Proposed features/Power storage

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Power Storage
Status: Proposed (under way)
Proposed by: Hedaja
Tagging: power=plant;generator
Applies to: node, area, relation
Definition: refinement and standardization for power storage technologies
Drafted on: 2020-11-09
RFC start: 2020-12-17

Proposal

This proposal aims to standardize different methods of power storage. The main technology that is becoming increasingly important is battery storage, but there are also other technologies like flywheel, compressed air, hydrogen, gravitational storage that are either used for specific use cases or are being researched and tested right now.

This applies to power plants as well as individual storage modules.

The categorization for the different technologies is roughly based on https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_storage.

Rationale

Energy storage is becoming increasingly important in balancing electricity grids. Representation in OSM is still low. There are a few used tags already that haven't been documented and that only cover part of the wide field of power storage.

Besides the well established power=plant+plant:method=water-pumped-storage there are a few objects with plant:source=battery.

Since water-pumped-storage is well established and documented I left it out of the proposal for now. You can read about what would change for it, at the end of the page.

On the level of individual modules(generators) there is some usage of generator:source=battery (were in the lower doubles before I recently added Hornsdale Power Reserve modules) and generator:source=flywheel.

plant:method=water-pumped-storage

plant:source=battery

generator:source=battery

generator:source=flywheel

To tag the peak energy output we already have established keys of plant:output=* and generator:output=*. Since the main plant:output and the output from the attached energy storage usually differ, a new tag will be established. (see tagging below)

We also already have plant:storage=* which is somewhat used and documented. Along with undocumented and used generator:storage=*.

Existing Examples

relation 11985017 "Hornsdale Power Reserve" Grid Battery Storage buffering a wind farm

way 881406041 Battery storage at "Seed & Greet" charging station

node 8196015382 Battery storage at "GRIDSERVE Braintree Electric Forecourt" charging station

way 24599434 "Kraftwerk Fenne" coal and gas power plant with battery storage way 701780121

An example of how these would be tagged according to this proposal, see further down.


Tagging

Facilities like the "Hornsdale Power Reserve" that are dedicated to storing power or combined power plants like "Kraftwerk Fenne" would still be tagged as power=plant.

Individual storage modules (for example containers filled with batteries) would be tagged as power=storage to distinguish them from normal generators which transform primary energy (sun;wind;coal;gas;...) to secondary energy (electricity).

Power-to-X facilities are somewhat different to

I propose to use storage:type=* sub tag to categorize the different ways of storing energy (see table below).

If more detailed type of storage used is known (for example lithium-ion batteries are used), this can be tagged using the storage:type=* value as a key. For example storage:type=battery + battery=lithium-ion

Storage capacity would be tagged as storage:capacity=* (in kWh/MWh/...). This would replace the two tags plant:storage=*and generator:storage=*.

For the peak output power of the storage the tag storage:output:*=* (in kW/MW/...) will be established. This allows combined power generating and storing facilities to distinguish between storage and power production output.

An important value for storage is also it's peak energy input. If known the key storage:input:electricity=* (in kW/MW/...) can be used.

power=plant/storage
physical principal storage:type Description storage:output applies to facilities

(power=plants)

applies to modules

(power=storage)

electrochemical battery lithium-ion Energy stored in lithium-ion batteries electricity X X
lead-acid Energy stored in lead-acid batteries electricity X X
nickel-cadmium Energy stored in nickel-cadmium batteries electricity X X
redox_flow Energy stored in redox-flow battery electricity X X
liquid_metal Energy stored in molten-salt battery (also know as liquid metal battery) electricity X X
electrical capacitor supercapacitor Energy storage in supcercapacitors electricity X X
magnetic superconductor Energy storage in superconducting magnetic coils electricity X X
mechanical flywheel Energy storage as rotational inertia in flywheels electricity X X
compressed air cavern/under_water Energy stored as compressed air electricity X X
gravitation train/vertical_lift Energy storage using potential energy from a raised solid mass electricity X X
pumped_hydro Energy storage using potential energy between a lower and an upper water reservoir. electricity X
thermal sensible heat seasonal_heat Energy stored as long-term thermal energy electricity; heat; steam; hot water X
boiler Energy stored as short-term thermal energy electricity; heat; steam; hot water X
latent heat vaporization Energy stored by change from liquid to gas phase. See [steam accumulator electricity; heat; steam; hot water X
ice_storage Energy stored by change from liquid to solid phase of ice and back heat; hot water; cold water; cold air X
molten_salt Energy stored by melting salts electricity; heat; steam; hot water X
phase_change Energy stored using phase change materials (PCM) heat; hot water; cold water; cold air X
cryogenic Energy stored by liquefying gasses electricity; heat; steam; hot water X
chemical power-to-gas elektrolyser Electricity is used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen can be stored and used later. hydrogen;electricity X
sabatier_process hydrogen and carbon dioxide is reacted to form methane in the so called Sabatier process methane; electricity X
power-to-liquid co2_hydrogenation Carbon monoxide/dioxide is reacted with hydrogen to form methanol methanol; electricity X
haber-bosch_process Hydrogen and Nitrogen are reacted with the Haber-Bosch process to form ammonia amonia; electricity X


