GED4ALL

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General information
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Challenge Fund - Second Round.

The Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) and the UK Department for International Development (DFID) Challenge Fund, aims to decrease disaster risk management costs and increase resilience by developing a framework that facilitates a multi-hazard view of risk. The Challenge Fund initiative is part of this effort, with the second round focusing on the creation of three open databases: hazard footprints, exposure data and vulnerability models. The Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team (HOT), partnered with the Global Earthquake Model (GEM), who lead the project and ImageCat, on the development of a ‘Global Exposure Database for Multi-Hazard Risk Analysis’.

The collaboration resulted in an open exposure database (GED4ALL) schema for multi-hazard risk analysis, along with protocols to integrate existing datasets, as well as generate new exposure information. An online tool following the database schemas developed as part of the Challenge Fund is currently in the pipeline by GFDRR to host the GED4ALL data, along with the hazard footprints and vulnerability models. The data itself is slowly being populated globally through various projects, such as the Open Cities Africa initiative lead by GFDRR and the METEOR project lead by the British Geological Survey (BGS).

HOT provided guidance on how GED4ALL can be populated with building level data from OpenStreetMap (OSM), assigning the most commonly used tags for the attributes identified by GEM as integral to determining the structural integrity of infrastructure in the wake of a hazard. The hazards taken into account while developing the taxonomy include earthquakes, volcanoes, floods, tsunamis, storms, cyclones and drought. This wiki proposes and welcomes contributions from the community on how OSM tags can be best aligned with the GED4ALL taxonomy below.

Please read the 'Extensible data schemas for multiple hazards, exposure and vulnerability data' paper published on PreventionWeb to learn more about the work involved with the second round of the Challenge Fund in 2017.

Complete Buildings

No. GED4ALL OSM Key OSM Description
1 Direction building:direction=* Proposed OSM direction tag, associated with buildings (parallel_to_street, perpendicular_to_street, unknown)
2 Material of the Lateral Load-Resisting System building:lateral:material=* Proposed lateral load resisting material tag (concrete_reinforced, concrete, concrete_steel, metal, masonary_reinforced, masonry, masonry_confined, earth, earth_reinforced, wood, other, unknown )
3 Lateral Load Resisting System building:lateral:system=* Proposed lateral load resisting system of buildings (moment_frame, infilled_frame, braced_frame, post_beam, wall, dual_framewall, flat_slab, waffle_slab ,infill_flatslab, infill_waffleslab, hybrid, unknown)
4 Height building:levels=* Number of above-ground levels of a building
building:levels:underground=* Number of below-ground levels of a building
building:height=* Describes the height of a building in meters
building:ground_slope=* Describes the slope of the building in relation to the ground in degrees
5 Date of Construction or Retrofit building:age=* Proposed OSM age tag, associated with buildings (pre_2000, post_2000, unknown)
building:condition=* Describes the condition of the building (good, average, poor, unknown)
6 Surroundings building:adjacency=* Describe the neighbouring condition of the building( attached, free_standing)
building:geological_site=* Describes the geological site the building is built upon (flat_land, river_bank, slopy_land, landslide_prone_area, flood_prone_area, river_bank)
7 Occupancy building=* Describe the building purpose ( residential, commercial, public, mixed_use, industrial, agriculture, assembly, government, educational, unknown)
capacity:persons=* Describe the number of people a building can support
8 Shape of the Building Plan building:shape=* Proposed shape tag, associated with buildings (square, rectangular, l_shape, curved, triangular, polygonal, e_shape, h_shape, s_shape, t_shape, u_c_shape, x-shape, y-shape, irregular, unknown)
9 Structural Irregularity building:irregularity=* Proposed OSM irregularity tag, associated with buildings (regular, irregular, unknown)
10 Ground Floor Hydrodynamics ground_floor:openings=* Proposed OSM openings tag, associated with building ground floors (yes, no, unknown)
ground_floor:height=* Proposed OSM height tag in meters, associated with building ground floors
11 Exterior Walls building:material=* Material for the exterior walls (concrete, glass, earth, masonry, metal, vegetation, wood, stucco, plastic, vinyl, cement, unknown)
wall:openings=* Proposed OSM openings tag, associated with building walls (yes, no, unknown)
12 Roof roof:shape=* Well known roof shapes (flat, pitched, monopitch, sawtooth, curved, complex_regular, complex_irregular, unknown)
roof:material=* Outer material for the building roof (masonry, earth, concrete, metal, wood, fabric, slate, stone, clay, unknown)
13 Floor floor:material=* Material of the building floor (masonry, earth, concrete, metal, wood, unknown)
14 Foundation building:foundation=* Proposed OSM foundation tag, associated with buildings (shallow, deep, unknown)
15 Fire Protection building:fireproof=* Information on a building's fire-resistance rating (yes, no, unknown)

