs and wrecks that attract fish. The reefs are constructed by dumping assorted junk in areas which may be of very small extent or may stretch a considerable distance along a depth contour.
Foul area foul_area An area of numerous unidentified dangers to navigation. The area serves as a warning to the mariner that all dangers are not identified individually and that navigation through the area may be hazardous. Commonly used to encode areas behind danger lines on navigation charts.
Foul ground foul_ground Areas over which it is safe to navigate but which should be avoided for anchoring, taking the ground or ground fishing.
Ice boom ice_boom Floating barriers, anchored to the bottom, used to deflect the path of floating ice in order to prevent the obstruction of locks, intakes, etc., and to prevent damage to bridge piers and other structures.
Ground tackle ground_tackle Equipment such as anchors, concrete blocks, chains and cables, etc., used to position floating structures such as trot and mooring buoys etc.
Boom boom A floating barrier used to protect a river or harbour mouth or to create a sheltered area for storage purposes.

Offshore platforms (CATOFP)

Classification of an offshore raised structure.

Category seamark:platform:category Definition
Oil derrick/rig oil A temporary mobile structure, either fixed or floating, used in the exploration stages of oil and gas fields.
Production platform production A term used to indicate a permanent offshore structure equipped to control the flow of oil or gas. It does not include entirely submarine structures.
Observation/research platform observation A platform from which one's surroundings or events can be observed, noted or recorded such as for scientific study.
Articulated loading platform (ALP) alp A metal lattice tower, buoyant at one end and attached at the other by a universal joint to a concrete filled base on the sea bed. The platform may be fitted with a helicopter platform, emergency accommodation and hawser/hose retrieval.
Single anchor leg mooring (SALM) salm A rigid frame or tube with a buoyancy device at its upper end , secured at its lower end to a universal joint on a large steel or concrete base resting on the sea bed, and at its upper end to a mooring buoy by a chain or wire.
Mooring tower mooring A platform secured to the sea bed and surmounted by a turntable to which ships moor.
Artificial island artificial_island A man-made structure usually built for the exploration or exploitation of marine resources, marine scientific research, tidal observations, etc.
Floating production, storage and offloading vessel (FPSO) fpso An offshore oil/gas facility consisting of a moored tanker/barge by which the product is extracted, stored and exported.
Accommodation platform accommodation A platform used primarily for eating, sleeping and recreation purposes.
Navigation, communication and control buoy (NCCB) nccb A floating structure with control room, power and storage facilities, attached to the sea bed by a flexible pipeline and cables.

Oil barriers (CATOLB)

Classification of barriers used to prevent the unwanted spread of oil across the sea surface.

Category seamark:oil_barrier:category Definition
Oil retention (high pressure pipe) retention A pipe with holes from which air blows. When the air bubbles reach the surface they form a barrier which prevents the spread of oil.
Floating oil barrier floating A floating tube shaped structure, with a curtain (2 metre) hanging under it, below the surface, which prevents the spread of oil.

Pilot boarding places (CATPIL)

Classification of pilot boarding place.

Category seamark:pilot_boarding:category Definition
Boarding by pilot-cruising vessel cruising_vessel Pilot boards from a cruising vessel.
Boarding by helicopter helicopter Pilot boards by helicopter which comes out from the shore.
Pilot comes out from shore from_shore Pilot boards from a vessel which comes out from the shore on request.

Pipelines (CATPIP)

Classification of pipeline constructions.

Category seamark:pipeline_overhead:category
Outfall pipe outfall A pipe (generally a sewer or drainage pipe) discharging in to the sea or a river.
Intake pipe intake A pipe taking water from a river or other body of water, to drive a mill or supply a canal, waterworks, etc.
Sewer sewer A pipe in a sewage system for carrying water or sewage to a disposal area.
Bubbler system bubbler A submerged pipe from which warm water bubbles, preventing the surrounding water from freezing.
Supply pipe supply A pipe used for supplying of gas or liquid product.

Piles (CATPLE)

Classification of piles driven into the earth as a foundation or support for a structure.

Category seamark:pile:category Definition
Stake stake An elongated wood or metal pole embedded in the bottom to serve as a marker or support.
Post post A vertical piece of timber, metal or concrete forced into the earth or sea bed.
Tripodal tripodal A single structure comprising 3 or more piles held together (sections of heavy timber, steel or concrete), and forced into the earth or sea bed.

Production areas (CATPRA)

Classification of production areas based on product.

