WikiProject Haiti/Status/Hospitals

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Background

For the relief effort in Haiti it is important to know which hospitals are located where and what their condition is after the earthquake. Immediatelly after the earthquake, the Sahana foundation has prepared a database with hospitals located in Haiti. In a community effort it has been populated with ~ 150 entries.

On the other hand, mappers have been adding hospitals to the OSM database. They traced over satellite imagery and added data from MINUSTAH and from other sources in the public domain.

In the meantime, the Pan Americal Health Orgaization (PAHO/WHO) provides a master list of medical facilities (hospitals, clinics, pharmacies, etc.). Work is currently underway to import this reference dataset into the OSM database.

Data sets

Hospitals identified by WHO/PAHO

There is huge list of medical facilities (hospitals, clinics, pharmacies, etc.) collected by Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), see announcement on talk-ht. It has more than 1000 geo located entries. There is a second major advantage: PAHO has assigned a unique hospital id which can be used to refer to the facilities from the OSM database.

Data sources:

Data originally from MSPP

The PAHO medical facility list seems to have included the Ministry of Health's (MSPP) "2005 MSPP database with geocodes" as can be seen e.g. here. What was the process of the MSPP database converting/merging into the PAHO database is not clear from the tags / change set information. (Perhaps someone with better information could clarify this?)

Has the data e.g. been tweaked, merged with another data set, vetting in a way or an other, or something else?

Data from Sahana

An initial import of the hospitals to OSM has been done. The Sahana data set is not maintained any more, though, and it isn't updated in the OSM database. During the first import of the PAHO/WHO list care has been taken to match already mapped health facilities from the Sahana data set with the new health facilities from the PAHO/WHO list. The former Sahana data set can be downloaded in various formats from the Sahana website.

CDC/USAID MCH facilities list

"MCH" is an acronym for "Maternal and Child Healthcare". A report was prepared in or after 2003 entitled "PMTCT Baseline Assessment and Planning Template", a product of the CDC and USAID; "PMTCT" refers to "Preventing Maternal To Child Transmission [of HIV]". This report states in Part 10 ("Line list of MCH facilities in country"; pg 19): "No list of health facilities providing MCH services is available." The report provides such a list for the first time. As this is apparently a product of the United States government, we may be free to use it without further inquiry; an e-mail address and author appear in the document properties to which an inquiry might be made if deemed necessary.

A copy of the report has been filed with WebCitation.org (see http://www.webcitation.org/5nIoWpjyz ). The report is being added to wikisource; see PMTCT Baseline Assessment and Planning Template (Haiti).

Ground surveyed data

As of October 2011 there has been significant ground surveying and addition to the OSM database at least by the local mapper group, COSMHA as part of their work with IOM. This data has a focus on the cholera response related health facilities. (Is this better documented somewhere in the wiki??)

Data in OSM

Traditionally, a hospital in OSM is a node or way tagged with amenity=hospital.

See also Proposed features/Healthcare 2.0.

Roles of the data sets - comparison

Data set Role
PAHO/WHO The PAHO/WHO is the reference dataset for health facilities in Haiti. It provides the semantic unique id for health facilities. Note that this data set includes (at least) the "2005 MSPP database with geocodes".
OSM database The OSM database shall include a replica for the health facilities in Haiti in order to (1) display it on the OSM maps and to (2) make it available in OSM queries.
Sahana As of 2010-02-03 the Sahana database became a less important source for health facilities. The OSM database still links to Sahana entries using the tag sahana_id=* (and sometimes ref:sahana_id=*)but the remaining semantic attributes should be replicas of the PAHO/WHO list.
CDC/USAID MCH List Produced in or after 2003, provides a list of facilities at which maternal and child healthcare services can be found.

Tagging

PAHO/WHO specific tags

Tag Master Description How to treat in OSM/Role in OSM
paho:id=* PAHO/WHO The unique id assigned by PAHO/WHO Don't edit after first import. Establishes the link to the PAHO/WHO dataset.
paho:commune_id=* PAHO/WHO Unique identifier of the village/city the facility is located in. This is an ID manged by PAHO/WHO. It doesn't correspond with the OSM object ID of a corresponding village/city. Don't edit after first import. Will be updated by scripts, if necessary. Do not set to an OSM object id of the respective village/city.
paho:department=* PAHO/WHO Unique identifier of departement the facility is located in. This is an ID manged by PAHO/WHO. It doesn't correspond with the OSM object ID of a corresponding departement boundary. Don't edit after first import. Will be updated by scripts, if necessary. Do not set to an OSM object id of the respective village/city. Don't add an is_in:departement=* tag, nominatim should geocode the facility correctly because it knows the departement boundaries in Haiti
source:health_facility=* PAHO/WHO Refers to PAHO/WHO as source of the data Set at first import. Don't edit afterwards. Will be updated by scripts, if necessary.

