Debian is a Linux distribution on which many other distributions (such as Ubuntu) are based. It uses GNOME as a desktop environment by default, but other desktops such as KDE, Xfce and E can also be used. For further information visit Wikipedia.
The current (20th, Jan., 2020) stable version is Debian 10.2 buster, and the unstable version (a.k.a. rolling upgrade version, with more up-to-date package versions) is called sid.
Many packages related to OpenStreetMap can be found in the official Debian repositories. The DebianGis project provides a list of the Debian GIS Openstreetmap packages.
Installing a Debian tile server
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