Category seamark:production_area:category Definition
Quarry quarry An excavation in solid rock from which building stone, limestone, etc. is removed.
Mine mine An excavation in the earth for the purpose of extracting earth materials.
Stockpile stockpile A reserve stock of material, equipment or other supplies.
Power station power_station A stationary plant containing apparatus for large-scale conversion of some form of energy (hydraulic, steam, chemical, nuclear, etc.) into electrical energy.
Refinery refinery A system of process units used to convert crude petroleum into fuels, lubricants and other petroleum-derived products.
Timber yard timber_yard A storage area for wood used for building, carpentry or joinery.
Factory factory A group of buildings where goods are manufactured.
Tank farm tank_farm An area in which a number of large-capacity storage tanks are located, generally used for crude oil or petroleum products.
Wind farm wind_farm An area in which numerous wind motors are located.
Slag heap/spoil heap slag_heap Hill of refuse from a mine, industrial plant etc. on land
Current farm current_farm An area where electrical power is produced from the lateral movement of water.
Oil field oil An area where oil and natural gas (normally as a by-product) are produced.
Natural gas field gas An area where natural gas is produced.
Wave energy field wave_energy An area where electrical power is produced from wave energy devices.

Pylons (CATPYL)

Classification of the pylon based on the service its supporting.

Category seamark:pylon:category Definition
Power transmission pylon/pole power A vertical construction consisting, for example, of a steel framework or of pre-stressed concrete, to support a power transmission cable or line.
Telephone/telegraph pylon/pole telecom A pylon or pole used to support a telephone or telegraph line.
Aerial cableway/sky pylon aerial A tower or pylon supporting steel cables which convey cars, buckets, or other suspended carrier units.
Bridge pylon/tower bridge A tower, abutment or pylon from which a bridge deck is suspended.
Bridge pier bridge_pier A support in the form of a pillar or pier for the spans of a bridge.

Radar stations (CATRAS)

Classification of radar station based on the services offered.

Category seamark:radar_station:category Definition
Radar surveillance station surveillance A radar station established for traffic surveillance.
Coast radar station coast A shore-based station which the mariner can contact by radio to obtain a position.

Restricted areas (CATREA)

Classification of the official legal status of each kind of restricted area.

Category seamark:restricted_area:category Definition
Offshore safety zone safety The area around an offshore installation within which vessels are prohibited from entering without permission.
Nature reserve nature_reserve A tract of land managed so as to preserve it's flora, fauna, physical features, etc.
Bird sanctuary bird_sanctuary A place where birds are bred and protected.
Game reserve game_reserve A place where wild animals or birds hunted for sport or food are kept undisturbed for private use.
Seal sanctuary seal_sanctuary A place where seals are protected.
Degaussing range degaussing_range An area, usually about two cables diameter, within which ships' magnetic fields may be measured sensing instruments and cables are installed on the sea bed in the range and there are cables leading from the range to a control position ashore.
Military area military An area controlled by the military in which restrictions may apply.
Historic wreck area historic_wreck An area around certain wrecks of historical importance to protect the wrecks from unauthorized interference by diving, salvage or deposition (including anchoring).
Navigational aid safety zone navigational_aid_safety An area around a navigational aid which vessels are prohibited from entering.
Minefield minefield An area laid and maintained with explosive mines for defence or practice purposes.
Swimming area swimming An area in which people may swim and therefore vessel movement may be restricted.
Waiting area waiting An area reserved for vessels waiting to enter a harbour.
Research area research An area where marine research takes place.
Dredging area dredging An area where dredging is taking place.
Fish sanctuary fish_sanctuary A place where fish are protected.
Ecological reserve ecological_reserve A tract of land managed so as to preserve the relation of plants and living creatures to each other and to their surroundings.
No wake area no_wake An area in which a vessels' speed must be reduced in order to reduce the size of the wake it produces.
swinging area swinging An area where vessels turn.
Water skiing area water_skiing An area within which people may water ski and therefore vessel movement may be restricted.
Environmentally Sensitive Sea Area (ESSA) essa A generic term which may be used to describe a wide range of areas, considered sensitive for a variety of environmental reasons.
Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA) pssa An area that needs special protection through action by IMO because of its significance for regional ecological, socio-economic or scientific reasons and because it may be vulnerable to damage by international shipping activities.

Rescue stations (CATRSC)

Classification of aid station based on life saving equipment.