Simplified Buildings

No. GED4ALL OSM Key OSM Description
2 Material of the Lateral Load-Resisting System building:lateral:material=* Proposed lateral load resisting material tag (concrete_reinforced, concrete, concrete_steel, metal, masonary_reinforced, masonry, masonry_confined, earth, earth_reinforced, wood, other, unknown )
3 Lateral Load Resisting System building:lateral:system=* Identify structural system of buildings (moment_frame, infilled_frame, braced_frame, post_beam, wall, dual_framewall, flat_slab, waffle_slab ,infill_flatslab, infill_waffleslab, hybrid, unknown)
4 Height building:levels=* Number of above-ground levels of a building
5 Date of Construction or Retrofit building:age=* Proposed OSM age tag, associated with buildings (pre_2000, post_2000, unknown)
building:condition=* Describe the condition of the building (good, average, poor, unknown)
6 Surroundings building:adjacency=* Describe the neighbouring condition of the building( attached, free_standing)
building:geological_site=* Describes the geological site the building is built upon (flat_land, river_bank, slopy_land, landslide_prone_area, flood_prone_area, river_bank)
7 Occupancy building=* Describe the building purpose ( residential, commercial, public, mixed_use, industrial, agriculture, assembly, government, educational, unknown)
capacity:persons=* Describe the number of people a building can support
9 Ground Floor Hydrodynamics ground_floor:height=* Proposed OSM height tag in meters, associated with building ground floors
11 Roof roof:shape=* Well known roof shapes (flat, pitched, monopitch, sawtooth, curved, complex_regular, complex_irregular, unknown)
roof:material=* Outer material for the building roof (masonry, earth, concrete, metal, wood, fabric, slate, stone, clay, unknown)

Road Network

No. GED4ALL OSM Key OSM Description
highway=* Main key used for identifying any kind of road, street or path. The value of the key helps indicate the importance of the highway within the road network as a whole
1 motorway highway=motorway Restricted access major divided highway, normally with 2 or more running lanes plus emergency hard shoulder. Equivalent to the Freeway, Autobahn, etc
2 trunk highway=trunk Most important roads in a country's system that aren't motorways (need not necessarily be a divided highway)
3 primary highway=primary Next most important roads in a country's system (often link large towns) A major highway linking large towns, in developed countries normally with 2 lanes
4 secondary highway=secondary Next most important roads in a country's system (often link towns)
5 tertiary highway=tertiary Next most important roads in a country's system (often link smaller towns and villages)
6 unclassified highway=unclassified Least most important through roads in a country's system – i.e. minor roads of a lower classification than tertiary, but which serve a purpose other than access to properties. Often link villages and hamlets
7 residential highway=residential Roads that serve as an access to housing, without function of connecting settlements. Often lined with housing
8 service highway=service Access roads to, or within an industrial estate, camp site, business park, car park etc
9 unknown highway=unclassified Category can be used when a road has been mapped but there is no additional information concerning its typology

Railway Network

No. GED4ALL OSM Key OSM Description
railway=* Main key used for all forms of transport using metal rails, including mainline services, subways, heritage lines and trams
1 Light Rail railway=light_rail Higher-standard tram system, normally in its own right-of-way. Often it connects towns and thus reaches a considerable length (tens of kilometers)
2 Monorail railway=monorail Railway with only a single rail. A monorail can run above the rail such as in Las Vegas and Disneyland or can suspend below the rail such as the Wuppertal Schwebebahn (Germany)
3 Rail railway=rail Full sized passenger or freight trains in the standard gauge for the country or state
4 Subway railway=subway City passenger underground rail service running mostly grade separated
5 Tram railway=tram One or two carriage rail vehicles, usually sharing motor road

