User:TagaSanPedroAko/Philippines Tagging/Power lines
This page focuses on mapping of power infrastructure in the Philippines. More information about the Philippines' power network can be found at WikiProject Power networks/Philippines. A list of electric utilities/cooperatives for tagging power-related infrastructure may be found WikiProject Power networks/Philippines/Operators.
Why map power infrastructure in the Philippines?
Aside from being an ubiquitous sight, even on urban aread, power lines are very important infrastructure, and imagine where the power we use come from, that is, power plants, and flows into our houses, businesses, and factories via transmission, subtransmission, and distribution lines. Also, power lines are not mapped in detail in most of the Philippines, except in the majority of Luzon, which has a large grid, and on OpenStreetMap, even major transmission lines are missing, especially in most of Visayas and Mindanao, which have grid systems also.
What interests me is Meralco's 115 kV subtransmission system, which are a large network serving substations and some large industrial customers around Metro Manila, Rizal, southern Bulacan, Laguna, and Cavite. It is composed of mostly roadside lines, placed on tall wood, concrete, or steel poles, with heights of 21 to 32 meters and usually shared by the distribution feeders. And mostly placed on major roads, these may serve as a guide or landmark, though in scenic areas, these are making the view cluttered. The lines of Meralco's subtransmission network are not very much mapped, unlike NGCP's 230 kV transmission lines traversing Metro Manila. and mostly looked upon like the lines placed on smaller poles, (usually rising at 13.5 to 15 meters), though they are energized at 115,000 volts, placed on poles with taller heights (21, 27.5 or 32 meters), and sometimes, double-bundled to carry the same power an unbundled single-circuit 230,000 volts line transmits.
Power lines by voltage
|Voltage class||Voltage||Image||Supports (pole/tower)||Description||Tags|
|Low voltage||220 (nominally 240, single phase)||poles||Two wire system, with one wire used as neutral. System commonly used for domestic distribution in most provinces. Supplied via single-phase pole-mounted transformer|
|220/440 volts (Split-phase)||Poles||Three cables or bare wires, with one wire serving as neutral. Common in private utility-owned systems.|
|220/380-440 volts split/three phase (nominally 240/415/480, three-phase high-leg delta)||Poles (rare)||Three or four wire grounded delta three-phase system, usually supplied from two pole-mounted transformers. Mostly used for larger commercial service.|
|Medium voltage||4,800 volts /2,800 volts||Poles||Distribution voltage still used on some areas of Metro Manila, and fed by the 34.5 kV system. Most of these systems are already obsoleted (customers connected to 4.8 kV systems being reconnected to the 34.5 kV system, 4.8 kV lines below 34.5 kV lines discarded, or 4.8 kV-only lines replaced by 34.5 kV lines), but still exist on parts of Manila, Pasay, Quezon City, and Parañaque. Transformers of 2.8/4.8 kV lines are distinguishable from those in 34.5 kV lines by having bushings on the side rather than on the top.|
|7620 volts (7.62 kV)||Poles||Standard voltage on most single-wire (single-phase) distribution lines, mostly cooperative-owned, but also used by Meralco on some areas, with the line fed by a 13.8 kV two or three-wire line.||minor_line|
|13,200 volts (13.2 kV)||Poles||Standard voltage on most two or three-wire distribution lines, mostly cooperative-owned, but also used by Meralco on some areas, like in southern Cavite (fed also by the 115 kV suntransmission grid, parts being fed by 34.5 kV system through step-down facilities, some being converted to 34.5 kV), northern Bulacan, and Batangas City San Pascual in Batangas, and. Lines of this voltage use one or two-cap pin insulators and two-cap strain insulators, but in the case of Meralco's 13.2 kV network, 34.5 kV pin insulators and three-cap strain insulators are becoming common, replacing one or two-cap pin insulators and two-cap strain insulators. Distribution transformers of this voltage may have one or two bushings, but it is typically two bushings (usually one connected to the line and one connected to ground, or both connected to the primary).||minor_line, cable|