Category seamark:rescue_station:category Definition
Rescue station with lifeboat lifeboat A place where equipment for saving life at sea is maintained the type of lifeboat may vary from fast, long distance boats to inflatable inshore boats.
Rescue station with rocket rocket Rocket - a pyrotechnic projectile used for signalling or for life-saving purposes.
Refuge for ship-wrecked mariners refuge_shipwrecked Shelter or protection from danger or distress at sea.
Refuge for intertidal area walkers refuge_intertidal Shelter or protection from danger in areas exposed to extreme and sudden tides or tidal streams.
Lifeboat lying at a mooring lifeboat_on_mooring A place where a lifeboat is moored ready for use.
Aid radio station radio A radio station reserved for emergency situations, might also be a public telephone.
First aid equipment first_aid A place where first aid equipment is available.
Rescue seaplane seaplane An aircraft which is able to land at sea to help people who are in danger at sea.
Rescue aircraft aircraft An aircraft which is used to search for people who are in danger at sea, partly the aircraft can provide the people with some goods by dropping.
Salvage tug tug A tug who can tow or hold vessels in distress to avoid the loss of the vessel or environmental pollution.

Sea areas (CATSEA)

Classification of an area based on its physical characteristics.

Category seamark:sea_area:category Definition
Gat gat A natural or artificial passage or channel through shoals or steep banks, or across a line of banks lying between two channels.
Bank bank An elevation over which the depth of water is relatively shallow, but normally sufficient for safe surface navigation.
Deep deep In oceanography, an obsolete term which was generally restricted to depths greater than 6,000 m
Bay bay An indentation in the coastline.
Trench trench A long narrow, characteristically very deep and asymmetrical depression of the sea floor, with relatively steep sides.
Basin basin A depression, characteristically in the deep sea floor, more or less equidimensional in plan and of variable extent.
Flat flat A level tract of land, as the bed of a dry lake or an area frequently uncovered at low tide. Usually in plural.
Reef reef Rock lying at or near the sea surface that may constitute a hazard to surface navigation.
Ledge ledge A rocky formation continuous with and fringing the shore.
Canyon canyon A relatively narrow, deep depression with steep sides, the bottom of which generally has a continuous slope, developed characteristically on some continental slopes.
Narrowa narrows A navigable narrow part of a bay, strait, river, etc.
Shoal shoal An offshore hazard to surface navigation that is composed of unconsolidated material.
Knoll knoll A relatively small isolated elevation of a rounded shape.
Ridge ridge (a) A long, narrow elevation with steep sides. (b) A long, narrow elevation often separating ocean basins. (c) The linked major mid-oceanic mountain systems of global extent.
Seamount seamount A large isolated elevation, greater than 1000m in relief above the sea floor, characteristically of conical form.
Pinnacle pinnacle Any high tower or spire-shaped pillar or rock or coral, alone or cresting a summit. It may extend above the surface of the water. It may or may not be a hazard to surface navigation.
Abyssal plain abyssal_plain An extensive, flat, gently sloping or nearly level region at abyssal depths.
Plateau plateau A flat or nearly flat area of considerable extent, dropping off abruptly on one or more sides.
Spur spur A subordinate elevation, ridge or rise projecting outward from a larger feature.
Shelf shelf A zone adjacent to a continent (or around an island) and extending from the low water line to a depth at which there is usually a marked increase of slope towards oceanic depths.
Trough trough A long depression of the sea floor characteristically flat bottomed and steep sided and normally shallower than a trench.
Saddle saddle A broad pass, resembling in shape a riding saddle, in a ridge or between contiguous seamounts.
Abyssal hills abyssal_hills A tract, on occasion extensive, of low (100-500m) elevations on the deep sea floor.
Apron apron A gently dipping featureless surface, underlain primarily by sediment, at the base of any steeper slope.
Archipelagic apron archipelagic_apron A gentle slope with a generally smooth surface on the sea floor, characteristically found around groups of islands or seamounts.
Borderland borderland A region adjacent to a continent, normally occupied by or bordering a shelf, that is highly irregular with depths well in excess of those typical of a shelf.
Continental margin continental_margin The zone, generally consisting of shelf, slope and rise, separating the continent from the abyssal plain or deep sea floor.
Continental rise continental_rise A gentle slope rising from the oceanic depths towards the foot of a continental slope.
Escarpment escarpment An elongated and comparatively steep slope separating or gently sloping areas.
Fan fan A relatively smooth, fan-like, depositional feature normally sloping away from the outer termination of a canyon or canyon system.
Fracture zone fracture_zone An extensive linear zone of irregular topography of the sea floor, characterized by steep-sided or asymmetrical ridges, troughs or escarpments.
Gap gap A narrow break in a ridge or a rise.
Guyot guyot A seamount having a comparatively smooth flat top.
Hill hill A small isolated elevation (see also abyssal hills).
Hole hole A local depression, often steep sided, of the sea floor.
Levee levee A depositional embankment bordering a canyon, valley or deep-sea channel.
Median valley median_valley The axial depression of the mid-oceanic ridge system.
Moat moat An annular depression that may not be continuous, located at the base of many seamounts, islands and other isolated elevations.
Mountains mountains A large and complex grouping of ridges and seamounts.
Peak peak A prominent elevation either pointed or of a very limited extent across the summit.
Province province A region identifiable by a group of similar physiographic features whose characteristics are markedly in contrast with surrounding areas.
Rise rise (a) A broad elevation that rises gently and generally smoothly from the sea floor. (b) The linked major mid-oceanic mountain systems of global extent.
Sea channel sea_channel A continuously sloping, elongated narrow depression commonly found in fans or abyssal plains and customarily bordered by levees on one or both sides.
Seamount chain seamount_chain Several seamounts in linear or orcuate alignment.
Shelf-edge shelf-edge A narrow zone at the seaward margin of a shelf along which is a marked increase of slope.
Sill sill A sea floor barrier of relatively shallow depth restricting water movement between basins.
Slope slope The slope seaward from the shelf edge to the upper edge of a continental rise or the point where there is a general reduction in slope.
Terrace terrace A relatively flat horizontal or gently inclined surface, sometimes long and narrow, which is bounded by a steeper ascending slope on one side and by a steeper descending slope on the opposite side.
Valley valley A relatively shallow, wide depression, the bottom of which usually has a continuous gradient. This term is generally not used for features that have canyon-like characteristics for a significant portion of their extent.
Canal canal An artificial water course used for navigation.
Lake lake A large body of water entirely surrounded by land.
River river A relatively large natural stream of water.
Reach reach A straight section of a river, especially a navigable river between two bends or an arm of the sea extending into the land.

