|Proposal status:||Proposed (under way)|
|Applies to:||, ,|
|Definition:||refinement and standardization for power storage technologies|
This proposal aims to standardize different methods of power storage. The main technology that is becoming increasingly important is battery storage, but there are also other technologies like flywheel, compressed air, hydrogen, gravitational storage that are either used for specific use cases or are being researched and tested right now.
This applies to power plants as well as individual storage modules.
The categorization for the different technologies is roughly based on https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_storage.
Energy storage is becoming increasingly important in balancing electricity grids. Representation in OSM is still low. There are a few used tags already that haven't been documented and that only cover part of the wide field of power storage.
Since water-pumped-storage is well established and documented I left it out of the proposal for now. You can read about what would change for it, at the end of the page.
On the level of individual modules(generators) there is some usage of generator:source=battery (were in the lower doubles before I recently added Hornsdale Power Reserve modules) and generator:source=flywheel.
To tag the peak energy output we already have established keys of plant:output=* and generator:output=*. Since the main plant:output and the output from the attached energy storage usually differ, a new tag will be established. (see tagging below)
Hornsdale Power Reserve" Grid Battery Storage buffering a wind farm"
"GRIDSERVE Braintree Electric Forecourt" charging stationBattery storage at
"Kraftwerk Fenne" coal and gas power plant with battery storage
An example of how these would be tagged according to this proposal, see further down.
Individual storage modules (for example containers filled with batteries) would be tagged as power=storage to distinguish them from normal generators which transform primary energy (sun;wind;coal;gas;...) to secondary energy (electricity).
Power-to-X facilities are somewhat different to
I propose to use storage:type=* sub tag to categorize the different ways of storing energy (see table below).
If more detailed type of storage used is known (for example lithium-ion batteries are used), this can be tagged using the storage:type=* value as a key. For example storage:type=battery + battery=lithium-ion
For the peak output power of the storage the tag storage:output:*=* (in kW/MW/...) will be established. This allows combined power generating and storing facilities to distinguish between storage and power production output.
An important value for storage is also it's peak energy input. If known the key storage:input:electricity=* (in kW/MW/...) can be used.
|physical principal||storage:type||Description||storage:output||applies to facilities
|applies to modules
|electrochemical||battery||lithium-ion||Energy stored in lithium-ion batteries||electricity||X||X|
|lead-acid||Energy stored in lead-acid batteries||electricity||X||X|
|nickel-cadmium||Energy stored in nickel-cadmium batteries||electricity||X||X|
|redox_flow||Energy stored in redox-flow battery||electricity||X||X|
|liquid_metal||Energy stored in molten-salt battery (also know as liquid metal battery)||electricity||X||X|
|electrical||capacitor||supercapacitor||Energy storage in supcercapacitors||electricity||X||X|
|magnetic||superconductor||Energy storage in superconducting magnetic coils||electricity||X||X|
|mechanical||flywheel||Energy storage as rotational inertia in flywheels||electricity||X||X|
|compressed air||cavern/under_water||Energy stored as compressed air||electricity||X||X|
|gravitation||train/vertical_lift||Energy storage using potential energy from a raised solid mass||electricity||X||X|
|pumped_hydro||Energy storage using potential energy between a lower and an upper water reservoir.||electricity||X|
|thermal||sensible heat||seasonal_heat||Energy stored as long-term thermal energy||electricity; heat; steam; hot water||X|
|boiler||Energy stored as short-term thermal energy||electricity; heat; steam; hot water||X|
|latent heat||vaporization||Energy stored by change from liquid to gas phase. See [steam accumulator||electricity; heat; steam; hot water||X|
|ice_storage||Energy stored by change from liquid to solid phase of ice and back||heat; hot water; cold water; cold air||X|
|molten_salt||Energy stored by melting salts||electricity; heat; steam; hot water||X|
|phase_change||Energy stored using phase change materials (PCM)||heat; hot water; cold water; cold air||X|
|cryogenic||Energy stored by liquefying gasses||electricity; heat; steam; hot water||X|
|chemical||power-to-gas||elektrolyser||Electricity is used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen can be stored and used later.||hydrogen;electricity||X|
|sabatier_process||hydrogen and carbon dioxide is reacted to form methane in the so called Sabatier process||methane; electricity||X|
|power-to-liquid||co2_hydrogenation||Carbon monoxide/dioxide is reacted with hydrogen to form methanol||methanol; electricity||X|
|haber-bosch_process||Hydrogen and Nitrogen are reacted with the Haber-Bosch process to form ammonia||amonia; electricity||X||
|power=plant||node/area/relation for the whole storage facility or for combined storage power plants|
|power=storage||for individual storage modules (e.g.battery container)|
|storage:type=*||determines the way the energy is stored (e.g. batteries)|
|storage:capacity=*||peak amount of energy that can be stored (in kWh/MWh/...)|
|storage:output:*=*||maximum power output of the storage (in kW/MW/...) with the specfic output medium (e.g. storage:output:electricity=*)|
|storage:input:electricity=*||maximum power input of the storage (in kW/MW/...)|
Hornsdale Power Reserve
Individual Battery Module
Main power plant
Individual Battery Modules
Gateway Energy Storage
|brand||LS Power Development|
|name||Gateway Energy Storage|
|operator||LS Power Development|
As mentioned above power=plant+plant:method=water-pumped-storage is already well established and documented. Since it's not a really a form of generating power from primary energy sources (like fossil fuels/sun/wind/...) but rather uses electricity to fill up the upper basin, It could be consider a storage method instead of a normal power plant. To be consistent with the power storage scheme, it would loose its plant:method=water-pumped-storage for storage:type=pumped_hydro (storage:type=water-pumped-storage or something similar). Generators would still be tagged the same way as before.
Please comment on the discussion page.