Turkmenistan Geoname Changes

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See also Districts in Turkmenistan

Glossary

Please see Districts in Turkmenistan \ Glossary

Names as of 1992

The point of origin for names of provinces, districts and cities in independent Turkmenistan (i.e., Turkmenistan after 1991) is the appendix to Turkmenistan Supreme Soviet Resolution No. 686-XII of 17 April 1992. As of April 1992 the Russian terms for provinces and municipalities remained in use even in Turkmen-language official documents:  oblast for province, raýon for district, gorod for city, posýolok for town.  Over time, these Russian-origin loan words were supplanted by purely Turkmen vocabulary: welaýat, etrap, şäher, and şäherçe, respectively. A glossary of English, Russian, and Turkmen equivalents of municipal structures can be found here.[1]

Table 1. Turkmenistan: Provinces, Districts, Cities as of 17 April 1992
Turkmen transcription Russian version Former name
Областлар (Oblasts)
Дашховуз Дашховузская Ташаузская
Чәрҗев Чарджевская Чарджоуская
Районлар (Districts)
Ашгабат Ашгабатский Ашхабадский
Бәхерден Бахерденский Бахарденский
Гөкдепе Гёкдепинский Геок-Тепинский
Кака Какинский Каахкинский
Сарахс Серахсский Серахский
Эсенгулы Эсeнгулыйский Гасан-Кулинский
Газанҗык Газанджыкский Казанджикский
Гаррыгала Гаррыгалынский Кара-Калинский
Гызыларбат Гызыларбатский Кизыл-Арватский
Гызылетрек Гызылетрекский Кизыл-Атрекский
Векилбазар Векилбазарский Векиль-Базарский
Гушгы Гушгынский вновь образованный
Ёлөтен Ёлотенский Иолотанский
Гарагум Гарагумский Каракумский
Байрамалы Байрамалыйский Байрам-Алийский
Мургап Мургапский Мургабский
Сакарчәге Сакарчягинский Сакар-Чагинский
Тагтабазар Тагтабазарский Тахта-Базарский
Түркменгала Туркменгалынский Туркмен-Калинский
Йыланлы Йыланлыйский Ильялинский
Көнеүргенч Кёнеургенчский Куня-Ургенчский
Тагта Тагтынский Тахтинский
Дашховуз Дашховузский Ташаузский
Дарганата Дарганатынский Дарган-Атинский
Дәнев Дәневский Дейнауский
Гарабекевүл Гарабекевюлский Карабекаульский
Фарап Фарапский Фарабский
Хоҗамбаз Ходжамбазский Ходжамбасский
Чәрҗев Чарджевский Чарджоуский
Чаршаңңы Чаршангынский Чаршангинский
Шәхерлер (Cities)
Ашгабат Ашгабат Ашхабад
Бүзмейин Бюзмейин Безмеин
Газанҗык Газанджык Казанджик
Гызыларбат Гызыларбат Кизыл-Арват
Небитдаг Небитдаг Небит-Даг
Гумдаг Гумдаг вновь образованный
Байрамалы Байрамалы Байрам-Али
Гушгы Гушгы Кушка
Ёлөтен Ёлотен Иолотань
Дашховуз Дашховуз Ташауз
Көнеүргенч Кёнеургенч Куня-Ургенч
Говурдак Говурдак Гаурдак
Чәрҗев Чарджев Чарджоу
Source: Turkmenistan Supreme Soviet Resolution No. 686-XII of 17 April 1992

New Alphabet and Transliteration

Beginning in 1999, Turkmenistan began a transition from the Cyrillic alphabet to a modified Latin alphabet for the Turkmen language.

