|power = pole|
|A single pole supporting power lines. It's often a wooden or concrete mast designed to support power lines supported by insulators.|
|Rendering in openstreetmap-carto|
|Used on these elements|
|Tools for this tag|
A single (often wooden or concrete) pole carrying low voltage, medium voltage, or high voltage lines (usually of the subtransmission level, up to 161,000 volts). Usually composed of the pole itself and cross-arms, or only the pole, with insulators placed on the pole itself.
How to Map
Insert a node there on the electricity line power=line, power=minor_line or even overhead power=cable, where the mast stands and add power=pole.
If known, you can add design=*, constitutive material=*, line_attachment=* or even pole:type=*.
Detailed tagging is explained below.
The tagging applies to both small poles for distribution lines and tall poles for lines with voltages from 50,000 volts to 161,000 volts. Poles on subtransmission lines (69,000 volts to 138,000/161,000 volts, or 66,000 volts to 132,000 volts) are common in North America, parts of Asia (Philippines, Thailand), and Australia. In Europe, lines between 50,000 volts and 150,000 volts (or 132,000 volts) use towers, either lattice, tubular, or multipolar structures, but may also use poles, especially on older lines. Structures composed of two poles and a cross-arm, whether they support a power=minor_line or power=line, should not be tagged as poles: they are considered towers (power=tower), usually of the H-frame type.
|power||pole||It's a power pole||mandatory|
|operator||operator||The power pole operator's name.||recommended|
|ref||pole reference||Power pole reference number or code||recommended|
|material||material||The material which the pole is made of.||optional|
|line_attachment||line_attachment||Nature of how supported line(s) is bound to the support||optional|
|pole:type||pole type||Type of pole (see below for possible values).||optional|
|height||height||The height of the pole||optional|
|structure||solid, tubular, or lattice||The structure pattern of the pole. Default is solid||optional|
|design||pole design||The generic design name of the pole.||optional|
Keys line_attachment=* and pole:type=* describe the function of a power pole, like an anchor or termination pole, that uses strain insulators, or a suspension pole, that may use either pin insulators or strain insulators. In case a pole supports both power=minor_line and power=line, tag the pole types for both lines supported, especially if the pole types differ for the lines carried. This is based on Tag:power=tower#Tower type.
|line_attachment||suspension||A pole where the conductors or wires are mounted on pin insulators or suspension insulators, either on a cross-arm or the pole itself. This is the default type and does not need to be tagged, except on an angle pole (usually guyed guyed=yes), where an anchor pole is normally used.|
|anchor||A pole that uses strain insulators, either mounted on a cross-arm or on the pole itself. These are usually guyed for stability, except where the pole is mounted on a foundation, lies on a straight section of power line, or uses heavier construction, like a second pole in place of a guy or thicker material.|
|pole:type||termination||A pole using strain insulators on an end of a power line, like in a transformer (add transformer=* to the pole), substation, line-to-cable transition point (add location:transition=yes, or a short dead-end segment from a pole with a transformer or a turning location where the lines are connected on the air rather than on a pole. These poles are normally guyed (add guyed=yes) because of the tension from the terminating line.|
|branch||A power line branches at this pole. If the branch line is a cable (except for overhead insulated cables), add location:transition=yes. The branch types may be as follows:
|Transposition||A pole where the conductors exchange positions to balance the impedance. For example, a three-phase line with phases A-B-C changes arrangement into B-C-A at a pole, or vice versa.|
|crossing||A taller pole used on locations where a line need higher height clearance, like where a line crosses an overpass. These are usually higher than the poles usually used.|
|location:transition=*||yes||A power line transitions from line to cable, or vice versa, at this pole, or on other cases, on a concrete structure. This is not used when the cable is an overhead type (power=cable with location=overhead.|
The design=* tag describe the design of the pole and the conductors it supports. Pole designs imply a presence of [a] cross-arm[s] mounted on the pole through brackets, except when the design name has "armless" suffixed, or described as an armless type. Cross-arms for telephone lines should not be included. This is based on Tag:power=tower#Tower design, but with some design names modified. If a pole uses more than one design, like a pole supporting both transmission/subtransmission and distribution lines, tag the design of the topmost part of the pole, that will usually hold higher voltage lines.
Sometimes poles are fixed with guys. For mapping these objects, see Tag:man made=guy.
Possible key for poles or small masts of overhead power lines with low- or medium-range voltages between about 0.4 and 30 kV. 0.4 kV lines (such as the one in the third image of the four examples) are still often found in small towns and villages. Outside villages in rural areas, the medium-voltage net is also often made of overhead lines on poles or small masts. At the terminal masts, the line either changes to an underground cable or goes into a transformer which steps down to about 400 V.
Rest of the world
On North America, Oceania, and most Asian countries, poles typically carry most low to medium voltage lines along roads, so work may be done by bucket trucks, but on some locations, lines run underground or carried on aerial cables. Low voltage lines, that may be the three-phase system (230/400 V, 240/415 V, and 220/380 V) or split-phase (usually 120/240 V, typical in North America), may run on their own poles, although they may run below the medium voltage lines (10-35 kV, depending on the utility's practices). Cable count per circuit may range from 1 to 3 wires, with one wire systems primarily used on single-wire earth return or lines on areas with light loads (e.g. residential areas).
Medium voltage lines usually run beside roads, primarily on rural areas, but may occur in some urban areas, however, underground cables are being favored because of visual pollution concerns . Lines usually have pole mounted transformers on the middle of the line, instead of having all of them on the termination poles, and lines forming one separate circuit may meet, requiring pole-mounted switches that can be opened or closed in case of an emergency. Transformers can be single-phase or three-phase, but it may depend on regional practice, that is, single-phase transformers are common in countries using single-phase or split-phase power and usually 60 Hz frequency, with three-phase distribution transformers typically being three single-phase transformers, and three-phase distribution transformers in countries using three-phase power and usually 50 Hz frequency. On some poles, an overhead power line may transition to ground cable or change to an overhead cable. Two to four circuits may use the same pole, and low voltage circuits usually run below the medium voltage circuits. Street lamps and communications lines may be mounted on the poles.
In some countries (e.g. United States, Canada, Australia, Philippines, Thailand, and many Latin American countries) high-voltage lines linking the transmission and distribution systems may use poles, for economic reasons. Such poles may also carry distribution lines, communication cables and street lights as well as other equipment usually found on those intended for distribution lines.
Power poles support medium or low voltage power lines, and are typically small, but tall poles are used also in high voltage lines. Poles are usually composed of the pole itself, and [a] cross-arm[s] where the insulators are mounted, but poles without cross-arms are also used. They typically support power lines and transformers, but may also support street lamps, switches, fuses, and small power compensating equipment (capacitors and voltage regulators/AVRs).
Related terms: ‹ power pole ›