Proposed features/marine-tagging

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Marine Tagging
Status: Abandoned (inactive)
Proposed by: several users
Tagging: various=various
Applies to: Node Way Closed way Area Relation
Definition: This is a Portal to many other proposals. It links many Marine Based Proposals.
Rendered as: Various: As described.
Draft start: 2009-07-25
RFC start: 2009-07-26
Vote start:
Vote end:


This document roughly follows the chapter order and sub-divisions of INT 1 (the "map legend" of nautical paper charts). The letters in the chapter headings are the chapter designation in INT 1, mentioned here for ease of reference. See the References section below.

Contents

References (useful documents of the IHO and others)

  • Publications of the IHO (International Hydrographic Organization):
    http://www.iho-ohi.net/iho_pubs/IHO_Download.htm#maint
    • S-4 Chart Specifications of the IHO for folks making nautical paper/raster charts, with lots of useful background information and cartographic hints.
      • INT 1 Symbols, Abbreviations and Terms used on Charts is basically the map legend of nautical paper charts. If you're at all into nautical charts, you need this booklet. Available from your local book dealer in your native language, or in English, French and Danish online free of charge.
      • INT 3 Use of Symbols and Abbreviations is a fictional nautical paper chart that aims to include every single symbol in INT 1 at least once. Also includes many exceptional situations and unusual compositions. (See also the ENC TDS below.)
    • S-52 Specifications for Chart Content and Display Aspects of ECDIS describes how ENCs are to be displayed on the bridge navigational computers (ECDIS) of large vessels (those under SOLAS regulations). A lot of interesting information, but convoluted and only parts are available online.
      • S-52 Annex A: Symbol Library for Use on ECDIS contains pictures and exact proportions for simplified as well as traditional symbols of electronic charts on SOLAS vessels. An addendum is available free of charge online.
    • S-57 IHO Transfer Standard for Digital Hydrographic Data is the low-level file format description for all kinds of marine data.
      • S-57 Appendix A: IHO Object Catalogue is the list of all objects and attributes – basically the "tags" of ENCs. Useful for comparison when designing a tagging scheme.
      • S-57 Appendix B.1: ENC Product Specification tells you how to actually make a map using the S-57 file format. Given input compiled according to S-4, the result is an Electronic Navigational Chart for the SOLAS market.
      • S-57 Appendix B.1 Annex D: INT1 to S-57 Cross Reference relates the arcane acronyms and codes of S-57 to the more familiar symbols shown in INT 1. If you're at all into S-57 or ENCs, you definitely want this one handy.
      • ENC TDS: Test Data Set is just INT 3, binary-encoded as an S-57 ENC. Useful complement to the INT 1 to S-57 Cross Reference. Available free of charge online.
    • S-100 IHO Universal Hydrographic Data Model is the technical standard set to supersede S-57. Formally adopted on 1 January 2010.
      • S-101 will be the upcoming new ENC Product Specification (work in progress).

Confused yet? ;-) Concentrate on INT 1 if you're not sure where to start with the IHO. The right-most column in INT 1 is a reference to S-4, which you may want to try and follow for more verbose explanations and some useful background information.

  • The Danish Hydrographic Office (KMS, Kort- of Matrikelstyrelsen) has some highly interesting background information on hydrographic surveying (water depth). They also have their local version of INT 1 online, free of charge.
    http://www.kms.dk/English/NauticalChartsandNavigation/
    • Behind the Nautical Chart – Surveying, reliability and use
    • INT 1 - symbols, abbreviations & terms – Bi-langual version of INT 1 in Danish and English
  • Theodor Stocks: Eine neue Tiefenkarte der südlichen Nordsee. [A new bathymetric chart of the Southern North Sea.] In: Deutsche Hydrographische Zeitschrift [Ocean Dynamics], Vol. 9, No. 6, pp. 265–280. Deutsches Hydrographisches Institut [German Hydrographic Office], Hamburg, 1956.
    http://www.springerlink.com/content/71301807q62w6463/

General and Miscellaneous (A) (B)

Chapters A and B of INT 1 is mostly stuff we don't need, but there are a few exceptions like "PA" (approximate positions, B33) and local magnetic anomalies (B82). That stuff is supposed to go into this section I think.

Topography (feature page)

Natural Features (C)

Coastline (C1–C8)

other values?

hillocks
flat coast

Relief (C10–C14)

Water Features, Lava (C20–C26)

Vegetation (C30–C33)

Most if not all natural features should already be covered by the Map Features. We might add some pointers here though.

Cultural Features (D)

Most cultural features other than bridges should already be covered by the Map Features. We might add some pointers here though.

Landmarks (E)

  • General (conspicuity, height, altitude); E1–E5
  • Landmarks (individual descriptions); E10–E36

The individual descriptions and classifications mostly already exist on Map Features. Landmarks are existing features on land, which should already mapped on OSM anyway, so we don't need to add much here as far as marine tagging is concerned.

However, not all features on land can be used as landmarks, because they are not all prominently visible from seawards. For example, one cemetery on a mountainside far away from shore might be easy to make out from its surroundings, while another cemetery very close to the shore might not be visible at all because it's hidden behind a line of trees. Also, some cemeteries may be visible from sea, but are simply not prominent enough to be of use as landmarks.

The decision whether or not an object can be used as a landmark is always a nautical one, and is required for marine mapping. It is never a question of cartographic generalization – in other words, this is not something a renderer could decide on its own. So we need at least one tag to state that a certain object is prominently visible from the water, and perhaps a way to define degrees (i. e. whether or not the object is conspicuous).