Bridges

No. GED4ALL OSM Key OSM Description
bridge=* When a road, railway, path canal, pipeline or similar is leading over a bridge
1 General Material bridge:material=* Main material of construction: general material (concrete, masonry, steel, iron, wood, mixed) and detailed material
2 Super Structure bridge:structure=* Describes the load-bearing architecture of individual bridge spans (arch, beam, truss, floating, suspension, cable-stayed, simple-suspension, humpback)
3 Deck Characteristics bridge:width=*

bridge:length=*

bridge:height=*

Include the width, length  and height of the deck in meters
4 Deck Structural System bridge:support=* Indicate the position of the abutments and piers which support a bridge from beneath (pier, abutment, lift_pier, pivot_pier)
5 Pier to Deck Connection pier:connection=* Proposed OSM pier connection tag, associated with bridges (value options: not_isolated, isolated, unknown)
6 Pier to Superstructure Connection pier:superstructure=* Proposed OSM pier superstructure tag, associated with bridges (value options: single-column, multi-column, unknown)
7 Number of Piers bridge:total_piers=* Proposed OSM total piers tag, associated with bridges (number of piers
8 Shape of Section of the Pier pier:shape=* Proposed OSM pier shape tag, associated with bridges (cylindrical, rectangular, oblong, wall-type, unknown)
9 Height of the Pier pier:height=* Proposed OSM pier height tag, associated with bridges (height in meters)
10 Spans pier:span=* Proposed OSM pier span tag, associated with bridges (single, multi-span, unknown)
11 Connections to the Abutments abutment:connection=* Proposed OSM abutment connection tag, associated with bridges (free, monolithic, isolated, unknown)
12 Bridge Configuration bridge:configuration=* Proposed OSM bridge configuration tag, associated with bridges (regular, semi_regular,  irregular, unknown)
13 Level of Seismicity bridge:seismicity=* Proposed OSM bridge seismicity tag, associated with bridges (no_design, designed, unknown)

Pipelines and Storage Tanks

No. GED4ALL OSM Key OSM Description
man_made=pipeline A major pipeline carrying gas, water, oil, etc.
route=pipeline For pipelines, pipeline markers, and pipeline stations
1 Content substance=* The substance transported within the pipeline. If the medium is not known, do NOT specify this tag
2 Position location=* The location of the pipeline (underground, overground, overhead, underwater
3 Material material=* The material transported by the pipeline
4 Joint Type joint=* This is the proposed joint tag, associated with pipelines
5 Soil Type material=soil and type=* The material key is used to specify soil, in conjunction with the type key when specifying the kind of soil
6 Diameter diameter=* Specifies the nominal diameter of the pipeline, in millimeters


No. GED4ALL OSM Key OSM Description
man_made=storage_tank
1 Position height=* Height in meters
2 Material material=* Main material the storage tank is made of
3 Anchorage anchored=* Proposed OSM anchored key, associated with storage tanks (yes, no, unknown)
4 Shape diameter=* The shape can be determined by the height-to-diameter ratio
5 Content content=* What the storage tank typically holds

Power Grids

No. GED4ALL OSM Key OSM Description
power=substation Place dedicated to step-up or step-down the voltage=* within an electrical power grid, generally linked to the rest of the electrical network by one or more sets of power=lines and which may contains one or more power=transformers
substation=transmission Substation whose main function is to connect and switch transmission lines transmitting power between areas
power=transformer Static device that converts a given power voltage to another power voltage. Usually located within a substation
1 Component voltage=* The highest voltage of operation within the facility
2 Anchorage anchored=* Proposed OSM anchored key, associated with storage tanks (yes, no, unknown)
3 Code Provisions substation:code=* Proposed OSM provision code key, associated with storage tanks (none, low, moderate, high, unknown)
No. GED4ALL OSM Key OSM Description
power=tower For big towers or pylons carrying electricity cables. Normally constructed from steel latticework and carry high voltage electricity cables
material=* Default value is steel (steel, wood, concrete, aluminium, composite)
structure=* Default value for steel towers is lattice (lattice, tubular, solid)
height=* Height in meter of the tower
No. GED4ALL OSM Key OSM Description
power=line High-voltage power lines used for power transmission, supported by towers/pylons, or in some places or situations, by poles
voltage=* Voltage at which the line is operated (operating voltage)
operator=* Name of the company which operates this power line section (cable operator)
cables=* Number of different phase conductors for this power line section (number of cables)
circuits=* Number of different and separated electrical circuits built within this power line section (number of circuits)

Energy Generation Facilities

No. GED4ALL OSM Key OSM Description
power=plant An industrial facility for the generation of energy
1 Energy Source plant:source=* The source of the energy generated by a power plant (oil, geothermal, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, solar, tidal wave, gas, biomass)
2 Power Capacity plant:output:electricity=* Power plants can output multiple forms of energy (yes / x W / x kW / x MW / x GW)
plant:output:hot_water=*
plant:output:hot_air=*
plant:output:cold_water=*
plant:output:cold_air=*
plant:output:compressed_air=*
plant:output:steam=*
plant:output:vacuum=*