Sahana specific tags

Tag Description
source:sahana=http://haiti.sahanafoundation.org/prod/hms/hospital source attribution
sahana_id=ID of the hospital from the Sahana website ID of the hospital from the Sahana website
sahana:name=The name of the hospital as known from the Sahana website The name of the hospital as known from the Sahana website
sahana:address=The address of the hospital as known from the Sahana website The address of the hospital as known from the Sahana website
etc. for other attributes from Sahana

CDC/USAID MCH facilities specific tags

Tag Description
health_facility:MCH = yes in combination with amenity=hospital, this would indicate that the facility offers maternal and child health services; analogous to emergency=yes.
health_facility:access = public (or) private (or) mixed public/private the dataset provides three values for "type" of hospital: Public, Privé, Mixte (Public, Private, Mixed)
name:fr=* the dataset provides names of facilities in French.
source:name:fr = CDC/USAID PMTCT Baseline attribution
source:health_facility:MCH = CDC/USAID PMTCT Baseline attribution
source:health_facility:access = CDC/USAID PMTCT Baseline if access key is provided a value from the data set
source_ref:CDC/USAID PMTCT = http://www.webcitation.org/5nIoWpjyz The word document has been archived at WebCitation.org, providing a permanent url.

Importing the PAHO/WHO dataset

Initial import

Version 1 (v1) of the PAHO master list as been imported in 2010-02, see archive page. In five days 1104 health facilities have been imported.

Jan Tappenbeck maintains a map displaying the already imported PAHO/WHO health facilities. Do not Update --Lübeck 21:00, 1 December 2010 (UTC)

Version 7

On 2010-03-18, PAHO published version 7 of the master list.

703 facilities have been updated in changeset 4177495.

Rendering

The PAHO master list introduces a new classification for health facilities. Current OSM map renderers don't render these facilities yet. We would like to get them rendered on the following maps:

Priority Map Description
1 Jans map A special purpose map displaying PAHO health facilities as overlay on the standard OSM slippymap, now possible to change to haiti-best-wms-image
2 OSM Haiti Relief Map The map with haiti specific rendering rules (refugee camps, earthquake damage, etc.)
3 The main OSM map Use amenity=hospital for the Haiti health facilities in general, in a ad-hoc fashion, so that they show, with a red cross and at zoom levels allowing a sufficiently large area to be seen at once, on the map at www.openstreetmap.org, that OSM outsiders are most likely to consult first. (Use the humanitarian data model for health facilities to specify the type if possible.)


If this tag is present in v1... If this tag is present in v3... ...this icon
amenity=hospital health_facility:type=hospital Hospital red cross.png (svg file [1])
health_facility_type=dispensary health_facility:type=dispensary Dispensary.png (svg file [2])
health_facility_type=health_center ignoring health_facility:bed=* not relevant Health center.png (svg file [3])
not relevant health_facility:type=health_center and health_facility:bed=yes Health center bed.png (svg file [4])
not relevant health_facility:type=health_center and health_facility:bed=no Health center nobed.png (svg file [5])
health_facility_type=field_hospital health_facility:type=field_hospital Field hospital.png (svg file [6])
health_facility_type=unknown_health_facility health_facility:type=other
or health_facility:type=unspecified
Unknown health facility.png (svg file [7])

How to deal with data problems ?

Problems may include illegal lat/lon coordinates (i.e. 0.0/0.0), or lat/lon coordinates which are clearly off (i.e. a hospital to be located in Port-Au-Prince with lat/lon-coordinates around Jacmel) and duplicate entries.

How to deal with duplicate entries

There are a lot of duplicates in the PAHO/WHO list. Some of them are obvious, even to mappers who aren't familiar with the local situation in Haiti. Others are less obvious and must ultimately be resolved by experts at PAHO/WHO. If you identify duplicate entries

  • import them anyway
  • create a relation with the following tags:
type=duplicate-object
dataset=paho-who-health-facility-list
status=suspected
note=any note/hint for people who want to resolve the poential conflict
  • Add the OSM nodes or ways representing the duplicate health facilities with the role object to the relation.

