Standard tile layer
| Standard tile layer|
or OpenStreetMap Carto
|Author:||Andy Allan and other contributors|
|Tiles License:||CC-BY-SA 2.0|
|Style License:||CC0 1.0|
The stylesheet is maintained at https://github.com/gravitystorm/openstreetmap-carto. Bug reports (e.g. rendering problems of specific object classes) can be raised there (needs a login with a GitHub account).
- 1 OSM servers deployment
- 2 Map key
- 3 Major changes
- 4 Technical details
- 5 Contributing and installing
- 6 Forks and independent deployments
- 7 External links
- 8 Footnotes
OSM servers deployment
Low and medium zoom tiles (z0-z12) are usually re-rendered only when a new osm-carto version is being deployed and on the first Sunday of each month (you can read more about it here). Database schema changes should not be requested more often than 1-2 times a year (probably combined with major PostgreSQL release).
If using the Standard tiles from openstreetmap.org tile servers in other applications, you must follow the Tile usage policy.
Since this style is feature rich, the short map key included on the OSM.org homepage is very limited. See Standard tile layer/Key and its subpages for the most complete and up to date legend version:
- 2012 - porting XML version to CartoCSS (start of the osm-carto)
- 2013 - OSM tileservers deployment
- 2014 - rewrite of buildings code
- 2015 - road style change, SVG icons
- 2016 - better rendering of placenames
- 2017 - water color, mid zoom improvements, database schema change
The style is designed as a general purpose map of the world, so for example:
- special objects (like seamarks or railway details) will not be rendered
- labels are rendered with a name=* value (whatever it contains for a given object), so it's not displaying English names all over the world
- there are no country specific symbols (like for example road shields or subway/metro signs), they all have a uniform look
While OpenStreetMap Carto tries to show many different objects, it's not possible to render everything stored in a database, so opt-in selection is made.
Use cases for some zoom levels are being currently defined.
Mapnik and CartoCSS
OpenStreetMap Carto tiles are rendered using the Mapnik toolkit. That being said, OpenStreetMap Carto and Mapnik are not the same thing! Mapnik is a map rendering library used for many map stylesheets (including OpenStreetMap Carto).
CartoCSS is used to pre-process the stylesheet into Mapnik XML format (since August 2013).
This style has multiple layers. For example names of waterways are rendered over waterways, shops are rendered over buildings, tunnels are rendered over buildings, roads are rendered over landcover etc.
The remaining question is how objects are rendered within layer. For some cases collisions are not allowed and objects that would cover already rendered object from given layer is not rendered. It is done for example for cities, where labels for smaller that would collide with label for larger one are not rendered.
Landcover areas are ordered by area, with smaller ones later and collisions are allowed. It means that for a given layer smaller areas will cover larger.
For example small leisure=park area will be rendered over larger landuse=residential area.
There is also a separate overlay layer containing for example tree symbols for forest landcover, that is rendered over landcover fill.
- area covered by small landuse=forest and large landuse=residential
- forest fill will be rendered over residential fill and cover it, later forest overlay will be rendered over that
- area covered by large landuse=forest and small landuse=residential
- residential fill will be rendered over forest fill and cover it, later forest overlay will be rendered over that
OpenStreetMap Carto uses as its standard database PostgreSQL with PostGIS geospatial extension and is named "gis". It is derived from the OSM database, but does not store the full dataset - only the rendering-related elements are available. Since v4.0.0, OpenStreetMap Carto uses the PostgreSQL hstore (extension and data type) and is pre-processed with a lua script by the osm2pgsql tool.
General project configuration is included in project.mml (YAML). There are defined so called "layers", which include mainly SQL statements selecting the objects, while actual styling is done in multiple MSS files.
Roads code is very complex and is partially generated by the helper scripts.
Icons and patterns
Icons are pixel-aligned vector images (SVG), generally based on 14 px matrix. While most of them are monochrome and their rendering color is defined in the MSS files, some of the icons have more than one color and they are defined in the vector file itself in such cases. Halftones might be used.
Some patterns are also done as vector images, but if they are still raster images (PNG), they are derived from vector elements and the process is documented, so it should be easy to migrate to a vector format when possible.
Noto font is used if possible, with DejaVu Sans, Hanazono and Unifont used as fallbacks.
The style relies partly on some external data files coming from Natural Earth and preprocessed OSM data repository OpenStreetMapData. They can be updated with a Python script (scripts/get-shapefiles.py) or by hand.
Rendering coastline on openstreetmap.org is described here: Coastline#Rendering_in_Standard_tile_layer_on_openstreetmap.org.
Contributing and installing
You can set up a copy of the OpenStreetMap Carto rendering stylesheets for yourself. For more technical information, including setup instructions, see https://github.com/gravitystorm/openstreetmap-carto on GitHub:
- Contribution guidelines are documented here.
- One can set a simple Docker-based environment for testing.
- Some easy tasks has been selected for getting started with the process.
If you still don't know where to start, just ask for the assistance (for example in the ticket comments).
Forks and independent deployments
OpenStreetMap Carto is used as a base for other map style rendering forks, especially:
- German osm-carto style (does also contain a branch with a localized version of OpenStreetMap Carto)
- French osm-carto style
- British osm-carto style (AJT)
- Belgian osm-carto style
- osm-carto vector-tiles
There is also a separate project called Open Geofiction (OGF), which uses OSM tools - including osm-carto as default style - for creating maps of fictional places.
- OpenStreetMap Carto Tutorials - unofficial documentation (by Ircama)
- Docker things for openstreetmap carto - independent Docker environment (by OnkelTem)
- Timelapse videos of changes in osm-carto 2012-2016 (by Michael Glanznig)
- Old XML format Mapnik stylesheets for OpenStreetMap "standard" style
- Custom map style (1) - tweaking the standard OpenStreetmap style for the old, pre-2012 XML format (by Volker Schatz)
- OpenStreetMap Carto Complexity (Paul Norman blog, 2015)
- OpenStreetMap-Carto – a look back at the last year (Christoph Hormann blog, 2017)
- OpenStreetMap-Carto – a look into the future (Christoph Hormann blog, 2017)
- Adding a change to "OSM Carto" (Andy Townsend diary, 2017)
- Andy Allan talks: SoTM US 2013, SoTM EU 2014, SoTM US 2015
- Rory McCann talk on SoTM 2016 ("Converting a regular carto project to vector tiles: OSM-carto case study")
- Paul Norman talk on SoTM 2017