Seagrass (catseg)

Classification of marine seagrass vegetation (plants).

Category seamark:seagrass:category Definition
Unspecified seagrass unspecified Any of various submerged monocotyledonous plants of tropical to temperate usually shallow coastal waters that have narrow grasslike leaves and often form dense underwater meadows. (now distinct from Weed/Kelp, macroscopic marine alge), see change proposed for S-4 and S-101 DCEG
Seagrass of certain type or specie specified Seagrasses of certain type like Posidonia, eelgrass, tape grass, and turtle grass.
Where possible, add specification by tags:
genus=<genus within seagrass families Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae, or Cymodoceaceae>
Posidonia seagrass posidonia Posidonia seagrass
Add specification by tags:
genus= Posidonia
taxon= Posidonia oceanica (e.g. or other species)

Shoreline constructions (CATSLC)

Classification of shoreline construction based on use.

Category seamark:shoreline_construction:category Definition
Breakwater breakwater A structure protecting a shore area, harbour, anchorage, or basin from waves.
Groyne (groin) groyne A low artificial wall-like structure of durable material extending from the land to seaward for a particular purpose, such as to prevent coast erosion
Mole mole A form of breakwater alongside which vessels may lie on the sheltered side only in some cases it may lie entirely within an artificial harbour, permitting vessels to lie along both sides.
Pier (jetty) pier A long, narrow structure extending into the water to afford a berthing place for vessels, to serve as a promenade, etc.
Promenade pier promenade_pier A pier built only for recreational purposes.
Wharf (quay) wharf A structure serving as a berthing place for vessels.
Training wall training_wall A wall or bank, often submerged, built to direct or confine the flow of a river or tidal current, or to promote a scour action.
Rip rap rip_rap A layer of broken rock, cobbles, boulders, or fragments of sufficient size to resist the erosive forces of flowing water and wave action.
Revetment revetment Facing of stone or other material, either permanent or temporary, placed along the edge of a stream, river or canal to stabilize the bank and to protect it from the erosive action of the stream.
Sea wall sea_wall An embankment or wall for protection against waves or tidal action along a shore or water front.
Landing steps landing_steps Steps at the shoreline as the connection between land and water on different levels.
Ramp ramp A sloping structure that can either be used, as a landing place, at variable water levels, for small vessels, landing ships, or a ferry boat, or for hauling a cradle carrying a vessel, which may include rails.
Slipway slipway The prepared and usually reinforced inclined surface on which keel- and bilge-blocks are laid for supporting a vessel under construction.
Fender fender A protective structure designed to cushion the impact of a vessel and prevent damage.
Solid face wharf solid_face_wharf A wharf consisting of a solid wall of concrete, masonry, wood etc., such that the water cannot circulate freely under the wharf. The type of construction affects ship-handling for example, a solid face wharf may give shelter from tidal streams, but under certain circumstances a cusion of water may build up between such a wharf and a ship attempting to berth at it, causing difficulties in ship handling.
Open face wharf open_face_wharf A wharf supported on piles or other structures which allow free circulation of water under the wharf.
Log ramp log_ramp An inclined plane used to dump logs into the water for transport, or to haul logs out of the water for processing.
Lock/guide wall lock_wall Permanent structure bounding a lock and including guide walls
Ice breaker ice_breaker An often wedge-like structure used for protecting a bridge pier, dock, facility, etc. from floating ice or other debris.

