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Describes the design of poles or pylons carrying high voltage electricity cables Edit or translate this description.
Used on these elements
may be used on nodesshould not be used on waysmay be used on areasshould not be used on relations
Status: de factoPage for proposal


This tag describes the design of poles or pylons carrying high voltage electricity cables. The main parameters are the number and positions of cross-arms. Cross-arms which only serve as support for earth wires should not be considered. See examples with suggested values below.

Towers or pylons

Picture Key Value Description
Einebenenmast (110 kV)
design one-level A tower having cross-arms at a single level only.
150 kV tower (Netherlands)
design two-level A tower having cross-arms at two levels.
400 kV tower (Denmark)
design donau A common sub-type of the two-level tower. It is characterized by having one conductor on each side at the upper level and two conductors at each side on the lower level. The "Donaumast" is widely used in central Europe.
design three-level A tower having cross-arms at three levels.
Power lines with fog, Milan.jpg
design barrel A common sub-type of the three-level tower. It is characterized by the middle level cross-arms being longer than the upper and lower cross-arms giving the conductor arrangement a barrel-like shape.
Electricity pylon DSCI0402.jpg
design asymmetric A two- or three-level tower carrying only one circuit and having the conductors arranged in an asymmetrical layout.
60 kV tower (Denmark)

Steel pole 400 Hermosa Duhat Balintawak transmission line.jpg
design triangle A sub-type of the asymmetric tower. It has cross-arms at three levels providing a triangular arrangement of the conductors.
60 kV angle tower (Denmark)

FvfNLExPampanga2280 21.JPG
design flag A sub-type of the asymmetric tower. All conductors are located at one side which forms the tower a flag shape, hence the name.
design donau;one-level A three-level combination tower effectively being a Donau tower having an additional lower level, often used for circuits of a lower voltage than those at the upper levels. This tag better describes the design than just using "three-level". Similar tag values may be used for other designs having an additional lower level.
Pylon Shenzhen.jpg
design four-level,
A tower having cross-arms at four or more levels. These tall towers may carry four or more circuits.
150 kv tower (Denmark)
design delta A y-shaped tower having a horisontal cross-beam between the two top structures. All conductors are attached to the cross-beam. It is mostly used for a single circuit.
150 kV tower (Netherlands)
design delta_two-level
Delta tower having two or three cross-beams. Suitable for three circuits.
400 kV tower (Denmark)
design y-frame Similar to delta tower but there is no horisontal cross-beam between the two top structures. The middle conductor is supported directly by the top structures.
design x-frame A variation of the y-frame tower having two legs. It is suitable for carrying a second lower voltage circuit on a crossbeam below the joint.
60 kV wooden tower (Denmark)
design h-frame A tower type having two (or more) separate pylons or poles connected by a beam to which the conductors are attached. The cross-beam extends beyond the vertical structures such that not all conductors are located between the vertical structures. The portal tower is mostly used for a single circuit.
33 kV wooden tower (UK)
design h-frame_two-level
Designs like the h-frame tower, but having cross-beams at two or three levels.
design guyed_h-frame A guyed version of the h-frame tower supported by guy wires, common in e.g. Scandinavia. Compared to the self-supporting h-frame tower this design normally has non-vertical legs. This detail is useful for distinguishing self-supporting towers from guyed towers in aerial imagery etc, since the guy wires are usually too thin to be directly visible in such imagery.
Portal tower at Kassø substation (DK)
design portal A tower type having two (or more) vertical structures connected by a horizontal cross-beam. All conductors are supported between the vertical structures (unlike the h-frame tower). This design is mostly used as termination tower at substations.
design portal_two-level,
Two and three level versions of the portal tower.
735 kV tower (Quebec)
design guyed_v-frame A guyed tower type that is mainly used for ultra-high voltage lines e.g. in North America.
380 kV Wintrack tower
design bipole A pair of closely spaced but non-touching pylons. The conductors are typically mounted between the pylons. There are no cross-arms. Known as 'Wintrack' in the Netherlands. The bipole should be mapped as a single tower.
400 kV anchor towers (Denmark)
design monopolar A tower having no cross-arms, with insulators mounted on the tower itself. Mostly used as an anchor tower at very high voltage.This tower type is typically used in groups of three, with each carrying one phase, but may carry all phases in one tower. There are two recommended options for mapping such a group. Either map all three towers and connect the power line to the middle tower. Or map only one tower and add the attribute triple_tower=yes to the tower.
design:name * When the tower design has been given a specific name by its designer it can be indicated by this tag, such as Wintrack (The Netherlands), Eagle (Denmark).