|20,000 volts (20 kV)||Poles||Voltage for single-phase primary distribution lines, primarily in residential areas.||minor_line|
|34,500 volts (34.5 kV)||Poles||Standard voltage for two to three-wire distribution lines owned by Meralco in most areas. Sometimes, they can be insulated cables, mounted on poles, e.g. like when it cannot cross an obstacle on the level where they should pass, or placed underground, e.g. to avoid clutter on scenic locations.||minor_line, cable|
|High voltage||69,000 volts (69 kV)||Wooden, concrete or steel poles or H-frame towers, or rarely, steel lattice towers and tubular steel towers.||Subtransmission grid voltage. Usually single-circuit lines with 3 wires supported by strain insulators hanging from 2 or 3 crossbars mounted on poles, but double-circuit lines may exist. Primarily owned by the National Grid Corporation of the Philippines and provincial electric cooperatives.|
|115, 000 volts (115 kV)||
||Typically sub-transmission voltage, primarily used by Meralco, but also used by NGCP on some transmission lines in Ilocos Region, supplying the main load centers power, and a few sub-transmission lines. Cables can be a single conductor or double-bundle. In the case of Meralco's subtransmission system, distribution lines may share the poles of the 115 kV lines through [a] cross-arm[s] and distribution transformers may be supported on the subtransmission poles.|
|138,000 volts||Lattice towers||Used on the Visayas and Mindanao grids.|
|Ultra high voltage||230, 000 volts (230 kV)||Lattice towers, or tubular steel towers (for aesthetic purposes in order to reduce visual impact on the surroundings)||Typically double or single-circuit lines. Conductors are usually double-bundle, but single conductor or quadruple-bundle are also used. Voltage is used as a "backbone" voltage on the Visayas and Mindanao grids, however, according to NGCP, the Mindanao 230 kV transmission backbone lines are still energized at 138 kV. Even Bing and Mapbox Satellite imagery of the terminal substations of those backbone lines have no evidence of 230/138 kV transformers.|
|350,000 volts (350 kV)||Towers (steel lattice)||Used on the Leyte-Luzon high voltage direct current transmission line/underwater cable (HVDC Leyte-Luzon)|
|500,000 volts (500 kV)||Lattice towers||Voltage for long distance high voltage AC "backbone" lines in Luzon, like the Dasmariñas-Alaminos (-Ilijan Power Plant) - Tayabas transmission line, Tayabas - San Jose del Monte transmission line, and the San Manuel - San Jose del Monte transmission lines. Lines are composed of quadruple-bundle conductors, supported on very tall towers, and phases are transposed on some places.|
More info about power line voltages can be seen at Classification of Powerlines.
Lines mapped, to be mapped, and still being mapped
Meralco, or Manila Electric Company which distributes electricity in Metro Manila and nearby provinces, operates a subtransmission system composed of lines between large transmission substations and distribution substations on areas it serves. Sub-transmission lines operated by Meralco are typically mounted on tall poles and are roadside for easy access by work vehicles, but a few run on allocated right-of-way, and mounted on both towers and poles. The voltage of subtransmission lines operated by Meralco are typically 115,000 volts, but 69,000 volts in a few places, like in Batangas City and northern Bulacan.
- Zapote - Mall of Asia Subtransmission Line (short stretch along CAVITEX and portion beside drainage canal in the Reclamation Area in Pasay)
- Zapote - Bacoor - Pamplona Subtransmission Line (only a stretch along Aria, CAVITEX, and Bacoor Exit/Longos Flyover added)
- Sucat - Sun Valley - NAIA - Magallanes - Legaspi - Kamagong - Subtransmission Line (NAIA Substation and portions in Sucat, Villamor, Nichols Interchange, Ayala Avenue and Amorsolo Avenue added)
- San Pedro - Pamplona Subtransmission Line (Still incomplete. Some segments in Las Piñas toward Pamplona substation added, but more are needed.)