Traffic Separation Schemes (CATTSS)

International classification of traffic separation scheme.

Category seamark:separation_zone:category Definition
IMO - adopted imo_adopted A defined Traffic Separation Scheme that has been adopted as an IMO routing measure.
Not IMO - adopted not_imo_adopted A defined Traffic Separation Scheme that has not been adopted as an IMO routing measure.

Vehicle transfers (catvtr)

Classification of vehicle transfers.

Category seamark:vehicle_transfer:category Definition
Official official Of or relating to an office or a post of authority
Private private Belonging to a particular person or persons, as opposed to the public or the government.
Suitable for car cranes car_cranes Vehicle transfer location is suitable for car cranes.
Suitable for car planks car_planks Vehicle transfer location is suitable for car planks.
Permission required permission_required The transfer of a vehicle requires permission.
Locked gate locked_gate The access to the public road is locked.

Waterway gauges (catgag)

Classification of waterway gauges.

Category seamark:waterway_gauge:category Definition
Water level staff/pole staff Level indicator consisting of a calibrated staff/pole and the associated benchmark.
Recording water level gauge recording Analogue or digital water level measuring and recording device.
Recording water level gauge with remote access recording_remote_access Recording water level gauge providing information remotely by any method.
Recording water level gauge with external indicator recording_external_indicator Recording gauge providing information of the water level via a large external indicator.
Recording water level gauge with remote access and remote indicator recording_remote_access_indicator Recording gauge providing information remotely by any method and providing information of the water level via a large external indicator.

Water turbulence (CATWAT)

Classification of an unstable sea state.

Category seamark:water_turbulence:category Definition
Breakers breakers Waves breaking on the shore, over a reef, etc. Breakers may be roughly classified into three kinds, although the categories may overlap: spilling breakers break gradually over a considerable distance plunging breakers tend to curl over and break with a crash and surging breakers peak up, but then instead of spilling or plunging they surge up on the beach face. The French word 'brisant' is also used for the obstacle causing the breaking of the wave.
Eddies eddies Circular movements of water usually formed where currents pass obstructions, between two adjacent currents flowing counter to each other, or along the edge of a permanent current.
Overfalls overfalls Short, breaking waves occurring when a strong current passes over a shoal or other submarine obstruction or meets a contrary current or wind.
Tide rips tide_rips Small waves formed on the surface of water by the meeting of opposing tidal currents or by a tidal current crossing an irregular bottom.
Bombora bombora A wave that forms over a submerged offshore reef or rock, sometimes (in very calm weather or at high tide) nearly swelling but in other conditions breaking heavily and producing a dangerous stretch of broken water the reef or rock itself.

Weed/kelp (CATWED)

Classification of marine seeweed vegetation (macroalgae).

Category seamark:weed:category Definition
Kelp kelp A giant plant sometimes 60 metres long with no roots, it is anchored by hold-fasts or tendrils up to 10 metres long, that cling to rock. Gas filled bubbles on fronds act as floats keeping the kelp just below the surface.
Sea weed sea_weed General name for marine plants of the algae class which grow in long narrow ribbons.
Seagrass seagrass any grasslike marine alga. Eelgrass is one of the best known seagrasses.
Seegrasses (submerged monocotyledonous plants) are distinct from Seeweeds (macroscopic marine alge) and object Weed/Kelp is excluding seagrass. Now it is instead described as new object Seagrass (SEAGRA)(en), see change and symbol proposed for S-4 and S-101 DCEG
Sargasso sargasso A certain type of sea weed, or more generally, a large floating mass of this sea weed.


OSM seamark resources

JOSM presets & styles

External sources