Table 2. Romanization Table for Turkmen Cyrillic Script
Cyrillic Latin
А а A a
Б б B b
Ч ч Ç ç
Д д D d
initial Э э

non-initial Е е

E e
initial Ё Ýo ýo
Ә ә Ä ä
Ф ф F f
Г г G g
Х х H h
И и I i
Җ җ J j
Ж ж Ž ž
К к K k
Л л L l
М м M m
Н н N n
Ң ң Ň ň
О о O o
Ө ө Ö ö
П п P p
Р р R r
С с S s
Ш ш Ş ş
Т т T t
У у U u
Ү ү Ü ü
В в W w
Ы ы Y y
Й й Ý ý
З з Z z
Я я Ýa ýa

Applying this orthographic conversion table yields the following Latin spellings of the 1992 Cyrillic spellings:

Table 3.  Romanized Geographic Names from Table 1.
Welaýatlar (Provinces)
Дашховуз Daşhowuz
Чәрҗев Çärjew
Etraplar (Districts)
Ашгабат Аşgаbat
Бәхерден Bäherden
Гөкдепе Gökdepe
Кака Каka
Сарахс Sarahs
Эсенгулы Esenguly
Газанҗык Gazanjyk
Гаррыгала Garrygala
Гызыларбат Gyzylarbat
Гызылетрек Gyzyletrek
Векилбазар Wekilbazar
Гушгы Guşgy
Ёлөтен Ýolöten
Гарагум Garagum
Байрамалы Baýramaly
Мургап Murgap
Сакарчәге Sakarçäge
Тагтабазар Tagtabazar
Түркменгала Türkmengala
Йыланлы Ýylanly
Көнеүргенч Köneurgenç
Тагта Tagta
Дашховуз Daşhowuz
Дарганата Darganata
Дәнев Dänew
Гарабекевүл Garabekewül
Фарап Farap
Хоҗамбаз Hojambaz
Чәрҗев Çärjew
Чаршаңңы Çаrşаňňy
Şäherler (Cities)
Ашгабат Aşgabat
Бүзмейин Büzmeýin
Газанжык Gazanjyk
Гызыларбат Gyzylarbat
Небитдаг Nebitdag
Гумдаг Gumdag
Байрамалы Baýramaly
Гушгы Guşgy
Ёлөтен Ýolöten
Дашховуз Daşhowuz
Көнеүргенч Köneurgenç
Говурдак Gowurdak
Чәрҗев Çärjew

On 18 May 1992, Parliamentary Resolution 692-XII listed the five provinces of Turkmenistan, as in the first column below. It introduced the term welaýat in lieu of oblast.  The second column uses the 1999 transliteration table to convert Cyrillic to Latin spelling.  This resolution changed the name of Çärjew oblasty to Lebap welaýaty.

Table 4. Turkmenistan: List of Provinces as of 18 May 1992
Original Turkmen Cyrillic Romanized Transcription as of 1999
Ахал велаяты Ahal welaýaty
Балкан велаяты Balkan welaýaty
Дашховуз велаяты Daşhowuz welaýaty
Лебап велаяты Lebap welaýaty
Мары велаяты Mary welaýaty
Source: Parliamentary Resolution 692-XII of 18 May 1992

Central Government Sole Authority for Geographic Names

On 14 December 1992, the People's Council (Turkmen: Halk Maslahaty) adopted Law No. 783-ХП, “On the Order of Deciding Issues of Administrative-Territorial Structure of Turkmenistan”, and Resolution XM-6.  These two statutes established the authority of the central government to name municipal structures, farms, and industrial facilities.  They changed the Russian word oblast' (область), rendered in Turkmen Cyrillic as област minus the terminal soft sign, to the Turkmen word welaýat in reference to provinces.  The resolution renamed Ashgabat oblasty (Russian: Ашгабатская область, Turkmen Сyrillic: Ашгабат областы) to Ahal welaýat, and established an authoritative list of etraplar (districts) subordinate to the welaýatlar, as below. 