S57 into OSM-TAG-Translation

CATLMK; Category of landmark -> landmark=*
COLOUR; Colour -> landmark:colour=*
COLPAT; Colour pattern -> landmark:colour_pattern=*
CONDTN; Condition
CONRAD; Conspicuous, radar
CONVIS; Conspicuous, visually
ELEVAT; Elevation -> ele=*
FUNCTN; Function
HEIGHT; Height  -> height=*
NATCON; Nature of construction -> landmark:nature_of_construction=*
NOBJNM; Object name in national language -> name:DE=*, name:EN=* ....
OBJNAM; Object name -> name=*
STATUS; Status
VERACC; Vertical accuracy -> height:accurancy=*, depth:accurancy=*
VERDAT; Vertical datum -> height:datum=*, depth:datum=
VERLEN; Vertical length -> height=*, depth=*

Ports (F)

  • Artificial Features (dykes, breakwaters, groynes); F1–F6
  • Harbour Installations (piers, jetties, dolphins, slipways, docks); F10–F34
  • Canals, Barrage; F40–F44
  • Transhipment Facilities (terminals, warehouses, cranes); F50–F53
  • Public Buildings (harbour master, customs, quarantine building); F60–F63

The Map Features and especially Harbour have a lot of good work already in place. A definition suggestion is on Talk:Proposed_features/Breakwater. We should attempt to complete, merge and/or add pointers as appropriate.


Hydrography

Tides, Currents (H)

  • Tidal Streams and Currents (races and eddies); H40–H46

There are several other sub-sections in this chapter of INT 1, but I'm not sure they have relevance to OSM. Let's ignore those for the time being.

Depths (I)

See Water Depth for some ideas around how to gather and store this information.

General (I1–I4)

(existence or sounding doubtful, age of source data)

depth:source_quality=*

possible values corresponding to the INT-1

existence_doubtfull
sounding_doubtfull
reported
reported_not_confirmed

depth:source_quality:reportyear=*

the year where the depth was reported


Soundings (I10–I15)

(spot depths)

Soundings should be kept in a separate database similar to SRTM data for land heights.

Depths in Fairways and Areas; INT-1 I20–I25

(dredged, swept, inadequately surveyed and unsurveyed areas)


waterway=dredged_area

an area with waterway=dredged_area

+ additional info for the dredged depth. See Proposed_features/marine-tagging#Depths_.28I.29

alternate: depth:dredged=* + maintained=yes/no + depth:dredged:year=* for non-maintained areas

Depth Contours (I30–I31)

Nature of the Seabed (J)

Types of Seabed (J1–15)

(sand, gravel, kelp etc.)


seabed_surface=

values by INT-1:

sand
mud
clay
silt
stones
gravel
pebbles
cobbles
rock or rocky
shells
(also combination of them)
weed
kelp, seaweed
mobile bottom (e.g. sand waves)
spring in seabed


Intertidal Areas (J20-22)

e.g. water=tidal + surface=*

more details/discussion see: Proposed_features/Water_cover

Quality Terms of Seabed (J30-39)

seabed_surface:quality=*

discription about the quality of the seabed-surface

INT-1 values are:

fine (only for sand)
medium (only for sand)
coarse (only for sand)
broken
sticky
soft
stiff
volcanic
calcareous
hard

Rocks, Wrecks, Obstructions (K)

General (K1–K2)

(danger line, swept objects)


Rocks (K10–K17)

(covered/uncovered, dangerous/not-dangereous, breakers)

Proposed natural=rocks or natural=rock


Wrecks (K20–K31)

(covered/uncovered, dangerous/not-dangereous, masts, unknown depth, foul areas)


Obstructions (K40–K48)

(piles, marine farms, shellfish beds)

Offshore Installations (L)

General (L1–L5)

(safety zones, wind farms)


Platforms and Moorings (L10–L17)

...


Underwater Installations (L20–L24)

(wells, turbines)


Submarine Cables (L30–L32)

(used/disused, power/communications)

man_made=submarine_cable

can be used as LINE or AREA

additional tags could be:

power=line

disused=yes

Submarine Pipelines (L40–L44)

(used/disused, oil/gas/chemicals/water, diffusers)

Tracks, Routes (M)

Tracks (M1–M6)

(leading lines, recommended track, minimum depth, directional/non-directional)


Routeing Measures (M10–M29)

(TSSs, ITZs, ATBAs, Precautionary Areas, ASLs, DWs etc.)


Radar Surveillance Systems (M30–M32)

(radar reference lines)


Radio Reporting Points (M40)

...

Ferries (M50–M51)

(cable/non-cable ferries)

Areas, Limits (N)

General (N1–N2)

(with/without physical obstructions, entry prohibited/not-prohibited)


Anchorages, Anchorage Areas (N10–N14)

(types of anchorages, sea plane landing areas)


Restricted Areas (N20–N26)

(anchoring/fishing/diving prohibited, nature reserves, ammunition dumping grounds)


Military Practice Areas (N30–N34)

(firing danger, mine-laying, submarines)


International Boundaries and National Limits (N40–N49)

(straight base line, territorial sea, contiguous zone, fishery zones, continental shelf, EEZs, customs limits, harbour limits, traffic rule limits (cf. SeeSchStrO))


Various Limits (N60–N65)

(fast ice, pack ice, log pond, spoil grounds, dredging area)


Aids and Services

Lights (P)

General Tags

light=*

possible values could be just "yes" or a distinct light-colours.


light:ref=X ####,#

(int. ref-no.)


light:status=*

(status of usage: permanent | occasional | recommended | not in use )


light:description=*

e.g. light:description=Fl WRG 5s 10m

for a usefull description in the map

light:category=*

describes the light-category using S-57

osm-value S-57 term s-57 description
directional directional function a light illuminating a sector of very narrow angle and intended to mark a direction to follow. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 2778)

The bearing from which the light can be seen can be specified in light:directional:bearing=* in degrees.