- Sucat - Filinvest City - Ayala Alabang - Pamplona Subtransmission Line (Mostly mapped, including cut-in Filinvest City Substation)
- Sucat - Parañaque Subtransmission Line (portions along Sucat Road added)
- LIIP - Laguna Bel-Air - Laguna Technopark Subtransmission Line (LIIP - Laguna Bel-Air segment complete)
- Biñan - Linde - Balibago Subtransmission Line (portions added, including a tap to industrial substation serving Linde)
- Canlubang - LISP 2 - CPIP - CIP2 - FPIP - Los Baños - Calauan Subtransmission Line (most portion in Calamba added. Tap connection for Maibarara Geothermal Power Plant partially mapped.)
- Calauan - San Pablo 1 Subtransmission Line
- Amadeo - Tagaytay West - Tagaytay East Subtransmission Line (only a few segments and sub-transmission poles added, but needs a relation)
- Kalayaan - Pililia Wind Farm - Malaya Subtransmission Line (portions in Laguna and Pililla Wind Farm added)
- Dasmariñas - Silang - Tagaytay East 115 kV Line (portion near NGCP Dasmariñas and Meralco Silang substations added)
Most of this lines are found in areas served by Meralco where the sub-transmission grid voltage is 69,000 volts (69 kV), like in Batangas City and parts of Bulacan (Malolos, Calumpit, San Rafael, San Miguel)
- NGCP Batangas - Meralco Batangas City Subtransmission Line 1/2 (two parallel sub-transmission lines running along Jose P. Laurel Highway and Diversion Road. Line nearly complete)
- Meralco Batangas City - Bolbok - JG Summit Subtransmission Line (extended portion in Kumintang Ibaba)
- Malolos - Calumpit Subtransmission Line (portion near Malolos Substation and along MacArthur Highway added)
- Malolos - Baliuag Subtransmission Line (mostly wood pole. Part near Baliuag Substation added)
- Malolos - FBIC Subtransmission Line (part near FBIC Substation added)
- Calumpit - FBIC Subtransmission Line (newer line on steel poles. Part near Calumpit Substation added)
- Batangas - Cuenca - Meralco Batangas City - M 69 kV Line (portions mapped. Only short segment connected to Batangas City Substation transferred to Meralco. Rest operated by NGCP.)
- Batangas - Bolbok 69 kV Line (complete, but yet to map others going as far as Bauan and Mabini. Only short segment connected to Bolbok Substation and Batangas City - JG Summit Subtransmission Line transferred to Meralco. Rest operated by NGCP)
Batangas II Electric Cooperative
- Batangas - Ingasco San Jose 69 kV Line (uses poles formerly used by Batangas - Lipa 69 kV Line 2, soon transferred to BATELEC-II, on segment between Batangas Substation and Banaybanay 1 before itsis moved to roadside alignment along Jose P. Laurel Highway also on that segment)
- Batangas - Lipa 69 Line 2 (former NGCP line, and once followed what is now the Batangas - Ingasco San Jose 69 kV line. Follows Jose P. Laurel Line from Batangas City to Banaybanay 1, San Jose, and along the future PNR Calamba-Batangas Line from Banaybanay, San Jose to Lipa)
- Masaya Disconnect Switch - Puyat Steel - Taysan Subtransmission Line (connected with NGCP Batangas - Rosario 69 kV line through disconnector switch)
- Rosario - Padre Garcia Subtransmission Line
- Rosario Tap - San Juan Subtransmission Line
- Padre Garcia - B-Meg Padre Garcia Subtransmission Line
- Tanauan Disconnect Switch - Canyon Woods 69 kV line (connected with NGCP Bay - Sto. Tomas Disconnector - LIMA 69 kV Line through disconnector)
- Malvar Disconnect Switch - CDO 69 kV line (connected with NGCP Bay - Sto. Tomas Disconnector - LIMA 69 kV Line through disconnector)
National Grid Corporation of the Philippines (NGCP)
The National Grid Corporation of the Philippines (website: ngcp.ph), also known as NGCP, operates the main power grid that carries electricity from power plants to substations, before distribution to electric utility companies, like Meralco, Davao Light, and Visayas Electric Company, and provincial electric cooperatives. NGCP is formed as a private company given by the government-owned National Transmission Corporation (Transco) a 50-year concession to operate and develop the Philippine power grid. The transmission lines owned by NGCP have voltages of 115,000 volts DC, 138,000 volts AC, 230,000 volts AC, and 500,000 volts AC, but one line, the HVDC Leyte-Luzon, carries ±350,000 volts DC. NGCP also operates a subtransmission system, typically 69,000 volts, that brings electricity to cooperative/utility owned substations, although cooperatives/utilities may own and operate their own subtransmission lines, mostly constructed by themselves or divested from NGCP. NGCP's power grid is divided into three grids, the Luzon Grid, Visayas Grid, and Mindanao Grid, with only the former two interconnected, via the HVDC Leyte-Luzon, but as part of its plan, additional links between the three grids are being proposed and constructed.