Rendering in Röntgen project

Tag Rendering
design=one-level Röntgen one-level transmission tower.svg
design=two-level Röntgen two-level transmission tower.svg
design=three-level Röntgen three-level transmission tower.svg
design=four-level Röntgen four-level transmission tower.svg
design=donau Röntgen donau transmission tower.svg
design=barrel Röntgen barrel transmission tower.svg
design=asymmetric Röntgen asymmetric transmission tower.svg
design=triangle Röntgen triangle transmission tower.svg
design=delta Röntgen delta transmission tower.svg
design=delta_two-level Röntgen delta two-level transmission tower.svg
design=delta_three-level Röntgen delta three-level transmission tower.svg
design=y-frame Röntgen y-frame transmission tower.svg
design=x-frame Röntgen x-frame transmission tower.svg
design=h-frame Röntgen h-frame transmission tower.svg
design=h-frame_two-level Röntgen h-frame two-level transmission tower.svg
design=guyed_h-frame Röntgen guyed h-frame transmission tower.svg
design=portal Röntgen portal transmission tower.svg
design=portal_two-level Röntgen portal two-level transmission tower.svg
design=portal_three-level Röntgen portal three-level transmission tower.svg


Diagram Picture Key Value Description
design one-level A pole with a single cross-arm, usually supporting only one circuit. This is the default type.
09761jfBaluga Schools Halls Maestrang Kikay Talavera Ecijafvf 03.JPG
semi-horizontal_one-level A pole with one cross-arm, but with one conductor placed offset (i.e. on the top of the pole).
two-level A pole with three cross-arms, usually supporting two circuits. Poles with two cross-arms, with two conductors supported on the upper cross-arm, and four conductors mounted on the lower cross-arm (resembling design=donau on power=tower) are considered two-level poles.
Famy,Lagunajf9888 06.JPG
three-level A pole with three cross-arms, usually supporting one to three circuits.
Batangas, Manila jf9614 12.jpg
four-level A pole with four cross-arms, supporting four circuits.
Famy,Lagunajf9888 04.JPG
asymmetric A pole with two cross-arms, but supporting only one circuit in a right triangle configuration. One conductor is mounted on the upper cross-arm, and the two conductors are mounted on the lower cross-arm, or vice versa.
armless_asymmetric Variant of the asymmetric pole with insulators mounted on the pole instead on the cross-armsame.
Power lines (2).jpg
Boinville-le-Gaillard - Pylône électrique 2.jpg
triangle Variant of the asymmetric pole, but with three cross-arms. Two conductors are mounted on the uppermost and lowermost cross-arms, and one conductor is mounted on the middle cross-arm. This is usually used on anchor poles, along with pole-mounted insulators, than on suspension poles.
0152jfBarangays Guadalupe Viejo Nuevo J. P. Rizal Makati Cityfvf 19.jpg
armless_triangle Variant of the triangle pole, but with insulators mounted on the pole instead on the cross-arm. Two insulators are placed on one side of the pole, and one insulator is placed on the other side, in the middle position of the two insulators on the other side.
Bulacanjf9975 17.JPG
flag A pole without cross-arms, with insulators mounted on a vertical arrangement. The design is similar to the flag design for power towers (see Tag:power=tower#Tower design. They usually use pin insulators, but may use strain insulators when used as an angle pole on a sharp angle or line termination point (either, pole:type=anchor,pole:type=termination, or pole:type=suspension) or both strain and pin insulators when used as an anchor or termination pole on a straight line power line segment.
semi-vertical A variant of the flag design, with one insulator longer than the two others. These are always used as suspension poles.
VN 22kV Třinec Lyžbice.jpg
delta A pole with two insulators on two sides of the pole, and one insulator on the top of the pole. Unlike in delta tower, "delta" means a conductor configuration than a pole design.
monopolar A pole without cross-arms, with one insulator, either placed on the side or on the top, or an insulator set mounted of the pole. This typically hold single-wire lines, like single wire earth return systems on less populated rural areas or single-wire systems serving light loads, like houses or small businesses, or secondary distribution lines, including three-phase systems or split-phase systems.
guyed=* yes A pole with guy wires, used to stabilize it on a turning or terminating segment of a power line or to balance it on unbalanced power lines.
pole A pole with another pole, placed diagonally on the side and serving as a guy wire support.
design:incomplete=* yes A pole that supports only a number of conductors than the design is capable of.

See also