leading leading light a light associated with other lights so as to form a leading line to be followed. (adapted from IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 2794)
aero aero light an aero light is established for aeronautical navigation and may be of higher power than marine lights and visible from well offshore. (IHO Chart Specifications, M-4, 476.1)
air_obstruction air obstruction light a light marking an obstacle which constitutes a danger to air navigation. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 2767)
fog_detector fog detector light a light used to automatically determine conditions of visibility which warrant the turning on or off of a sound signal. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 1885)
flood flood light a broad beam light used to illuminate a structure or area. (adapted from The Collins Dictionary)
strip strip light a light whose source has a linear form generally horizontal, which can reach a length of several metres. (IHO Chart Specifications, M-4, 478.5)
subsidiary subsidiary light a light placed on or near the support of a main light and having a special use in navigation. (Admiralty List of Radio Signals, UK Hydrographic Office)
spotlight spotlight a powerful light focused so as to illuminate a small area. (The Collins Dictionary)
front
rear
upper
lower
front
rear
upper
lower
terms used with leading lights to describe the position of the light on the lead as viewed from seaward.
moire moiré effect a short range (up to 2km) type of directional light. Sodium lighting gives a yellow background to a screen on which a vertical black line will be seen by an observer on the centre line. (IHO Chart Specifications, M-4, 475.8)
emergency emergency light a light available as a backup to a main light which will be illuminated should the main light fail.
bearing bearing light a light which enables its approximate bearing to be obtained without the use of a compass. (IHO Chart Specifications, M-4, 478.1)
horizontally_disposed horizontally disposed a group of lights of identical character and almost identical position, that are disposed horizontally.
vertically _disposed vertically disposed a group of lights of identical character and almost identical position, that are disposed vertically.



Light Structures, Major Floating Lights; P1–P6

(light vessels, major light floats, LANBYs)

Light Vessel

Basis: IHO-S-57 LITVES

It is charted using the IHO_INT_1 symbol: P6

seamark=light_vessel

A distinctively marked vessel anchored or moored at a charted point, to serve as an aid to navigation. By night, it displays a characteristic light(s) and is usually equipped with other devices, such as fog signal, submarine sound signal, and radio-beacon, to assist navigation. Also called light ship. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 2828,2829)

This type includes old-style lightships and the more modern automatic major light floats.

Light Float

Basis: IHO-S-57 LITFLT

It is charted using the IHO_INT_1 symbols: Q30-31

seamark=light_float

A boat-like structure used instead of a light buoy in waters where strong streams or currents are experienced, or when a greater elevation than that of a light buoy is necessary (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 2821).

This type refers to minor light floats.

Light Characters; P10–16

Colours of Lights

light:colour=*

e.g.: whiteLight White.svg greenLight Green.svg red Light Red.svg yellow Light Yellow.svg

Light Character

light:character=*
osm-value shortcut S-57 term s-57 description
fixed F. fixed a signal light that shows continuously, in any given direction, with constant luminous intensity and colour. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 2780)
flashing Fl. flashing a rhythmic light in which the total duration of light in a period is clearly shorter than the total duration of darkness and all the appearances of light are of equal duration. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 2783)
long_flashing LFl. long-flashing a flashing light in which a single flash of not less than two seconds duration is regularly repeated. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 2796)
quick_flashing Qk.Fl. quick-flashing a light exhibiting without interruption very rapid regular alternations of light and darkness. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 2803)
very_quick_flashing V.Qk.Fl. very quick flashing a flashing light in which flashes are repeated at a rate of not less than 80 flashes per minute but less than 160 flashes per minute.
ultra_quick_flashing U.Qk.Fl. ultra quick flashing a flashing light in which flashes are repeated at a rate of not less than 160 flashes per minute.
group_flashing Gp Fl.(x) group flashing (count of group-members) near group-info are given with light:signal_group=*
isophased Iso. isophased a light with all durations of light and darkness equal. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 2779)
occulting Occ. occulting a rhythmic light in which the total duration of light in a period is clearly longer than the total duration of darkness and all the eclipses are of equal duration. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 2801)
group_occulting Gp Occ(x) group occulting (count of group-members) near group-info are given with light:signal_group=*
quick Q quick 50-60 flashes per minute
very_quick VQ very quick 100-120 flashes per minute
ultra_quick UQ ultra quick 150-180 flashes per minute
interrupted_quick_flashing IQ interrupted quick flashing a quick light in which the sequence of flashes is interrupted by regularly repeated eclipses of constant and long duration. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 2790)
interrupted_very_quick_flashing IVQ interrupted very quick flashing a light in which the very rapid alterations of light and darkness are interrupted at regular intervals by eclipses of long duration. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 2792)
interrupted_ultra_quick_flashing IUQ interrupted ultra quick flashing a light in which the ultra quick flashes (160 or more per minute) are interrupted at regular intervals by eclipses of long duration. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 2791)
morse_X IMo.(letter) morse (letter) a rhythmic light in which appearances of light of two clearly different durations are grouped to represent a character or characters in the Morse code. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 2798)
alternating Alt. colours alternating (colours) a signal light that shows, in any given direction, two or more colours in a regularly repeated sequence with a regular periodicity. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 2770). near group-info are given with light:signal_group=*


light:signal_group=*

(Group. e.g. "2", "2+1" or "white,red,green")

light:signal_sequence=*

(signal-sequence)


Period

light:signal_period=##

(period in seconds)


Elevation

light:elevation=*

elevation of light given in metres


Range

light:range=*

light-range given in nautical miles


Disposition (hor/ver)

light:disposition=*

values could be horizontal/vertical


    • Example of a Full Light Description
  • Lights Marking Fairways
    • Leading Lights and Lights in Line; P20–P23
    • Direction Lights; P30–P31
  • Sector Lights (sectors obscured, faint, intensified); P40–P46
  • Lights with Limited Times of Exhibition (occasionally, daytime lights, fog lights, unwatched lights, temporary lights, extinguished lights); P50–P55
  • Special Lights (aero lights, fog detectors, flood lights, private lights); P60–P65

This chapter on lights is one of the longest chapters in INT 1. It contains many depictions and examples. We may be able to find a simpler way of tagging normal lights if we don't use the same section devisions as INT 1 does.

