Tag:usage=headrace

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Public-images-osm logo.svg usage = headrace
Osm element tag.svg
Description
Waterway specific usage dedicated to water feeding for energy production located between intakes and downstream penstocks
Used on these elements
should not be used on nodesmay be used on waysshould not be used on areasshould not be used on relations
Requires
Useful combination
Wikidata
Status: approvedPage for proposal

Outdoor pipeline penstock

Headraces paths are dedicated to energy production from the water force. They lead water from intakes to valve chambers upstream where penstocks start.
Both canal and pressurised waterways can be used as headraces, depending of environment and water amount to carry.
A headrace waterway can go through a tunnel=flooded, be in free space or even in a man_made=pipeline. Have a look below how to tag them according to this specific usage.

It may be possible to involve water feeding infrastructure in Relation:waterway with side_stream role only if all water is took and released in the same river. It's not always the case and waterway=* graph have to be extended with or without waterway relation membership.

How to map

Don't forget to have a look at Waterways or waterway=* for more complete tagging possibilities.
These guidelines are dedicated to usage=headrace situations.

As any waterway and for power generation only, draw a line along the path followed by water. Put usage=headrace on any segment between the intake you may see in a lake or a river to any waterway with usage=penstock.
As seen in the chart at the top of this page, never directly connect the headrace waterway to a power=generator. Water should go through a penstock first, which can length a few meters to kilometers down to mountains.

Examples

Photo Tagging Note
Headrace tunnels map

waterway=pressurised
tunnel=flooded
usage=headrace
location=underground
diameter=4900
operator=...

Horizontal tunnels carrying water from intakes to penstocks. Such ways have a pipe flow regime, their inlet are always below the water level and no air can get inside.
Underground water tunnel outlet

waterway=canal
tunnel=flooded
usage=headrace
location=underground
operator=...

A headrace tunnel works at atmospheric pressure and water have a free surface while flowing inside. Its inlet is designed to be always above water level and air can get inside too.
Free space canal

waterway=canal
usage=headrace
operator=...

Headrace overground canal feeding penstocks of a power plant
Headrace pipeline in a tunnel

waterway=pressurised
man_made=pipeline
substance=water
usage=headrace
tunnel=yes
location=underground
operator=...
access=private

The most complete case with a headrace pipeline hosted in a human accessible tunnel in operation.
This is the only situation where man_made=pipeline is used in combination with tunnel=* on the same way.
Water siphon

On all parts, use:

waterway=pressurised
man_made=pipeline
substance=water
usage=headrace


operator=...

On the bridge part, use:
bridge=aqueduct

On the underground part, use:
location=underground

A big siphon allowing water to cross a valley. Only half side is visible on the picture, tunnels or pipelines are connecting each side at equivalent altitudes. The siphon is a pipe flow waterway.