Tag:pipeline=surge_tank

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Public-images-osm logo.svg pipeline = surge_tank
Isawa II power station surge tank and penstock.jpg
Description
A tank designed to absorb excessive water power in a pipeline on valve closing or emergency stops
Used on these elements
may be used on nodesshould not be used on waysmay be used on areasshould not be used on relations
Useful combination
Wikidata
Status: approvedPage for proposal

Surge tanks are useful to dissipate the power water is applying to pipes and tunnels when a valve is closed (sometimes brutally).
Depending of upstream (only, not downstream penstocks) tunnels length and diameter, they can be pretty huge shafts like 200m of depth and 20m of diameter - often found in the middle of nowhere.
Overground building can exist sometimes and it may be useful to add name=Valve chamber on it.
Surge tanks is a concept related to fluid flows, not specific to penstocks.

As strategic function of a pipeline system, often at the start point of penstocks, we can map them in OSM with pipeline=surge_tank on a node only, like valves.
Even if such tanks can be huge shafts or chimneys, pipeline=surge_tank should be used on a pipeline node placed at the position of the tank. Visible infrastructure can be tagged with man_made=shaft or man_made=chimney since it can be complex buildings or construction which don't need to be linked to pipeline directly.

How to map

Tagging

Key Value Comment Recommendation
pipeline surge_tank It's a pipeline surge tank mandatory
location <tank location> Location of the surge tank. Can be outdoor, underground recommanded
diameter <tank diameter> The internal diameter of the tank optional
operator <surge tank operator> Name of the company operating the surge tank optional

Examples

Photo Aerial view Tagging Note
Isawa II power station surge tank and penstock.jpg
--

At the center of the shaft or chimney, add a node and use :
pipeline=surge_tank
operator=...
location=outdoor

A chimney is installed above the pipeline it is supposed to protect
Pipeline underground surgeTank.JPG
--

At the center of the shaft, add a node and use :
pipeline=surge_tank
operator=...
location=underground

Here is an underground shaft acting as a surge tank for a penstock located 170 metres below. The shaft outlet is about 18 metres wide