In fact, considering the massive amount of thought people have already invested in tagging schemes for lights, using the INT 1 division shown above for further discussion and division of tags might even be counter-productive. Let's use INT 1 for nothing more than to make sure we didn't overlook something.



Light-sectors

possibility 1: combined

light(no):sector=10:15

(no) is for giving one seamark with several lights an unique identification. e.g. light:1:sector=

possibility 2: start/end seperated

light(no):sector_start=10

light(no):sector_end=15

(no) is for giving one seamark with several lights an unique identification. e.g. light:1:sector=

Buoys and Beacons (Q)

  • Colours of Buoys, and of Beacon Topmarks (also reflectors); Q2–Q6
  • Lighted Marks (cf. P1–P6); Q7–Q8
  • Topmarks and Radar Reflectors); Q9–Q11
  • Buoys
    • Shapes of Buoys; Q20–Q26
    • Minor Light Floats; Q30–Q31
    • Mooring Buoys (nodes and areas); Q40–Q44
    • Special Purpose Buoys (targets, cables, outfalls, ODAS etc.); Q50–Q62
    • Seasonal Buoys (private, from/to months); Q70–Q71
  • Beacons
    • General (normal beacons, beacons on submerged rocks); Q80–Q83
    • Minor Impermanent Marks Usually in Drying Areas (Lateral Marks of Minor Channels) (stakes, poles, perchs, withies); Q90–Q92
    • Minor Marks, Usually on Land (cairns, coloured marks, topmarks on land); Q100–Q102
    • Beacon Towers (construction latticed/not-latticed); Q110–Q111
    • Special Purpose Beacons (leading lines, measured distances, cable landing, refuge beacons, notice boards); Q120–Q126
  • IALA Maritime Buoyage System; Q130

This chapter on buoys and beacons is another one of the longest chapters in INT 1. It contains many depictions, examples and special cases. We may be able to find a simpler way of tagging buoys if we don't use the same section devisions as INT 1 does.

The existing tagging schemes for buoys and beacons (one of which is below the line) are differently structured than what's in INT 1. That's not necessarily a bad thing!

In fact, considering the massive amount of thought people have already invested in tagging schemes for lights, using the INT 1 division shown above for further discussion and division of tags might even be counter-productive. Let's use INT 1 for nothing more than to make sure we didn't overlook something.



First decide if it's a buoy or a beacon:

seamark=buoy or seamark=beacon

Classification

Second we classify the seamark. With only 1-2 Tags we can describe the function of the seamark exactly. There are 5 different types of buoys and beacon. Some of them have subtypes (e.g. for lateral and cardinal seamark. that means the IHO-S-57-category due to what function the buoy/beacon has). Buoys and beacons have the same behaviour in tagging here, so I took mostly the buoys for example (coloured for IALA-A region. in IALA-B red and green is interchanged but the rest is unvaried):


lateral

(Compare Lateral Mark in Wikipedia)

key=value icon (IALA A) icon (IALA B) photo
buoy=lateral_port Lateral Pillar Red.svg Lateral Pillar Green.svg Seezeichen Tonne rot.jpg
buoy=lateral_starboard Lateral Pillar Green.svg Lateral Pillar Red.svg Seezeichen Tonne grün.jpg
buoy=lateral_preferred_channel_port Lateral Pillar PreferredChannel Port.svg Lateral Pillar PreferredChannel Starboard.svg Seezeichen Tonne rot grün.jpg
buoy=lateral_preferred_channel_starboard Lateral Pillar PreferredChannel Starboard.svg Lateral Pillar PreferredChannel Port.svg Seamark buoy lateral green-red-green.jpg
beacon=lateral_port_preferred Bake V.JPG
beacon=lateral_starboad_preferred Seamark beacon.jpg

safe water

key=value icon photo
buoy=safe_water Safe Water Pillar.svg Buoy safe water.jpg

cardinal

key=value icon photo
buoy=cardinal_north Cardinal Pillar North.svg Buoy cardinal north.jpg
buoy=cardinal_east Cardinal Pillar East.svg Buoy cardinal east.jpg
buoy=cardinal_south Cardinal Pillar South.svg Buoy cardinal south.jpg
buoy=cardinal_west Cardinal Pillar West.svg Balise cardinale.jpg

isolated_danger

key=value icon photo
buoy=isolated_danger Cardinal Pillar Single.svg

special_purpose

key=value icon photo
buoy=special_purpose SpecialPP Pillar.svg Buoy specual purpose.jpg

dangerous_wreck

IALA introduced in 2006 on a trial basis a special purpose buoy to mark dangerous wrecks. This consists of a buoy with 4 to 8 vertical stripes of alternating yellow and blue, top mark is either a X or + shape in yellow, with light alternating flashes of yellow and blue in a period of 3 seconds, and might have installed a racon with letter D. This mark have still not made its way into the permanent IALA system, though with the dangers of shipwrecks highlighted by the Tricolor wreck in Dover Straight, which even when having been marked with cardinal buoys on all sides, having a guard vessel pressent, and constantly transmitted navigational warnings was proved not to be enough to prevent collisions with the wreck.