69,000 volts (69 kV)
- Batangas - San Miguel Purefoods - Lafarge 69 kV Line (portions added in Batangas City, especially in Balagtas, Kumintang Ilaya and Ibaba, Libjo, San Isidro, and Tabangao-Ambulong)
- Bay - Sto. Tomas Disconnect Switch - LIMA 69 kV line (roadside portions in Bay and Santo Tomas added, formerly tagged minor_line, but should be used on the 20/34.5 kV, 7.62/13.2 kV, or 4.8/2.8 kV distribution lines instead.)
- Sto. Tomas Disconnect Switch - Calamba 69 kV line (parts added, including part affected by subdivision construction)
- Batangas - LIMA 69 kV Line 1 and 2 (only a few portions added, including one branch to Nestlé)
- Lipa - Santo Toribio 69 kV line (segments along Feliciano Leviste Highway added. Former portion of Lipa - LIMA 69 kV Line 1, split at supposedly tapping point. Transferred to BATELEC-II from NGCP)
- Lipa - LIMA 69 kV Line 2 (portion near Lipa Royale in Inosluban added. Transferred to LIMA Enerzone from NGCP)
- Batangas - Banaba Disconnect Switch - Bolbok Disconnect Switch - Bauan Disconnect Switch - B-Meg Bauan 69 kV Line
- Banaba Disconnector Switch - Cuenca 69 kV Line
- Batangas - NGCP Bolbok - Bolbok Tap - San Pascual Disconnect Switch - EEI - Mabini 69 kV Line
115,000 volts (115 kV)
- San Esteban - Bantay - Currimao - Laoag Transmission Line
- Dasmarinas - CEPZA 115 kV Line
- Dasmarinas - Ternate 115 kV Line
138,000 volts (138 kV)
- Negros Geothermal - Bacolod Transmission Line
- Pulangi IV - Kibawe Transmission Line
- Pulangi IV - Bunawan Transmission Line (has a large gap on Marilog District, Davao City segment)
- Pulangi IV - Villanueva Transmission Line
- Kibawe - Tacurong Transmission Line (portion in Tacurong added)
- General Santos - Tacurong Transmission Line (portions adeed)
230,000 volts (230 kV)
- Bauang - Bacnotan - San Esteban Transmission Line (complete)
- Bauang - Bakun - San Esteban Transmission Line (complete, added segment connecting to Bakun run-of-the-river hydroelectric power plant.
- Bauang - Kadampat Transmission Line (complete)
- Magat Dam - Santiago Transmission Line (complete, but needs relation)
- Santiago - Gamu - Tuguegarao Transmission Line (remaining portions completed by David Groom, but needs relation)
- Santiago - Bayombong - Ambuklao Transmission Line (portion to Ambuklao Dam still incomplete)
- Malaya - Taytay Transmission Line (complete)
- Calaca - Amadeo - Dasmariñas Transmission Line (complete, but has missing relation members)
- Calaca - Biñan Transmission Line (complete)
- Batangas - San Lorenzo/Santa Rita Transmission Line (complete)
- San Lorenzo/Santa Rita - Calaca Transmission Line
- Lumban - Gumaca Transmission Line (partially added)
- Pagbilao - Tayabas Transmission Line (complete)
- Naga - Tayabas Transmission Line (parts added)
- Tiwi - Naga Transmission Line (not yet added)
- Tiwi - Daraga - Naga Transmission Line (not yet added)
- Bacman Geothermal - Daraga Transmission Line (added)
500,000 volts (500 kV)
- Dasmariñas - Ilijan - Tayabas Transmission Line (complete, need to merge existing relations)
- Tayabas - San Jose Transmission Line (has gap near Tanay, Rizal)
- Kadampat - San Manuel [EHV] - San Jose Transmission Line (complete, but missing relation)
This section shows tags for power-related infrastructure, like power plants (also called power stations), generators, substations, transmission lines and towers, utility poles, distribution lines, and transformers.