Turkmen text Russian text English translation
Ахал велаятында: Ашгабат, Бабадайхан, Бәхерден, Гөкдепе, Гәверс, Кака, Сарахс, Теҗен этраплары; в Ахалском велаяте: Ашгабатский, Бабадайханский, Бахерденский, Гёкдепинский, Гяверсский, Какинский, Сарахский, Тедженский; In Ahal welaýaty: Aşgabat, Babadaýhan, Bäherden, Gökdepe, Gäwers, Kaka, Sarahs, Tejen;
Балкан велаятында: Газанҗык, Гаррыгалд, Гызыларбат, Гызылетрек, Красноводск, Эеенгулы этраплары; в Балканском велаяте: Газанджыкский, Гаррыгалынский, Гызыларбатский, Гызылетрекский, Красноводский, Эсенгулыйский; In Balkan welaýaty: Gazanjyk, Garrygala, Gyzylarbat, Gyzyletrek, Krasnowodsk, Esenguly;
Дашховуз велаятында: Дашховуз, Иыланлы, Калинин, Көнеүргенч, Леннн, Октябрь, Тагта, Тельман этраплары; в Дашховузском велаяте: Дашховузский, Йыланлыйский, Калининский, Кенеургенчский, Ленинский, Октябрьский, Тагтынский, Тельманский; In Daşhowuz welaýaty: Daşhowuz, Ýylanly, Kalinin, Köneurgenç, Lenin, Oktýabr, Tagta, Telman;
Лебап велаятында: Бойныузын, Гарабекевүл, Дарганата, Достлук, Дәнев, Керки, Сакар, Саят, Фарап, Халач, Хоҗамбаз, Чәрҗев, Чаршаңңы этраплары. в Лебапском велаяте: Бойныузынский, Гарабекевюлский, Дарганатынский, Достлукский, Дяневский, Керкинский, Сакарский, Саятский, Фарапский, Халачский, Ходжамбазский, Чарджевский, Чаршангынский; In Lebap welaýaty: Boýnyuzyn, Garabekewül, Darganata, Dostluk, Dänew, Kerki, Sakar, Saýat, Farap, Halaç, Hojambaz, Çarjew, Çarşaňňy;
Мары велаятында: Байрамалы, Векилбазар, Гарагум, Гушгы, Елөтен, Мары, Мургап, Парахат, Сакарчәге, Тагтабазар, Түркменгала этраплары. в Марыйском велаяте: Байрамалыйский, Векилбазарский, Гарагумский, Гушгынский, Ёлотенский, Марыйский, Мургапский, Парахатский, Сакарчягинский, Тагтабазарский, Туркменгалынский; In Mary welaýaty: Baýramaly, Wekilbazar, Garagum, Guşgy, Ýolöten, Mary, Murgap, Parahat, Sakarçäge, Tagtabazar, Türkmengala;
Ашгабат шәхеринде: Леннн, Совет, Пролетар этраплары. в шахере Ашгабат: Ленинский, Советский, Пролетарский. In the city of Aşgabat: Lenin, Sowet, Proletar

Subsequent Resolutions and Decrees

1990s

PDF file containing a series of geographic name changes ordered by the Halk Maslahaty (People's Council) of Turkmenistan on 14 December 1992 in Parliamentary Resolution XM-6, in the Turkmen language, using the Turkmen Cyrillic alphabet. File:19921214 XM-6.pdf ‎(1,276 × 1,650 pixels, file size: 85 KB, MIME type: PDF, 3 pages)
PDF file containing many decrees and resolutions on geographic name changes since 1991, File:1992-2018-TKM geoname changes TK-ocr.pdf. (1,285 × 1,650 pixels, file size: 11.97 MB, MIME type: PDF, 218 pages)
PDF file containing Presidential Decree No. 1327 of 5 May 1993, in Russian, on changes of geographic names, File:19930505 Decree1327 RU ocr.pdf. (721 × 1,189 pixels, file size: 1.55 MB, MIME type: PDF, 71 pages)
PDF file containing Presidential Decree No. 3204 of 10 November 2000, in Turkmen and Russian, File:2000-11-10-TKM-Pres-Decree-3204.pdf. (1,240 × 1,754 pixels, file size: 112 KB, MIME type: PDF, 4 pages)
PDF file containing Presidential Decree No. 3724 of 25 September 2002, in Turkmen, File:2002 Name change from Tagta to Gorogly.pdf (1,275 × 1,650 pixels, file size: 265 KB, MIME type: PDF, 1 page)
PDF file containing Presidential Decree No. 4066 of 4 June 2004, in Turkmen, File:2004-06-04-TKM-Pres-Decree-4066-ocr.pdf (987 × 1,471 pixels, file size: 69 KB, MIME type: PDF, 2 pages)