See this example. It keeps two potentially duplicate facilities in Terreneuve together.

How to deal with other data problems ?

If you identify a problem add it to the object using the tag FIXME=*. We'll generate reports which collect the reported FIXME notes. This relieves you from the burden of submitting individual issues to the PAHO issue list.

You may also consider to report corrections or issues with the form provided by PAHO.

Duplicates

This is a list of potential duplicate entries in the PAHO/WHO master list. They have been identified by OSM mappers during the initial import process.

Do not edit this list. It has been generated automatically from the OSM database. Potential duplicates are managed there as special relations, see this example.

The maintainers of the PAHO list are aware of the duplicates and they are working on eliminating them. Upcoming version of the PAHO master list should include less duplicates. OSM will remove duplicates from its database as soon as they are deleted in the PAHO list.

Potential duplicates Health facilities Note
Map for conflict 402512 should be checked by PAHO staff and fixed in the master list
Map for conflict 402513 note 631445907 is a duplicate with wrong position; should be checked by PAHO staff and fixed in the PAHO master list
Map for conflict 402514 should be checked by PAHO staff; node 631446564 is clearly off
Map for conflict 402517 should be checked by PAHO staff and fixed in the master list
Map for conflict 402518 should be checked by PAHO staff and fixed in the master list
Map for conflict 402519 should be checked by PAHO staff and fixed in the master list
Map for conflict 402528 6 facilities with identical location; should be checked by PAHO staff and fixed in the master list
Map for conflict 402531 should be checked by PAHO staff and fixed in the master list
Map for conflict 402533 should be checked by PAHO staff and fixed in the master list
Map for conflict 402535 should be checked by PAHO staff and fixed in the master list
Map for conflict 402537 should be checked by PAHO staff and fixed in the master list
Map for conflict 402538 should be checked by PAHO staff and fixed in the PAHO master list
Map for conflict 402540 should be checked by PAHO staff and fixed in the master list
Map for conflict 402542 should be checked by PAHO staff and fixed in the master list
Map for conflict 402545 should be checked by PAHO staff and fixed in the master list
Map for conflict 402576 should be checked by PAHO staff and fixed in the master list
Map for conflict 402599 should be checked by PAHO staff and fixed in the master list
Map for conflict 402634 should be checked by PAHO staff and fixed in the master list

OSM Xapi Methods to retrieve hospital data

Xapi is the eXtendend Application Programming Interface for accessing OSM data.

Using Xapi query URLs

In JOSM

JOSM open location.png

Paste URL shown below into the "Open location..." dialog accessible from the File menu, then select "Download URL"

To get a .osm file

JOSM open.png
Paste URL into browser address bar, or click on a "Run it now" links below, then select "Save file..." This .osm file can be opened using the "Open..." dialog accessible from the File menu.

Get all PAHO Health Facilities in OSM

URL:

http://xapi.openstreetmap.org/api/0.6/*[health_facility:paho_id=*]

Run it now

Get all hospitals in Haiti

Ultimately, all hospitals should be represented in the PAHO Health Facilities listings. However, to overcome any gaps or newly placed facilities not yet covered by the PAHO index, this query may be used.
URL:

http://xapi.openstreetmap.org/api/0.6/*[bbox=-74.76,17.78,-71.43,20.26][amenity=hospital]

Run it now

Query by PAHO ID

URL:

http://xapi.openstreetmap.org/api/0.6/*[health_facility:paho_id=id]

where you have to replace id with the PAHO Health Facility ID.

Example: This Xapi URL queries for the PAHO Health Facility with ID 9340484: http://xapi.openstreetmap.org/api/0.6/*[health_facility:paho_id=9340484]

Query by hospital name

URL:

http://xapi.openstreetmap.org/api/0.6/*[name=aname|health_facility:paho_id]

where you have to replace aname with the name of the PAHO Health Facility ID.

Example: This Xapi URL queries for the PAHO Health Facility with the name DISPENSAIRE DE CAPOTILLE: http://xapi.openstreetmap.org/api/0.6/*[name=DISPENSAIRE DE CAPOTILLE|health_facility:paho_id]

OSM Hospital Report

See former hospital report. It is unlikely to be kept up to date in this form.