|power = transformer|
|A device for stepping up or down electric voltage. Large power transformers are typically located inside substations|
|Used on these elements|
|Tools for this tag|
In more technical terms, a power transformer is composed of two or more windings which, by electromagnetic induction, transforms a system of alternating voltage and current into another system of voltage and current for the purpose of transmitting electrical power. The delivery is done at the same frequency than the input.
How to map
A transformer is tagged as a . Transformers are usually located within substations and should be tagged as a node within an area tagged as power=substation.
It is not recommended to mix them with buildings. In case of indoor transformers, place a node inside the building area and add location=indoor on it.
Many details about the transformer can be added using a more complete tagging scheme. It is particularly intended for mappers having some knowledge about power systems.
Where do I find such data ?
First of all, don't go inside power substations if you're not invited to do so please, it's dangerous and probably illegal. Public information or aerial imagery will help to see outdoor transforming facilities safely.
High detailed information may be found on transformers themselves. A complete datasheet as exposed beside gives many figures on the machine capabilities and structure.
Nevertheless, you may not be able to take a picture of those plates and as a reminder: don't go inside restricted perimeters to get the one you couldn't unless invited.
|power||transformer||Defines this node as a transformer.||mandatory|
|transformer||<purpose or type>||The purpose or type of transformer (see below for possible values). This tag is not needed for most 'standard' transformers||optional|
|location||<location>||The location of the transformer. See below for possible values. If the location of the transformer is the same as that of its substation this tag is optional||recommended|
|frequency||<frequency> in Hz||The frequency of the transformer. Recommended if the frequency differs from that of the general power grid, for example 16.7 Hz for the German railway traction grid.||recommended|
|<voltage> in Volts||The operating voltage of a given interface of the transformer. Don't use voltage=* globally since it's not relevant for a transformer. See Transformer interfaces chapter below for more information||recommended|
|phases=*||1, 3, ..||Number of phases of the whole transformer or more precisely on a given interface. Recommended tag for single-phase transformers/interface. Default is 3.||optional|
|rating=*||<rating> in VA, kVA, MVA or GVA||The power rating of the whole transformer or more precisely on a given interface. Unit of measure must be explicitly provided and separated by space. Valid examples: "2.5 MVA", "1000000 VA". Invalid examples:
|windings=*||1,2,3...||Number of windings in the whole transformer or more precisely on a given interface. See Transformers interfaces chapter below for more information||optional|
|location||outdoor||A transformer located outside in open air. Use this value even if the transformer is (partly) surrounded by protective walls. This is the default value.|
|indoor||A transformer located inside a building.|
|underground||A transformer located underground.|
|rooftop||A transformer located on top of a building that is used for something else.|
location=kiosk was used to map small boxes, often manufactured and too small to be considered as actual building, hosting a transformer. man_made=street_cabinet + street_cabinet=power are more suitable to do so and get back location=* to give the cabinet's actual position (underground, indoor...)
Be careful to not confuse with substations, mapped with power=substation + substation=minor_distribution (see examples) which have more devices than only a transformer inside.
Transformers are designed to adapt voltage between their windings connected to interfaces. Interfaces are used to be called primary, secondary and so on. Several windings can compose a single interface (we find sometimes 2 or more windings on secondary interfaces of distribution source transformers).
The primary side is always and the only connected to the power source, like power generator or distant power plant whereas secondary side is always connected to consumers. Tertiary, quaternary and further sides are intended for lower voltages auxiliary services inside power plants or substations.
Complex situations may occur and need extended keys to be accurately described in OSM. phases=*, rating=*, windings=* may be suffixed with :primary, :secondary, :tertiary... to give as specific values as it needs for a specific interface. If no suffix is used, the values will be considered as common to all interfaces of the transformer.
All windings related to an interface (primary, secondary,...) always operate at the same voltage. Electrical parts with different voltages cannot belong to the same the interface.
Each interface is defined with its own voltage and transformers won't have a global voltage value. Use of voltage=* without suffix is discouraged on transformers.
You are invited to use voltage:primary=*, voltage:secondary=* or voltage:tertiary=* instead according to the interface's name.
|voltage:primary=*||Primary interface's voltage||The operating voltage of a given transformer's primary interface.|
|voltage:secondary=*||Secondary interface's voltage||The operating voltage of a given transformer's secondary interface.|
|voltage:tertiary=*||Tertiary interface's voltage||The operating voltage of a given transformer's tertiary interface.|
voltage-high=* and voltage-low=* can be in use in many places. Some mappers may be more confident by using high and low voltages and such information may help to define primary, secondary, tertiary voltages as following :
- voltage-high=* = voltage:primary=* and voltage-low=* = voltage:secondary=* in case of down transforming, like in power consuming places. The power is taken from high voltage grid to feed some distribution network at a lower voltage
- voltage-high=* = voltage:secondary=* and voltage-low=* = voltage:primary=* in up transforming places like power plants. Generators produce pretty low voltage power whereas transmission power grids operate at very high voltage. According to definition, the power generator side is definitely the primary interface and here at lower voltage than the secondary.
In some situations and countries, polyphase transformers may not be contained in a single box. It's not unusual to find several mono phase transformers boxes assumed as an equivalent to a single polyphase transformer.
It is recommended to use transformer:devices=*, defaults to 1, to indicate how many different boxes you see, sharing the same figures and functions.
Such a key will factorise as many features as possible on a same node. Thus, all keys giving figures or functions will have to be valued for a single device.
More example are available below, here the principle : 2 similar three-phase 50Hz transformers may be factorised as this on the same node : devices=2 + phases=3 + frequency=50.
Please note that, according to IEC 151-12-11, such disposal of transformers can't be properly called a bank since transformers aren't connected together but each one connected to a different live cable (or even different power circuit). A set would be more appropriate.
An actual bank can't be factorised on the same node (even if at the top of a pole) and for sake of accuracy, you'll have to use as many nodes as devices in the bank. If not, we loose information about the bank structure and how transformers are working together.
|France||This transformer intends to step up 6kV power output from a hydroelectric power plant with 2 generator units to the 63kV local power grid.
|Germany||Large outdoor power transformer|
|This transformer has 3 windings operating at 3 different voltages. 225kV side is on the foreground while 63kV is hidden at the back
|France||This plate can be seen on transformer themselves (picture taken with power grid operator acknowledgement) and gives the windings configuration with several other figures. All tags can be defined with it.
|Denmark||Typical pole mounted 10 kV transformer.|
|France||Tranformers can directly be hosted on poles to save ground place and prevent complex infrastructure building when not needed.|
|United States||Multiple mono phase transformers used on a 3-phase network|
|France||Such transformer are used in France to feed legacy 15kV distribution zones from current 20kV infrastructures.
|Germany||Modern transformer station, often used to replace former transformer tower stations. The electrical connection is usually via a ground cable. The node is focused on substation instead of the transformer since other devices like switches can also be installed in the box.|
|Norway||A distribution transformer seen outdoor in Norway with figures displayed on the red plate|
|France||High speed rail lines are fed from transmission power grid with such biphase transformers.
On one of each transformer inside of the substation
|Due to pretty long distances, high speed rail 25kV catenaries have to be regularly fed by auto-transformers which take power from a -25kV feeder line going along railways.|