The following list of Turkmen legislative acts or executive decrees on geographic names is not necessarily exhaustive; additions are welcome. The original texts of decrees and resolutions found to date in either Russian or Turkmen can be seen here and in other documents with links embedded in the list below. These documents include changes of names of many villages and non-municipal structures (farms, factories, etc.) not listed above.

  • 26 June 1992, Resolution No. 729-XII, Kirow etraby and town of Ahal welaýaty are renamed Babadaýhan (Бабадайхан).
  • 14 December 1992, Parliamentary Resolution XM-6, the five welaýatlar (provinces) and capital city of Ashgabat are formally established, as are the etraplar (districts) within them, the cities with district status are listed, and types of municipalities are defined.
  • 19 January 1993, Resolution No. 794-XII, Parahat etraby of Mary welaýaty is renamed Nyýazow etraby (Ныязов этрабы).
  • 8 February 1993, Resolution No. 805-XII, Oktyabr etraby of Daşhowuz welaýaty is renamed Saparmyrat Türkmenbaşy etraby (Сапармырат Түркменбашы этрабы).
  • 8 February 1993, Resolution No. 806-XII, the town of Täzebazar in Daşhowuz welaýaty is renamed town of Nyýazow (Ныязов посёлогы).  The Russian translation of this resolution calls the town "Niyazovsk" (Ниязовск).
  • 16 February 1993, Presidential Decree No. 1177, Kalinin etraby (Калининский этрап) in Dashoguz welaýaty is renamed Boldumsaz etraby.
  • 16 February 1993, Presidential Decree No. 1178, Lenin etraby (Ленинский этрап) of Dashoguz welaýat is renamed Akdepe etraby.
  • 16 February 1993, Presidential Decree No. 1179, Telman etraby (Тельманский этрап) of Dashoguz welaýaty is renamed Gubadag etraby.
  • 9 March 1993, Resolution No. 821-XII, inter alia the town and district (etrap) of Janga in Balkan welaýaty are renamed Türkmenbaşy, and Dostluk etraby and the town of Moskovsk in Boýnyuzyn etraby are renamed Saparmyrat Nyýazow and Nyýazow, respectively.  In addition, the town of Energetik is renamed Saparmyrat Türkmenbaşy.
  • 5 May 1993, Presidential Decree No. 1327, many municipalities across Turkmenistan are renamed: inter alia in Ahal welaýaty, Kalinin in Gäwers etraby to Bagabat, Tejenstroý in Tejen etraby to Gannaly; in Daşoguz welaýaty, Leninsk in Akdepe etraby to Akdepe, Kalinin in Boldumsaz etraby to Boldumsaz, Telman in Gubadag etraby to Gubadag, Oktýabrsk in Saparmyrat Türkmenbaşy adyndaky etrap to Saparmyrat Türkmenbaşy adyndaky säherçe; in Lebap welaýaty, Golownoýe in Kerki etraby to Başsaka; in Mary welaýaty, Çapaýew adyndaky şäherçe