Zh-hant:Good practice

From OpenStreetMap Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
可用的語言 — Good practice
· Afrikaans · Alemannisch · aragonés · asturianu · azərbaycanca · Bahasa Indonesia · Bahasa Melayu · Bân-lâm-gú · Basa Jawa · Baso Minangkabau · bosanski · brezhoneg · català · čeština · dansk · Deutsch · eesti · English · español · Esperanto · estremeñu · euskara · français · Frysk · Gaeilge · Gàidhlig · galego · Hausa · hrvatski · Igbo · interlingua · Interlingue · isiXhosa · isiZulu · íslenska · italiano · Kiswahili · Kreyòl ayisyen · kréyòl gwadloupéyen · Kurdî · latviešu · Lëtzebuergesch · lietuvių · magyar · Malagasy · Malti · Nederlands · Nedersaksies · norsk bokmål · norsk nynorsk · occitan · Oromoo · oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча · Plattdüütsch · polski · português · português do Brasil · română · shqip · slovenčina · slovenščina · Soomaaliga · suomi · svenska · Tiếng Việt · Türkçe · Vahcuengh · vèneto · Wolof · Yorùbá · Zazaki · српски / srpski · беларуская · български · қазақша · македонски · монгол · русский · тоҷикӣ · українська · Ελληνικά · Հայերեն · ქართული · नेपाली · मराठी · हिन्दी · অসমীয়া · বাংলা · ਪੰਜਾਬੀ · ગુજરાતી · ଓଡ଼ିଆ · தமிழ் · తెలుగు · ಕನ್ನಡ · മലയാളം · සිංහල · ไทย · မြန်မာဘာသာ · ລາວ · ភាសាខ្មែរ · ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ · አማርኛ · 한국어 · 日本語 · 中文(简体)‎ · 吴语 · 粵語 · 中文(繁體)‎ · ייִדיש · עברית · اردو · العربية · پښتو · سنڌي · فارسی · ދިވެހިބަސް

開放街圖是一個由志工進行的開源項目,任何人都可以加入他們覺得需要的圖徵。但為了讓開放街圖的編輯跟使用都能達到最佳效能,編輯者應該遵循一些共同的原則,以提高圖資的質跟量並且避免浪費各項資源。開放街圖社群不會強迫繪圖者遵守這些原則,只希望大家能以高質量的圖資為共同目標而詳讀這些原則。編輯者有可能會發現有些狀況在這些原則規範之外,甚至它們之間有可能互相矛盾。

務必修正錯誤 Do correct errors

若你發現錯誤請務必修正,這是個wiki站台,wiki的特色就是可以修正內容的,請大膽但謹慎地更正錯誤。

繪製實地圖資 Map what's on the ground

有時地圖上的訊息會出現矛盾,例如同一個地點在舊地圖上和新地圖的地名或拼法不同。請注意地圖的使用者一般需要在地圖上找到與當地指標相同的地名,但他們不一定吹毛求疵地要求所有地圖資訊所提供的拼法完全一樣,但如果有明顯的錯誤,例如John-F.-Kennwdy 廣場明顯是 Kennedy 一字誤拼,這樣的狀況下還請改正。

可查證性 Verifiability

Main article: Verifiability 幫忙將此翻譯成中文(繁體)‎!

開放街圖上的資料都應該是可查證的。這個原則應用在開放街圖的所有面向,請謹記所有其他圖客應該都能查證你所輸入的資料。 

請勿繪製歷史事件與過去的圖徵 Don't map historic events and historic features

根據開放街圖必須可被查證,請不要繪製與歷史事件相關的圖徵,也請勿繪製已經消失的物件,因為他們無法被進一步驗證。關於歷史事件的討論請見此 discussed here. 如果該歷史事件有遺跡留存 (可使用 historic=ruins 標誌). 同樣的荒廢的火車軌道只要有留存可見遺跡基本上都可以標誌 (可使用 railway=abandoned). 關於荒廢與拆卸的鐵道的討論請見 discussed here.

請勿繪製沒有跟現實物件相關的法律規範 Don't map your local legislation, if not bound to objects in reality

Things such as local traffic rules should only be mapped through the objects which represent these rules on the ground, e.g. a traffic sign, road surface marking. Other rules that can not be seen in some way should not be mapped, as they are not universally verifiable.

請勿為了美觀的算圖結果而繪製地圖 Don't map for the renderer

Main article: Tagging for the renderer 幫忙將此翻譯成中文(繁體)‎!

Draw things the way they are on the ground - do not enter incorrect data just because it will help renderer, navigation or some other data consumer has problem with correct data. They are continually improving, don't bend the data to make it look prettier, just be patient.

完善的 changeset 評論Good changeset comments

Main article: Good changeset comments 幫忙將此翻譯成中文(繁體)‎!

A good changeset comment should concisely and adequately describe an edit. You should do this out of courtesy to your fellow mappers, to avoid misunderstandings, and get mistakes fixed quickly. It makes your edits more valuable. It may even help you when you look back at your edits in future.

請勿使用 name tag 來描述事物 Don't use name tag to describe things

a lot of tracks named "track" (in German)

Main article: Names 幫忙將此翻譯成中文(繁體)‎!