regulatory

buoy=regulatory

These buoys are not part of the IHO-S-57 standard, but they are common on North America. They are white cans with orange horizontal bands near the top and bottom. Note that INT-1 doesn't have clear symbols for these, and are identified by buoy shape, color and top mark on most nautical charts, if at all marked, and accompanied by a notice about their functions. According to their sub-category they can have a number of symbols and text to indicate their purpose:

buoy=regulatory_prohibited Orange cross within orange diamond; boats need to keep out of this area

buoy=regulatory_controlled Orange circle; there are some restrictions on this area

buoy=regulatory_danger Orange diamond; marks a danger

buoy=regulatory_info Orange square or rectangle; some information for boaters

Seamark regulatory.jpg

basement

buoy:ref=*

(ref-no. or name)


buoy:shape=*

describes the shape of the buoy

OSM-value example-icon S-57 name S-57 description
conical NChart-Symbol INT ConicalBuoy Red.svg conical/nun/ogival the upper part of the body above the water-line, or the greater part of the superstructure, has approximately the shape or the appearance of a pointed cone with the point upwards.
can NChart-Symbol INT CanBuoy Red.svg can/cylindrical the upper part of the body above the water-line, or the greater part of the superstructure, has the shape of a cylinder, or a truncated cone that approximates to a cylinder, with a flat end uppermost.
spherical NChart-Symbol INT SphereBuoy Red.svg spherical the upper part of the body above the water-line, or the greater part of the superstructure, has the shape of a part of a sphere.
pillar SpecialPP Pillar.svg pillar the upper part of the body above the water-line, or the greater part of the superstructure is a narrow vertical structure, pillar or lattice tower.
spar SpecialPP Spar.svg spar/spindle the upper part of the body above the water-line, or the greater part of the superstructure, has the form of a pole, or of a very long cylinder, floating upright.
barrel NChart-Symbol INT BarrelBuoy Red.svg barrel the upper part of the body above the water-line, or the greater part of the superstructure, has the form of a barrel or cylinder floating horizontally.
superbuoy super-buoy a very large buoy, generally more than 5m in diameter.
icebuoy ice buoy a specially constructed shuttle shaped buoy which is used in ice conditions.

buoy:colour=*

buoy colour: red | green | red;green;red | green;red;green

buoy:colour_pattern=*

buoy colour-pattern: e.g. horizontal stripes


topmark

topmark=*

could be just "yes" or it describes the shape of topmark: e.g. Cylinder Red.svg, Cone Red.svg, Sphere Pillar Red.svg, X Shape Pillar Red.svg

OSM-value S-57 name S-57 description
cone_pointup cone, point up is where the vertex points up
cone_pointdown cone, point down is where the vertex points down
sphere sphere a body the surface of which is at all points equidistant from the centre. (The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. 1993. vol 2) spheres are commonly used as International Association of Lighthouse Authorities - IALA topmarks (safe water).
2spheres two spheres two black spheres are commonly used as an International Association of Lighthouse Authorities - IALA topmark (isolated danger).
cylinder cylinder a solid geometrical figure generated by straight lines fixed in direction and describing with one of point a closed curve, especially a circle (in which case the figure is circular cylinder, it's ends being parallel circles). (The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. 1993. vol 2). cylinders are commonly used as International Association of Lighthouse Authorities - IALA topmarks (lateral).
board board usually of rectangular shape, made from timber or metal and used to provide a contrast with the natural background of a daymark. The actual daymark is often painted on to this board.
xshape x-shape having a shape or a cross-section like the capital letter X. (The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. 1993. vol 2) an x-shape as an International Association of Lighthouse Authorities - IALA topmark should be 3 dimensional in shape. It is made of at least three crossed bars.
upright_cross upright cross a cross with one vertical member and one horizontal member, i.e. similar in shape to the character '+'.
cube cube a solid contained by six equal squares; a regular hexahedron (The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. 1993. vol 2) cube, point up: a cube standing on one of its vertexes.
cube_pointup cube, point up a cube standing standing on one of its vertexes.
2cones_point2point 2 cones, point to point 2 cones, one above the other, with their vertices together in the centre.
2cones_base2base 2 cones, base to base 2 cones, one above the other, with their bases together in the centre and their vertices pointing up and down.
rhombus rhombus a plane figure having four equal sides and equal opposite angles (two acute and two obtuse); an oblique equilateral parallelogram. (The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. 1993. vol 2)
besom besom a bundle of rods or twigs. (The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. 1993. vol 1) perch: a staff placed on top of a buoy, rock or shoal as a mark for navigation. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 3734)


perch perch a staff placed on top of a buoy , rock or shoal as a mark for navigation. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 3734)
flag flag a flag mounted on a short pole.
sphere_over_rhombus shpere over rhombus A sphere located above a rhombus.
square square a plane figure with four right angles and four equal straight sides (The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. 1993. vol 2)
rectangle rectangle a plane figure with four right angles and four straight sides, opposite sides being parallel and equal in length (The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. 1993. vol 2) horizontal rectangle: where the two longer opposite sides are standing horizontally. vertical rectangle: where the two longer opposite sides are standing vertically.
horizontal_rectangle horizontal rectangle where the two longer opposite sides are standing horizontally.
vertical_rectangle vertical rectangle where the two longer opposite sides are standing vertically.
trapezium trapezium a quadrilateral having one pair of opposite sides parallel. (The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. 1993. vol 2) trapezium, up: which stands on its longer parallel side. trapezium, down: which stands on its shorter parallel side.
trapezium_up trapezium up which stands on its longer parallel side.
trapezium_down trapezium down which stands on its shorter parallel side.
triangle triangle a figure having three angles and three sides. (New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. 1993. vol 2)
circle circle a perfectly round plane figure whose circumference is everywhere equidistant from its centre. (The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. 1993. vol 1)
2upright_crosses two upright crosses two upright crosses, generally vertically disposed one above the other.
tshape T-shape having a shape like the capital letter T.
triangle_pointup_over_circle triangle pointing up over a circle a triangle, vertex uppermost, located above a circle.
upright_cross_over_circle upright cross over a circle an upright cross located above a circle.
rhombus_over_circle rhombus over a circle an upright cross located above a circle.
circle over a triangle pointing up a circle located over a triangle, vertex uppermost


topmark:colour=*

colour of topmark e.g.: red | green | yellow | black

Fog Signals (R)

fog_signal=*

could be just yes or a s-57-category value:

OSM-value S-57 term S-57 description
explosive explosive a signal produced by the firing of explosive charges. (Admiralty List of Lights and Fog Signals)
diaphone diaphone a diaphone uses compressed air and generally emits a powerful low-pitched sound, which often concludes with a brief sound of suddenly lowered pitch, termed the 'grunt'. (Admiralty List of Lights and Fog Signals)
siren siren a siren uses compressed air and exists in a variety of types which differ considerably in their sound and power. (Admiralty List of Lights and Fog Signals)
nautophone nautophone a horn having a diaphragm oscillated by electricity (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 3371).
reed reed a reed uses compressed air and emits a weak, high pitched sound. (Admiralty List of Lights and Fog Signals)
tyfon tyfon a diaphragm horn which operates under the influence of compressed air or steam (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 5717).
bell bell a ringing sound with a short range. The apparatus may be operated automatically, by hand or by wave action. (IHO Chart Specifications, M-4, 452.5)
whistle whistle a distinctive sound made by a jet of air passing through an orifice. The apparatus may be operated automatically, by hand or by air being forced up a tube by waves acting on a buoy. (IHO Chart Specifications, M-4, 452.6)
gong gong a sound produced by vibration of a disc when struck. The apparatus may be operated automatically, by hand or by wave action. (IHO Chart Specifications, M-4, 452.7)
horn horn a horn uses compressed air or electricity to vibrate a diaphragm and exists in a variety of types which differ greatly in their sound and power. (Admiralty List of Lights and Fog Signals)


fog_signal:signal_group=*

letter sent in morse-code

fog_signal:signal_period=##

length of the signal-period in seconds

Eletronic Position-Fixing Systems (S)

Radar; S1–S5

(coast radar station, ramark, racon, radar reflector, radar conspicuous landmarks)


radar_transponder=*

could be just yes or a s57-category:

osm-value symbol S-57 term s-57 description
ramark ramark a radar marker beacon which continuously transmits a signal appearing as a radial line on a radar screen, the line indicating the direction of the beacon. Ramarks are intended primarily for marine use. The name "ramark" is derived from the words radar marker. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 4208)
racon racon a radar beacon which returns a coded signal which provides identification of the beacon, as well as range and bearing. The range and bearing are indicated by the location of the first character received on the radar screen. The name "racon" is derived from the words radar beacon. (IHO Dictionary, S-32, 5th Edition, 4132)
leading_racon leading racon/radar transponder beacon a radar beacon that may be used (in conjunction with at least one other radar beacon) to indicate a leading line.


radar_transponder:signal_group=*

(letter sent in morse-code)


radar_transponder:signal_period=##

(period in seconds)


radar_reflector=yes

(Radar reflector)

Radio; S10–S16

(coast radio station, marine/aero radio beacons)

radio_transponder:category=*

possible value using S-57 and INT-1

circular (non-directional) marine or aero-marine radiobeacon  	IS 10  	481.1
directional radiobeacon 					IS 11 	481.2
rotating-pattern radiobeacon 					IS 12 	481.1
Consol beacon 							IS 13 	481.3
radio direction-finding station 				IS 14 	483
coast radio station providing QTG service 			IS 15 	484
aeronautical radiobeacon 					IS 16 	482
Decca 	
Loran C 	
Differential GPS 	
Toran 	
Omega 	
Syledis 	
Chaika (Chayka)


radio_transponder:channel=*

A channel number assigned to a specific radio frequency, frequencies or frequency band.


radio_transponder:range=*

The estimated range of a non-optical electromagnetic transmission.


radio_transponder:orientation=*

The angular distance measured from true north to the major axis of the object.


radio_transponder:signal_frequency=*

The frequency of a signal.


radio_transponder:call_sign=*

The designated call-sign of a radio station.


radio_transponder:AIS=yes

Automatic Identification System transmitter

Satellite Navigation Systems; S50

(DGPS reference stations)

DGPS_correction=yes

ALTERNATE: using man_made=monitoring_station?

so I could be: man_made=monitoring_station monitoring:gps=yes monitoring:glonass=yes

future: monitoring:galileo=yes


Services (T)

Pilotage (T1–T4)

(pilot boarding places, pilot offices, ports with pilot)


Coast Guard, Rescue (T10–T14)

(rescue stations, lifeboar mooring, place of refuge)

Signal Stations (T20–T36)

(traffic control, locks, bridges, weather, tide gauges, military danger signals);

signal_station=*

values in INT-1:

yes
international_port_traffic
traffic
control
lock
bridge
distress
telegraph
storm
weather
ice
time
tide_scale
tide_gauge
tide
stream
danger
firing

what about "tide_scale" and "tide_gauge". Are they really signal_stations? Lynn Cut Tide Gauge

In the INT-1 list of symbols tide_scale and tide_gauge are considered as signal stations, though this can be argued on an operaional basis as these mostly are passive (waterlevel shown against a bord with a metric scale, for example).

Small Craft (Leisure) Facilities (U)

(marinas, yacht berths, visitors' mooring, yacht clubs, steps/ladders, sailmakers, chandleries, electricity, bottled gas, showers, water police stations etc.); U1–U32



(End of INT 1 chapters)

Miscellaneous Stuff and Remarks

The IHO-S-57 documentation should be the basis for this tagging-scheme, but also human-readable.

Here is an example-mapp with uses the proposed tagging scheme

Seamarks

lighthouses

seamark=lighthouse


special lighthouse types:

lighthouse= (could be: lateral_starboard_preferred, lateral_larboard_preferred, ...)