in Ýolöten etraby to S.A. Nyýazow adyndaky şäherçe. In addition, new towns are established: in Ahal welaýaty, town of Arzuw; in Balkan welaýaty, town of Belek; in Lebap welaýaty, towns of Dostluk in Dänew etraby, Zeid in Kerki etraby, Katretdin and Suwçyoba in Saýat etraby, Hojagala in Çärjew etraby based on town of Oktýabrsk; in Mary welaýaty Wekilbazar in Wekilbazar etraby, Peşanaly in Mary etraby, and Parahat in Nyýazow etraby based on the Garagumsowhozstroý village plus the Parahat rail station.This decree also lists all towns and village councils in Turkmenistan as of that date.
  • 14 September 1993, Resolution No. 854-XII, Lenin etraby of Ashgabat is renamed Prezident Nyýazow adyndaky etrap ("district named for President Niyazov”).
  • 14 September 1993, Presidential Decree No. 1490 (in Russian) (in Turkmen), Sowet etraby (Советский этрап) of Ashgabat city is renamed Azatlyk etraby.
  • 14 September 1993, Presidential Decree No. 1491 (in Russian) (in Turkmen), Proletar etraby (Пролетарский этрап) of Ashgabat çity is renamed Köpetdag etraby.
  • 8 October 1993, Resolution No. 904-XII, the city of Krasnowodsk (Soviet Russian spelling Красноводск) is renamed Türkmenbaşy.
  • 11 June 1997, Resolution No. 220-I, Krasnovodsk Bay (Russian: Красноводский залив) is renamed from Krasnowodsk aýlagy to Türkmenbaşy aýlagy.
  • 10 June 1999, Presidential Decree No. PP-2890, Daşhowuz (“stone reservoir”) city and district (etrap) are renamed Daşoguz (“stone” + “Oghuz”).
  • 19 July 1999, Presidential Decree No. PP-2918, city of Çärjew is renamed Türkmenabat.
  • 29 December 1999, Resolution XM-60, the city and district of Kerki are renamed Atamyrat (in honor of Atamyrat Nyýazow, father of Saparmurat Niyazov).
  • 29 December 1999, Resolution XM-61, the city and district (etrap) of Çarşaňňy are renamed Köýtendag.
  • 29 December 1999, Resolution XM-62, the city and district (etrap) of Gyzylarbat are renamed Serdar ("leader", in honor of Saparmurat Niyazov).
  • 29 December 1999, Resolution XM-63, the city and district (etrap) of Gyzyletrek are renamed Etrek (gyzyl means “red” and is a reference to Communism).
  • 29 December 1999, Resolution XM-64, the city of Çeleken is renamed Hazar (“Caspian”).
  • 29 December 1999, Resolution XM-65, the city of Nebitdag ("oil mountain") is renamed Balkanabat ("Balkan city").
  • 29 December 1999, Resolution XM-66, the city and district (etrap) of Gazanjyk are renamed Bereket (“abundance”).
  • 29 December 1999, Resolution XM-67, the city and district (etrap) of Guşgy are renamed Serhetabat ("border city").