The name tag is to be used for the name of a feature. It is not a place where you should describe or classify the feature. We use other tags for that. For example it is wrong to have a tag '"name=track" on track leading through a forest. Instead it should have the tag highway=track. If the track has a name (like a street name), it would have a name tag too. If not, then there should be no name tag.

You can find appropriate tags in the editors using their presets. In iD just start typing after you added an object, in JOSM you can search the presets after pressing F3. If you don't find what you need search this wiki or Taginfo - or just ask the community. If you cannot find matching tags, add a note=* or description=*.

保存編輯歷史 Keep the history

When things change in the real world, be bold, and edit the map to reflect the current situation. But be aware that OpenStreetMap can store the editing history of an element, and you can help preserve this history by making sure you re-use one element when it becomes something different. Example: If a café closes down, don't delete the node. Just remove the cafe tag, and leave other tags (like the address) in place.

When updating buildings or landuse you may wish to delete and redraw anew, but to retain an editing history it may be better to edit existing objects. For JOSM there is a tool "replace geometry" in the plugin utilsplugin2. With this you can draw a new outline of the object and then merge the outlines shape to the existing way.

一圖徵一節點元素 One feature, one OSM element

Main article: One feature, one OSM element 幫忙將此翻譯成中文(繁體)‎!

Don't place nodes in identically tagged areas just to see some icon appear on the map. The renderers will display icons on areas as well and there's no need to have every parking-lot, soccer-ground, etc., duplicated in the database.

路要是直的就畫直 Keep straight ways straight

Main article: Editing Standards and Conventions 幫忙將此翻譯成中文(繁體)‎!

When there's a road that's dead-straight, draw it as such. That's done by just one line between two nodes without any nodes in between. Some roads are perfectly straight even when your GPS-track might think differently.

JOSM, iD and Potlatch all have tools to straighten streets with intersections. That keeps our data slick and makes the maps look better. Having said that, if you have multiple traces for a particular road and they all show a bend in the road, or you see the road's shape in an aerial photograph - then depict this shape in OSM.

使用適當的節點量來繪製曲線 Map bends with an appropriate number of nodes

Ensure you use a reasonable number of nodes to record bends and other features. There's no hard or fast rule about how many nodes should be used to map a bend in a road - you need to use your own judgment - but there should be enough so that the angle between successive parts of a way should not be too large (e.g. shouldn't be close to 90°). This means that on sharper corners - the nodes will need to be closer together to map a smooth curve in the road than on relatively shallow corners.

把 GPS 軌跡做平均 Average out GPS-traces

Main article: Accuracy of GPS data 幫忙將此翻譯成中文(繁體)‎!

The accuracy of the points in a single GPS trace may be out by several meters. This depends on lots of factors such as the positions of the satellites when the trace was taken, tree cover, proximity to nearby buildings, position of the GPS unit relative to the center of the road etc. If many traces are taken for the same road, then the effect of errors in any one trace will have a much smaller impact on the average position of these traces.

To help with this, it's useful if you upload all traces to the server - even if they cover roads already in the database. This allows others to use your traces to average out the errors and should eventually result in lower position errors. If you have many tracks covering the same way, you may also try the "average tracks" script to make one "average" trace.

先對齊空照圖,再繪製軌跡點 Align Aerial Imagery before Tracing

Main article: Using Imagery 幫忙將此翻譯成中文(繁體)‎!

Aerial imagery will, regardless of source, have offsets to the real positions of objects on the ground. While this can be small enough to be ignored, it can be substantially more than typical GPS errors (>> 10 meters) and change over small areas (requiring re-adjustment). It is mandatory that you check this before moving existing OSM data, or adding more.

Potential ways to align and check alignment:

  • existing GPS tracks or high precision POI data
  • existing OSM data

Both JOSM and Potlatch have tools that support imagery alignment.

請勿使用過期的圖資來描繪 Do Not Trace from Outdated Imagery

Main article: Armchair mapping 幫忙將此翻譯成中文(繁體)‎!

Just because it is available doesn't mean that aerial imagery is up to date. Always check before changing or deleting existing OSM data. Best is to only map areas that you visit and verify yourself.

用FIXME來標記預估值 Mark estimations with FIXME

Sometimes it makes sense to map estimated positions rather than not mapping the object at all. But always mark your estimations with a fixme=* so you or somebody else will come back to it.

請勿移除你不清楚的tag資料 Don't remove tags that you don't understand

Sometimes you will come across elements with tags that have no meaning to you. This doesn't automatically mean you should remove them. They may have been added for a specific purpose. If you think they might be junk then try to contact the author.

為你創建的 tag 建立說明文件 Document your custom-tags

Main article: New Features 幫忙將此翻譯成中文(繁體)‎!

When you use tags yourself that aren't on map features, give other mappers a chance to understand (and maybe adopt) them by documenting them in the wiki.

請勿濫用分號來區分不同的值(value) Don't over-use semi-colon separated values

Semi-colon value separator characters can be introduced into values, where the same key needs to take multiple values. This can be useful for putting lists of values into certain type of minor attribute tags, however it should be avoided in more important top-level tags. In general these special characters should not be over-used, since they detract from the simplicity of the tagging system.

參見 See also