Voting before Clean-Up and Restructuring

Each proposal will seperately be voted.


  • I approve this proposal I approve this proposal. looks very simple and intuitive in general. Maybe some details needs more defining --Cbm 16:55, 10 November 2009 (UTC)
  • I approve this proposal I approve this proposal. Well defined, good schematics, though very large structure. Might need adjustments, but in general it should cover all of the common seamarks and some lesser used. Adding tags to the schematics should follow the same type of structure. --Skippern 11:15, 11 November 2009 (UTC)
  • I like this proposal.
But please, don't put these hundreds new tags in Map Features. Is this not deprecating some old stuff ? -- Pieren 12:45, 11 November 2009 (UTC)
    • Right. I think these tags should end up being separate from Map Features. But we do need a prominent link from there once a proposal on marine tagging is accepted. Arne Johannessen 01:20, 18 August 2010 (BST)
  • I don't like this proposal.
I think the timing of this vote is very unfortunate. There is an alternate tagging scheme for the same purpose and currently there is a discussion ongoing on talk-de about the practice of some advocator(s) of this tagging scheme to delete the tags of the alternative scheme on a daily basis. I do not think there should be a vote until this issue has been resolved. After 5 months of inactivity, calling for a vote now could be (mis)interpreted as an attempt to make the voters take sides in a conflict that they are most likely not aware of. --Nop 13:22, 11 November 2009 (UTC)
    • Hi Nop, this voting has nothing do with any other schemes. Everybody is free to try another structure. But more than 1600 seamark in the USA and several thousand more (~4000) in Europe are using this proposal now. So it's seems to be a useful workaround. Nothing more does this voting underline. Regards --Cbm 14:04, 11 November 2009 (UTC)
  • I oppose this proposal I oppose this proposal. The data model is already done. We don't need a second and a third one. This would make tagging and rendering unnecessary complicated. But I like the nice layout of the proposal - may be you can help to make this also for the existing model? --Markus 21:59, 15 November 2009 (UTC)
    • Where is the model done? Is there any documentation? --Norftase 21:55, 16 November 2009 (UTC)
    • Think I found the initial proposal, It's a year older, but the proposal itself is less well developed. I think we need to let the tags speek for themselves. See which set is more prolific World Wide, and try to encourage that as the standard! --Martin Renvoize 20:51, 13 December 2009 (UTC)
      • That would work if there had not already been attempts to remove tags as described by the other, I don't know which one, tagging scheme on a larger scale, even where the tags could coexist - even if that meant duplicating some or even most information. I personally couldn't care less which one prevails, as long as it's well documented and not full of cryptic abbreviations - but then again I'm no sailor. Alv 22:00, 13 December 2009 (UTC)
  • I approve this proposal I approve this proposal. I like this model very much. It's very simple to use and there are already thousands of buoys tagged with this tagging-schema. So it seems to be best practise. --Norftase 21:57, 16 November 2009 (UTC)
  • I approve this proposal I approve this proposal. I like this proposal. I already used it for my edits and it's very handy and intuitive --Klabattermann 13:50, 17 November 2009 (UTC)
  • I approve this proposal I approve this proposal. Easy to use, intuitive and able to match the IHO S-57 model. Of course some additional detailing is needed. --HeikoE 14:48, 17 November 2009 (UTC)
  • I approve this proposal I approve this proposal. I like this model, and seeing as all the negative comments have not been accompanied by a link to their prospective alternate proposals can't give a fair comparison. -- Martin Renvoize 17:45, 13 December 2009 (UTC)
  • I approve this proposal I approve this proposal. Seems to be a good scheme and is already in use -- Telegnom 11:36, 8 January 2010 (UTC)
  • I approve this proposal I approve this proposal. It follows an existing standard and thus makes it compatible with existing marine software in less efforts -- AntonMartchukov 15:38, 8 February 2010 (UTC)
  • I approve this proposal I approve this proposal. Is a good and compatible way to do useful marine mapping. Have also looked at the old proposal: the old one is not detailed enough for serious marine mapping. --Mgroenne 23:40, 12 February 2010 (UTC)
  • I approve this proposal I approve this proposal. Mainly because it follows IHO S-57 --Dannyobrien 08:58, 22 February 2010 (UTC)
    • Actually, this proposal doesn't follow S-57 at all. That's in fact one of the reasons I like it! Arne Johannessen 01:20, 18 August 2010 (BST)
  • I approve this proposal I approve this proposal. I found immediately the buoy i was searching. I think it's very natural, at least for the buoy. Use it near Cherbourg. --Selenium134 19:52, 6 April 2010 (UTC)
  • I approve this proposal I approve this proposal. Great for marine mapping --Winbladh 05:43, 29 April 2010 (UTC)
  • I approve this proposal I approve this proposal. Comprehensive and rational. I've started using it in Devon. AndyGates 22:57 13 June 2010
  • I approve this proposal I approve this proposal. Very good proposal for marine mapping, was missing this and wanted to initiate but it is already there, pleasantly surprised! Will be sure to use this! --Vussiewussie 21:48, 20 June 2010 (UTC)
  • I approve this proposal I approve this proposal. Very good proposal for marine mapping, already in wide use, human readable and writeable!!! Much better than the "other" proposal (which actually was never put to vote..--zenfunk 10:16, 30 June 2010 (UTC)
  • I approve this proposal I approve this proposal. It works well with the S-57 model, we should also think of the other features in this IHO model!--Venusman 07:39, 26 July 2010 (UTC)
  • I approve this proposal I approve this proposal. --BBO 10:00, 9 August 2010 (BST)
  • I oppose this proposal I oppose this proposal. Another data model which is nearly the same exists and is already implemented. See Openseamap/Lights Data Model, Openseamap/Beacon Data Model, and Openseamap/Buoy Data Model. We should not reinvent the wheel twice. Rahra 19:18, 14 August 2010 (BST)
    • the problem is, that this are only the sub-pages of the project openseamap. they are never discussed and set by a small delimited cicrle of persons. regards--Cbm 19:29, 14 August 2010 (BST)
      • That might be true but those OpenSeaMap tags are already rendered and they are really almost the same like this. I favor neither of those two but I wonder why there is such a debate on a tagging scheme if a similar one already exists. --Rahra 19:52, 14 August 2010 (BST)
        • the proposal is rendered since a long time, too ;) http://www.freietonne.de/osm/ . I guess there is so much discussion about it (espacially in germany i guess), because here in OSM people do not like to get things dictated by a few, but wanna discuss in public, for getting the best solution. Regards --Cbm 20:27, 14 August 2010 (BST)
        • Ok, agreed. But are we able to find a solution? IMO is tagging of sea marks using both schemes at once to support Freietonne and OpenSeaMap not an accurate solution. --Rahra 21:59, 14 August 2010 (BST)
          • to get a solution for this problem, this proposal was created. Unfortunately the OseaM-Buddies won't share wisdom oder wanna discuss here. On the other hand they just wrote some content in the wiki and u get the feeling is is common sense, bad style IMO. In the end the schemes aber very similar (because they are both using s57 as basement). Regards --Cbm 10:33, 15 August 2010 (BST)
            • IMO this page should be locked. This document the approval process of the seamarks, and needs cleanup and proper documentation pages divided into the corresponding categories should be made. Discussions about how to solve various specific problems should than be taken to the corresponding pages, and if necessary, include mailing list discussions. I hereby nominate this page for write protection. --Skippern 07:46, 16 August 2010 (BST)
              • sounds good. Any idea how to start this cleanup and proper documentation? --Cbm 22:24, 16 August 2010 (BST)
                • You can start with creating pages for each category and copy the section information there, i.e. topmark=* light=* --Skippern 03:58, 17 August 2010 (BST)
                  • I'd prefer not to do that. I fear it might only fragment and disrupt the already difficult discussion further. Arne Johannessen 01:20, 18 August 2010 (BST)
                • Preferably do the clean-up by splitting the different topics out into separate pages along the lines of INT 1's structure. The pages' names have been suggested in another discussion long ago (we won't need all of them at this time – just focus on what's needed right now). Arne Johannessen 01:20, 18 August 2010 (BST)
                  • Sounds like a good idea:) I add the topic-structure from the INT-1, now. Maybe we just cut&paste the sections into the correct position first? and then lets fill up the gaps ;) Regards --Cbm 10:34, 18 August 2010 (BST)

