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In anticipation of OS Opendata(Tm) being compatiable with OSM's licensing...

Roads and paths ->

Motorway (mainline) -  highway=motorway
Motorway (sliproads) - highway=motorway_link
Primary(Trunk) route (mainline) -  highway=trunk
Primary(Trunk) route (sliproads) - highway=trunk_link
Main road - 'A' Designation (mainline) -  highway=primary
Main road - 'A' Designation (sliproads) -  highway=primary
Secondary road - 'B' Designation (mainline) -  highway=primary
Secondary road - 'B' Designation (sliproads) -  highway=primary - B Roads have slips ?
Minor Road - 'C' Designation - highway=secondary
Minor Road - No designation - highway=unclassified

Railways (Most of the active UK rail network is now mapped - included for completeness)

Railway (mainline) -> railway=rail
Railway (Stations) -> railway=station
Railway (Tube)     -> railway=station
Railway (Single)  ->  railway=railtracks=1
Railway (metro) ->    railway=subway
Railway (minor) ->    railway=* appropriate to character.
Railway (sidings/yard) -> railway=serviceTemplate:Service
Railway (narrow gauge) -> use gauge=* with appropriate railway=*

Power lines ->

power line -> power=line 

Buildings ->

Building (General) -> building=yes or building=* appropriate to character.
Building (Glasshouse) -> building=glasshouse 

Boundaries -> (Boundaries are also defined by a relation in OSM)

'Home' Nations -> boundary=admin admin_level=4 for England/Wales/Scotland etc..
County (England)->boundary=admin admin_level=6 
Unitary authority->boundary=admin admin_level=6 
District(England)->boundary=admin admin_level=8  
Parish (England)/community (Wales) ->boundary=admin admin_level=10  

Natural Features->

Natural forms (Generally) -> natural=* appropriate to charcter of feature
Wood -> landuse=wood or landuse=forest depending on management..
Water{area)-> natural=water or appropriate to character
Water(linear)-> waterway=* appropriate to character.

Heratige Sites->

Site of heratige interest ->

Misc POI's->

Educational facility -> amenity=* appropriate to facility.
Medical Facility (Hopsital) ->amenity=hospital 
Police Station -> amenity=police
Sports Complex -> lesiure=sports_complex