2000s

  • 10 November 2000, Presidential Decree No. 3204, the villages of Pöwrize (aka Firuza) and Wanowskiý are abolished and their territories incorporated as the city of Arçabil, and Çüli is renamed Gökdere.
  • 18 February 2001, Resolution XM-69, the following districts and one town are renamed:  Çärjew etraby to Serdarabat etraby, Boýnyuzyn etraby to Garaşsyzlyk (“independence”) etraby, Dänew etraby to Galkynyş (“renaissance”) etraby, and the town of Dänew to Galkynyş.
  • 9 August 2002, Resolution XM-74, two new districts (etraplar) are established in the city of Türkmenabat: Gahryman Atamyrat Nyýazow etraby and Gahryman Gurbansoltan Eje adyndaky etrap (in honor of the late father and mother of Saparmurad Niyazov, respectively).
  • 9 August 2002, Resolution XM-76, town of Gowurdak ("roasted meat") is renamed Magdanly ("with ore").
  • 9 August 2002, Resolution XM-77, town of Bekdaş is renamed Garabogaz and is upgraded to city equivalent to a district status.
  • 25 September 2002, Presidential Decree PP-3724, district (etrap) of Tagta in Dashoguz welaýaty is renamed Görogly.
  • 23 May 2003, Resolution No. 180-II, Saparmyrat Nyýazow adyndaky etrap in Lebap welaýat is renamed Beýik Türkmenbaşy adyndaky etrap ("Turkmenbashy the Great district").
  • 23 October 2003, Presidential Decree 6435, the town and district (etrap) of Bäherden are renamed Baharly (“spring-like”).
  • 4 June 2004, Presidential Decree No. 4066, Garrygala city and district are renamed Magtymguly city and district.
  • 6 September 2004, Resolution 227-II, Ýylanly ("with snake") etraby of Daşoguz welaýaty is renamed Gurbansoltan Eje adyndaky etrap, and the town of Ýylanly is renamed Gurbansoltan Eje.
  • 8 April 2009, Resolution No. 33-IV, Law on the Order of Resolving Issues of Administrative-Territorial Structure of Turkmenistan
  • 15 August 2009 the government publishes a list of renamed villages as an appendix to Resolution 59-IV.  Inter alia, in Ahal welaýat, Abadan geňeşligi (village council of Abadan) in Ahal welaýat is renamed Garadaşaýak, Çüli is renamed Gökdere, Diňli is renamed Gargalaňdiňli.  The village of Çemenebit in Mary welaýat has the spelling of its name changed to Çemenabat, Çemenlik becomes Döwletli, Mirnyý (“peaceful”) becomes Parahat (“peace”), and Morgunowka becomes Serhetli.