First Voting started: 2009-11-10 and ended 2010-08-18. Next Voting will starts after cleanUp and restructuring.


  • I don't like this proposal.
Why I must use the Second when I can have the First?--Leo12305
  • I like this proposal.
But let's work on refactoring it for a while. The proposal might be improved upon through further focused discussion. Arne Johannessen 01:20, 18 August 2010 (BST)
  • I oppose this proposal I oppose this proposal. Please split this proposal into the corresponding categories. There are some I would agree on like e.g. "landmark", but there are also some I disagree. Olaf Hannemann 05:43, 22 August 2010

New Discussion

It seems we're about to change the substance of this proposal, perhaps significantly so. Shouldn't we abandon or at least suspend the vote? Arne Johannessen 23:39, 18 August 2010 (BST)

I agree with Olaf Hannemann. I think this proposal should be split into several smaller parts. It will be easier to discuss and agree and vote on those subsections (e.g. Lights, Buoys and Beacons, Landmarks,...). If we use INT1 as template for the tags, I suggest to prepand all those tags by (e.g.) "int1:*=*". Then we could clearly distinguish seamap (INT1) relevant tags from all other tags. Rahra 11:59, 25 August 2010 (BST)

I have started to make a complete INT-1 overview, currently heavily edited. I will try to include all the symbols scanned, descriptions, and link tags and proposals that could be used. User:Skippern/INT-1 --Skippern 13:09, 25 August 2010 (BST)

  • great idea, maybe it helps --Cbm 18:29, 25 August 2010 (BST)
    • My INT-1 page now contains all symbols used on Norwegian (Kystkartverket), English (British Admirality) and Brazilian (Marinha do Brasil) nautical charts. I hope to include some additional symbols from US, Canadian and French nautical charts, but this will not alter much the list as it is. I have omitted a few symbols where national standards differ from IHO INT-1 in the main list (numbered), but have included most national variation in the national specific lists (alphabetical). INT-1 chapters that have no relevance to tagging, such as chapter G, name abbreviations on geographical features have been omitted on purpose. --Skippern 13:19, 6 September 2011 (BST)
      • My User:Skippern/INT-1 documentation is very close to finnished, though it is now time to re-evaluate a lot of the tags in it. I would like to invite everybody who are involved in marine mapping, in one way or other to help me with this, both document tags used within various schemes, and hopefully get the different tagging schemes to be unified. Can somebody help co-ordinate, specially with the german comunities of OpenSeaMap and FreieTonne? If we all agree on the same tags we get a much bigger community and a much better map! --Skippern 21:29, 31 August 2012 (BST)
      • Further, I am trying to develop a tagging preset and mapcss mappaint for JOSM, to help marine tagging, to manage this I need to be able to find all the agreed upon tagging schemes, it will greatly help in the development of the two. Once I have a "complete" set I will request them added to the list of presets in JOSM, for now, they can be downloaded from here (JOSM preset) and here (JOSM MapCSS). Any testers please contact me if there are errors in any of the two. General feedback apriciated too. --Skippern 22:28, 31 August 2012 (BST)