tag summery

tag meaning
power=plant node/area/relation for the whole storage facility or for combined storage power plants
power=storage for individual storage modules (e.g.battery container)
storage:type=* determines the way the energy is stored (e.g. batteries)
storage:capacity=* peak amount of energy that can be stored (in kWh/MWh/...)
storage:output:*=* maximum power output of the storage (in kW/MW/...) with the specfic output medium (e.g. storage:output:electricity=*)
storage:input:electricity=* maximum power input of the storage (in kW/MW/...)

Retagged Examples

Hornsdale Power Reserve

Main relation relation 11985017

old
landuse industrial
name Hornsdale Power Reserve
operator Neoen
plant:output:electricity 150 MW
plant:source battery
plant:storage 193.5 MWh
power plant
type multipolygon
website https://hornsdalepowerreserve.com.au/
wikidata Q51636003
wikipedia en:Hornsdale Power Reserve


new
landuse industrial
name Hornsdale Power Reserve
operator Neoen
storage:output:electricity 150 MW
storage:type battery
storage:capacity 193.5 MWh
battery lithium-ion
power plant
type multipolygon
website https://hornsdalepowerreserve.com.au/
wikidata Q51636003
wikipedia en:Hornsdale Power Reserve

Individual Battery Module way 881551633

old
manufacturer Tesla
manufacturer:wikidata Q478214
generator:source battery
generator:type lithium_ion
operator Neoen
power generator


new
manufacturer Tesla
manufacturer:wikidata Q478214
storage:type battery
battery lithium-ion
operator Neoen
power storage

"Kraftwerk Fenne"

Main power plant way 24599434

old
landuse industrial
name Kraftwerk Fenne
operator Evonik New Energies GmbH
plant:output:electricity 432 MW
plant:source coal;gas
power plant
wikidata Q1786219
wikipedia de:Kraftwerk Fenne


new
landuse industrial
name Kraftwerk Fenne
operator Evonik New Energies GmbH
plant:output:electricity 432 MW
storage:output:electricity 15 MW
storage:capacity 20 MWh
storage:type battery
battery lithium-ion
plant:source coal;gas
power plant
wikidata Q1786219
wikipedia de:Kraftwerk Fenne

Individual Battery Modules way 701780145

old
building container
generator:method battery-storage
generator:output:electricity 1.5 MW
generator:source battery
generator:storage 2 MWh
generator:type lithium_ion
operator Steag
power generator
start_date 2016


new
building container
storage:type battery
storage:output:electricity 1.5 MW
storage:capacity 2 MWh
battery lithium_ion
operator Steag
power storage
start_date 2016


Gateway Energy Storage way 885838516

brand LS Power Development
name Gateway Energy Storage
operator LS Power Development
plant:output:electricity 250 MW
storage:type battery
storage:capacity xxx MWh
battery lithium-ion
power plant


Features/Pages affected

power=plant power=generator
Tag:power=plant Tag:power=generator
Key:plant:source Key:generator:source
Key:plant:method Key:generator:method
Key:plant:type Key:generator:type
Tag:generator:source=battery

Changes to existing tags that would need further discussion

As mentioned above power=plant+plant:method=water-pumped-storage is already well established and documented. Since it's not a really a form of generating power from primary energy sources (like fossil fuels/sun/wind/...) but rather uses electricity to fill up the upper basin, It could be consider a storage method instead of a normal power plant. To be consistent with the power storage scheme, it would loose its plant:method=water-pumped-storage for storage:type=pumped_hydro (storage:type=water-pumped-storage or something similar). Generators would still be tagged the same way as before.

External discussions

Comments

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