- Power plants/stations=power=plant. Do not tag them as power=station.
- Transmission towers=power=tower. Add the tower designs and types if possible. Tubular or solid towers, excluding such structures used for subtransmission voltages (115 or 69 kV), which are considered poles instead (except for multipolar structures, which are considered towers), are also counted as towers, just tag them as normal towers with the structure=* tag.
- Subtransmission and distribution poles=power=pole. Tag their height, design, material, operator, and other details (e.g. guy wires are present, uses strain insulators, or has street lights), if possible.
- Transformers=power=transformer. Tag the type, phases, rating and voltages if possible. For pole-mounted transformers, please tag as power=pole with transformer=distribution, plus other tags mentioned on the previous sentence if possible. The values at power transformer expanded tagging will replace several values documented in power=transformer, but does not mean everything must be mechanically retagged.
- Transmission lines (115/138 kV and above)=power=line (If undersea cable, tag as power=cable
- Sub-transmission lines (69 to 115 kV)=power=line. This tagging is preferred over power=minor_line, as in this case, should be reserved for lines with voltages below 50 kV.
- Distribution lines (220/440 V split-phase to 13.8-34.5 kV)=power=minor_line. If it is an overhead or underground insulated cable, tag as power=cable, plus relevant information, like circuits, voltage, and location.
- Distribution circuits=type=route and route=power. Tag circuit references with ref=*. Distribution circuit references can be found in outgoing distribution lines at a substation (especially when feeders transition from underground cables in the substation), insulated overhead cable bundles, and disconnector switches).
Transmission tower designs may be tagged using the design=* tag
|Three-level tower||Tower with cross-arms on three levels. This design is common on most transmission lines usually double-circuit, but also used occasionally on single-circuit lines. Towers or poles with "armless" construction (insulators mounted on the tower/pole itself and functions also as a cross-arm), but with insulators placed on both sides, should be tagged as such.||design=three-level|
|Delta tower||Tower with a cross-arm supported on a Y-shaped structure. This is usually used on single-circuit lines with voltages pf 230 and 115 kV.|
|H-frame towers||Towers composed of 2 or more poles and a cross-arm. This is used on 115 kV or 69 kV lines which usually use poles with approximate heights of 18 to 20 m.|
Rendering of substations
This section shows renderings of some electric substations in the Philippines using Maperitive rules (made by polderrunner).
Blue lines - 115 kV sub-transmission lines, White borders - Busbars, Red dots - Switches, Two circles - 115 kV/34.5 kV transformers, Thin green lines - 34.5 kV disribution lines
Red lines - 500 kV transmission lines, Green lines - 230 kV transmission lines, Blue lines - 115 kV subtransmission lines (NGCP/Meralco), White borders - Busbars, Red dots - Switches, Two circles - 500/230 kV, 230/115 kV, and 115 kV/34.5 kV transformers
Grid network maps
This section shows renderings of the grid network in the Philippines (including sub-transmission networks owned by the National Grid Corporation of the Philippine and electric companies/cooperatives) using Maperitive rules (made by polderrunner). But, maps here will be divided in the province level
Links to operator official websites
- National Grid Corporation of the Philippines, the transmission system operator for the main grid network
- National Power Corporation, which own the transmission system in off-grid islands through the Small Power Utilities Group (SPUG), which owns generation facilities in such areas.
- Meralco, a Metro Manila-based utility that serves Metro Manila, the whole of Bulacan, Rizal, Cavite, most part of Laguna, parts of Quezon and Batangas, and some barangays in Candaba, Pampanga
- Batangas II Electric Cooperative, a cooperative based in Lipa that serves the eastern part of Batangas, including a few remote barangays in Batangas City.