Crops, Livestock and Forestry

No. GED4ALL OSM Key OSM Description
landuse=farmland Area of farmland used for tillage and pasture (animals, vegetables, flowers, fruit growing)
crop=* The crop produced by cultivated land
1 Cereals crop=cereal Unspecified cereal crop
crop=wheat Specified cereal crop (wheat, maize, rice, sorghum, barley, tye, oats, millets or other)
2 Vegetables and Melons crop=vegetable Unspecified vegetable crop
crop=basil Specified leafy or stem vegetables, fruit-bearing vegetables, bulb or tuberous vegetables, mushrooms and truffles or other
3 Fruits and Nuts crop=fruit

crop=nut

Unspecified fruit and nut
crop=strawberry

crop=betel

Specified tropical and subtropical fruits, citrus fruits, grapes, berries, pome fruits and stone fruits, nuts or other
4 Oilseed Crops crop=oil Unspecified oil crop
crop=sunflower Specified crop producing oil (sunflower, rapeseed, or coconut)
5 Root/Tuber Crops with Starch or Inulin Content crop=potato Specified root/tuber crop (potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava yams or other)
6 Beverage and Spice Crops crop=tea Specified beverage or spice crop (tea, coffee, hop, cinnamon, or other)
7 Leguminous Crops crop=legume Beans, broad beans, chickpeas, lentils, lupins, peas, pigeon peas, leguminous crops or other
crop=chickpeas Specified legume crop (beas, broad bean, chickpea, lentil, lupins, peas, pigeon pea, or other)
8 Sugar Crops crop=sugarcane Specified sugar crop (sugar beet, sugar cane, sweet sorghum, coconut sugar or other)
9 Other Crops crop=grass Unspecified other crops (grass, hay, or other)
crop=tobacco Specified grass crop and other fodder crops, fibre crops, medicinal, aromatic, pesticidal, or similar crops, rubber, flower crops, tobacco or other (tobacco, lavender or other)  
No. GED4ALL OSM Key OSM Description
landuse=farmland Area of farmland used for tillage and pasture (animals, vegetables, flowers, fruit growing)
produce=live_animal Where the whole live animal is produced/sold
animal=* Used to specify features related to type of animal
1 Large Ruminants animal=* Specified large ruminant (cattle, buffaloes or yaks)
2 Small Ruminants animal=* Specified small ruminant (sheep or goats)
3 Pigs or Swines animal=* Specified pig or swine (pigs or swines)
4 Equines animal=* Specified equines (horse, mules and hinnies, asses or other)
5 Camel and Camelids animal=* Specified camel and camelids (camels, llamas and alpacas)
6 Poultry animal=* Specified poultry (chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys, guinea fowls, pigeons or other)
7 Other Animals animal=* Specified other animal (deer, elk, reindeer, fur-bearing animals such as foxes, dogs and cats, rabbits and hares, or other)
8 Insects animal=* Specified insects or worms (bees, silkworms or other worms or insects)
No. GED4ALL OSM Key OSM Description
landuse=forest Forest or woodland is an area covered by trees
1 Closed Forest landuse=forest Area covered by trees
2 Woodland natural=wood Area covered by trees
3 Scrub natural=scrub Plant community characterized by vegetation dominated by shrubs (bush), often also including grasses, herbs, and geophytes
4 Dwarf-scrub and Related Communities natural=heath A dwarf-shrub habitat, characterized by open, low growing woody vegetation, often dominated by heather plants
5 Herbaceous Vegetation wetland=* Tall graminoid vegetation, medium tall grassland, short grassland, forb vegetation or hydromorphic fresh-water vegetation

Socio-Economic

No. GED4ALL OSM Key GED4ALL Description
1 Economy Not Applicable Measures the welfare and social security levels of communities
2 Education Not Applicable Provides information about invested resources and expected outcome of education, access and participation to education
3 Environment Not Applicable Defines the underlying conditions that make an environment susceptible to damage, disaster experience and prevalence
4 Governance and Institutional Capacity Not Applicable Institutional performance and regulatory efficiency, corruption control and stability of political system
5 Health Not Applicable Population health conditions and health sector capabilities
6 Index Not Applicable Range of indexes that cover different sectors, for example, the Disaster Risk Index used by the United Nation Development programme to monitor the global evolution of risk
7 Infrastructure Not Applicable Transportation and communication infrastructure, status and access to utility lifelines
8 Population Not Applicable Defines community demographics: structure, distribution and size


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To learn more about the Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team (HOT), explore more of our wiki pages (portal: HOT) or our website hotosm.org. We are a global community of mostly volunteers, we are also a US nonprofit organization, able to contract with other organizations (email info, “ат” hotosm “ԁοт” org to contact our staff), we are also a US 501-c-3 charitable organization.