# Power networks/Norway

Power transmission lines

## Goals

• Map all electric power distribution (power lines and substations).
• Map all electric power generators (power plants, wind parks...).
• Map all major telecommunication cables, i.e. fiber optic cables connecting Norway to the world.*

## Tagging conventions

### Power lines

• Power lines are mapped with one of two values. power=line is for all lines above 33kV and power=minor_line for 33kV and below.
• Most lines in Norway are AC and will have three cables=*.
• Some lines can have six or more cables=* and will therefore also have multiple circuits=*. There are exceptions where older double circuit lines have been combined to a single using 6 cables.
• Never create overlapping ways for each line (circuit), but instead add circuits=* and cables=* values.
• When adding multiple voltage=* values add the separate them with semicolon and order them highest to lowest (example: 100;50;25).

#### Notes

• Norges vassdrags- og energidirektorat (NVE) data will display multiple circuits on same towers as individual lines.
• Lines above 300kV often have multiple wires=* per cable. Most commonly two, but some have three. NVE and power companies often refer to them as "duplex" and "triplex". Some 300kV lines have been built with duplex or triplex and some lower voltage lines have been upgraded to be ready for future voltage increases. Finding this information may require surveying.
• Because of the close proximity of the wires they are prone to collecting more ice and snow during winter. To preempt problems some mountain crossings use a thicker single cable for segments of the power line.

#### Voltage notes

• The most common voltages used in Norway are 11kV, 22kV, 33kV, 45kV, 66kV, 132kV, 300kV and 420kV. This may differ between companies.
• 300kV and 420kV are pretty much the same as 275kV and 380(400)kV in other countries. They are reported as such due to operating at around 295kV and 410kV.
• NVE will have several different voltage values in their data. It depend on if the reported value is the nominal voltage or the isolation voltage.
• Common isolation values you might see are 145kV for lines operating at 132kV, 72kV for lines at 66kV and 24kV for lines operating at 22kV.
• Some lines may be listed as 47 or 50kV. These are simply just 45kV lines using 52kV rated equipment. Most of these operate at 47-50kV.
• To make things even more complicated some companies operate at odd voltages for parts of their grid:
• Glitre Nett have two regional grids in Agder county, one 132kV in the east and a 110kV in the west.
• Enida and Glitre Nett have a 60kV grid in Sokndal, Flekkefjord and Sirdal area. And Glitre Nett have one 60kV line east of Evje. These operates at 58-60kV on mostly 72kV rated equipment.
• A large portion of southwest Rogaland has a 15kV distribution grid.
• In Østfold there are two odd distribution grids; A 17kV from Moss to around Fredrikstad/Sarpsborg area, and a 18kV grid in Hvaler municipality.
• A few cities still has some 6kV cable distribution grids, but this is being phased out.

Standard equipment for refurbished and new lines today is 22kV for distribution and 66/132kV for regional lines.

Example of a power line:

operator=BKK Nett
power=line
voltage=132000
cables=3

Example of extra tags when two lines share towers:

cables=6
circuits=2
voltage=value1;value2

#### Power pole vs. power tower

Poles are used for power=minor_line (33kV and below). Anything above that will use power=tower
Exception can be done on long 22kV crossings like fjords or valleys where the poles/towers on each side often are as big as regular 66kV or even 132kV towers.

## Status

Main focus so far has been on lines above 22kV. See here for a map of power in Norway: openinframap.org

Progress as of October 2019:

• Trøndelag complete >22kV
• Vestland complete >22kV.
• Møre og Romsdal complete >22kV.
• Hedmark complete >22kV
• Akershus complete >22kV.
• Østfold complete >22kV.
• Oppland complete >22kV.
• Buskerud complete ≥45kV.
• Telemark complete ≥66kV, except 132kV from Meen to Østfold area.
• Agder complete ≥66kV.
• Finnmark complete ≥33kV.
• Troms complete ≥66kV.
• Nordland complete ≥66kV.
• Rogaland have most lines, but with varying quality
• Vestfold have most lines, but with varying quality

Most power plants ≥10MW have been added in the same areas. Exception for smaller plants is made if they are directly connected to the regional lines.

Note that power lines are constantly being built or dismantled so it will never be 100% complete.

## Datasets and tools

Map services for reference:

## Operators

The following operators are, in addition to local distribution lines, also responsible for regional lines between 33kV and 132kV in their area.

• Innlandet, Oslo and Østfold: Elvia
• Agder and Buskerud: Glitre Nett
• Vestfold og Telemark: Lede
• Southern Rogaland: Lnett
• Northern Rogaland and Southern Vestland: Fagne
• Vestland except Nordfjord and Sogn: BKK
• Sogn: Sygnir
• Nordfjord and sothern part of Møre og Romsdal: Linja
• Middle part of Møre og Romsdal: Elinett
• North part of Møre og Romsdal: Mellom
• Trøndelag: Tensio
• Helgeland: Linea
• Middle part of Nordland and Troms: Arva
• Northern Nordland and Southern Troms: Noranett
• Skjervøy, Nordreisa and Kautokeino: Vissi
• Alta, Kvænangen and Loppa: Alut
• Hammerfest area Lucerna
• Porsanger peninsula: NettiNord
• Eastern Finnmark: Barents Nett

Due to new regulations many names changed in 2021/22. Grid operators are still owned by their parent energy company, which are owned by local municipalities.

There are around 120 power grid operators in Norway. Most of them only operate the distribution grid within their local municipality.