2010s

  • 10 May 2010, Resolution No. 111-IV, the town of Jeýhun in Lebap welaýaty becomes Döwletli, and three villages are upgraded to towns plus have their names changed: In Lebap, Täzebaşsaka obasyna to town of Başsaka, Dänew rail station village to town of Bahar, and in Mary province, Täzezähmet obasyna to town of Zähmet.  An appendix to this resolution lists renamed villages, towns, cities, and districts.
  • 10 May 2010, Resolution No. 112-IV, the Turkmen Mejlis (parliament) publishes a full list of municipalities in Turkmen Latin script, which becomes the new baseline for geographic names in Turkmenistan.
  • 26 November 2010, Resolution No. 152-IV, the village of Garlyk is elevated to town status.
  • 20 September 2012, Resolution No. 331-IV, the town of Üçajy in Mary welaýaty is renamed Bagtyýarlyk (“happiness”).
  • 20 October 2012, Resolution No. 346-IV, the village of Babadurmaz in Ahal welaýat is renamed Berkarar (“steadfast”) and is elevated to town status.
  • 24 May 2013, Resolution No. 405-IV, Ashgabat annexes much surrounding territory and absorbs several municipalities, which are abolished, including Abadan, Jülge, Bagyr, Garadaşaýak, Gypjak, Birleşik, Magaryf, Herrikgala, Ýalkym, Gurtly, Hellewler, and Köşi.  In Ashgabat, Prezident Nyýazow adyndaky etrap is renamed Bagtyýarlyk etraby, Azatlyk etraby is renamed Berkararlyk etraby. Ruhabat etraby of Ahal welaýat is renamed Derweze etraby, and Owadandepe (“beautiful hill”) geňeşligi is created, with its center in G. Orazow adyndaky oba.  Ashgabat gets two new boroughs (etraplar), Abadan and Ruhabat.
  • 29 July 2013, Resolution No. 420-IV, the city of Turkmenbashy (Turkmen: Türkmenbaşy) is divided into two boroughs, called Awaza and Kenar.  Turkmenbashy city annexes the town of Kenar, which is abolished.
  • 19 March 2014, Resolution No. 57-V, the village of Ýandaklyagyz in Ahal welaýaty is renamed Täze Eýýam ("new era").
  • 22 July 2014, Resolution No. 99-V, the village of Täze Zaman (“new time”) is created and subordinated initially to Owadandepe geňeşligi.
  • 8 November 2014, Resolution No. 156-V, the village of Aba Annaýew is created in Ahal welaýaty (Aba Annaýew was President Berdimuhamedov's great-uncle).
  • 3 February 2015, Resolution No. 178-V, Arçabil and Çandybil boroughs (etraplar) are merged, with the new district named Arçabil.
  • 4 June 2015, Law on the Order of Assigning Names of State Enterprises, Organizations, Establishments, Geographic and other Objects and Their Renaming.
  • 21 July 2015, Resolution No. 225-V, two districts in Turkmenabat are abolished: Gahryman Atamyrat Nyýazow and Gahryman Gurbansoltan Eje (named for the father and mother of Niyazov, respectively).
  • 28 April 2016, Resolution No. 397-V, subordination of several villages to village councils is established and listed.
  • 19 May 2016, Resolution No. 403-V, the status of several villages is changed.  Inter alia in addition, equivalent-to-a-district city of Garabogaz is downgraded to city-in-district (etrap) status, and redundantly the town of Kenar is abolished.
  • 27 July 2016, Resolution No. 425-V, among other things several towns are upgraded to cities: Dostluk in Beýik Türkmenbaşy adyndaky etraby, Birata (later Darganata), Farap, Galkynyş (later Dänew), Garabekewül, Halaç, Hojambaz, Köýtendag, Sakar, and Saýat; several villages are upgraded to towns: Astanababa in Kerki etraby, Yslam in Garabekewül etraby, Jeýhun in Garaşsyzlyk etraby (later transferred to Dänew etraby), Çohpetde, Beşir, Çaltut, and Kiştiwan; and the newly upgraded town of Jeýhun is renamed Asuda.
  • 28 September 2016, Resolution No. 452-V, the town of Bereketli Zaman in Ahal welaýaty is established.
  • 25 November 2017, Resolution No. 679-V, Certain districts (etraplar) are abolished and their territories transferred to other districts: Beýik Türkmenbaşy adyndaky etrap to Döwletli etrap, Garaşsyzlyk etraby to Galkynyş etrap, Garabekewül etraby to Halaç etraby, Sakar etraby to Saýat etraby; in addition, several names of districts and towns are changed, Atamyrat to Kerki, Birata to Darganata, Galkynyş to Dänew, Serdarabat etraby to Çärjew etraby, town of Guşçular to Çärjew, and town of Nyýazow in Dänew etraby to Garaşsyzlyk.
  • 5 January 2018, Resolution No. 686-V, inter alia Baharly city and district (etrap) have their old name of Bäherden restored.  In addition, Altyn Asyr etraby is abolished and its territory apportioned to other districts, plus Kaka city is downgraded from city-with-district-status to city in a district.
  • 5 January 2018, Parliamentary Resolution No. 687-V, Abadan and Ruhabat boroughs of Ashgabat city are abolished.  Arçabil etraby is renamed Büzmeýin etraby, and Ashgabat city is defined as containing four boroughs:  Bagtyýarlyk (“happiness”), Berkararlyk (“steadfastness”), Büzmeýin, and Köpetdag.  The boundaries of the city are expanded to include both Täze Zaman villages, which become neighborhoods of Ashgabat city, Bagtyýarlyk etraby.

References

  1. Many Turkmen governance terms are calques of Arabic or Persian words. For example, welaýat derives from the Arabic ولايَة (wilāyat), meaning state or province; şäher derives from the Persian شهر (šahr), meaning "city, town", and is a cognate of the Turkish şehir. Such loan words were apparently more politically palatable after independence than Russian-origin calques.