FR:Routing

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Langues disponibles — Routing
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Skobbler Navigation (application de navigation étape par étape pour iOS).

Routing (dans certains pays dit navigation) services aident les personnes pour se rendre d'un lieu à un autre. Les données d'OpenStreetMap comprennent des informations pour la planification d'itinéraire suivant différents modes comprenant l'automobile, la marche à pied, le vélo ou le cheval. Il y a différentes façons offline, lier et web-based les services de routage via les données d'OpenStreetMap.

Pour les développeurs cette page apporte des informations sur les disponibilités logiciels pour la création de nouvelles applications/déploiements et détailsclés des données d'OpenStreetMap pouvant être utilisés pour créer de meilleurs moteurs de routage. Un certain nombre de listes de diffusion sont également disponibles.

End users: Routing software

Voir également: List of OSM based Services#Routing

Mappers: Amélioration des données cartographiques

Pour que les logiciels d'itinéraire fonctionnent correctement, les données cartographiques sous-jacentes doivent être de bonne qualité. Cela signifie essentiellement que celles devant être connectées le sont effectivement, les sens uniques y sont inscrit, les restrictions de tourner sont indiqués, etc.. Vous devriez être familier avec les Map Features utilisées, en particulier consulter OSM tags for routing pour comprendre les étiquettes spécifiques au routage.

Correction des bogues avec MapDust

Démonstration de comment déterminer quels noeuds sont connectés et quelq noeuds sont non connectés à Potlatch

Beaucoup de bogues sur MapDust ont été proviennent directement des applications de navigation iOS ou Android. Ceci en fait un bon endroit pour rechercher des améliorations de données cartographiques. Certains bogues concernent spécifiquement les routes à sens unique ou les interdictions de tourner, et sont marquées comme telles.

Portez attention aux nombreux "réseaux routiers de faible qualité" ou "autres" bogues au sein du petite zone puisque cela peut indiquer qu'il existe des connexions manquantes entre les routes. A Potlatch lorsque vous sélectionnez une voie vous observez l'ensemble des noeuds mis en avant. Si un noeud est grand et carré alors il est connecté à un autre chemin. Pour améliorer la qualité des données OSM vous pouvez également utiliser les rapports générés par WayCheck.

Note: Essayez de décocher le "Hide bugs with default text" sur mapdust puisque beaucoup d'utilisateur ne modifient pas le text par défaut lors de l'utilisation de l'application de navigation.

Données de vitesse limite

Afin de mieux calculer l'itinéraire le plus rapide, veuillez réfléchir à l'éventualité d'aide d'ajout des données de vitesse via la balise maxspeed=*. Ceci est particulièrement important où la limite de vitesse diffère de la vitesse permise maximum autorisée pour le type de route par pays et type de véhicule.

Note: ITO World fournit différents services pour aider à identifier les limites de vitesse manquantes.

Souvant la vitesse limite inutile - confère #Average speed.

Vérification de vos corrections

Après avoir corrigé une erreur sur la carte vous aurez besoin d'attendre la propagation de version révisée de la carte au sein du moteur de routage que vous utilisé. Ce délai dépendera de chaque moteur vis à vis de :

  • A quelle fréquence récupère-t-il les mises à jour à partir de la base de données
  • De combien de temps a-t-il besoin pour mettre à jour sa base de données interne

Dans le cas où OSRM est utilisé pour la page d'affichage de la carte il effectue habituellement ces lises à jour 2 fois par jour et ensuite passe 10-12 heures au traitement des mises à jour. Ceci nous amène à une durée totale de 10 à 24 heures à partir du moment où la carte est sauvegardée jusqu'au où elle devient exploitable sous OSRM.

Développeurs

This Roads to rome image a été réalisée à l'aide de GraphHopper

Logiciel de bureau et côté serveur

Java:

  • The Traveling salesman routing-application contains the osmNavigation -library for doing all the basics except a user-interface. All important parts can be exchanged via plugins.
  • OpenTripPlanner site is a multi-modal trip planner supporting OSM data. OTP Deployer makes it easy to deploy your own routing instance.
  • GraphHopper is an open source routing engine for road networks written in Java. Fast and memory efficient (for Android, iOS, desktop and server).
  • BRouter focuses on bike routing and features elevation awareness, alternatives, fully configurable routing profiles and offline routing initially written for Android, but has now also a web api
  • Cruiser is a map and navigation application.

C/C++:

C#:

Scala

Ruby

  • Mormon ruby version of pyroutelib

Python

Mobile device software

C/Java:

  • OsmAnd OSM Map, POI and Routing (car/bike/foot, online&offline) for Android
  • ZANavi Android
  • Navit Linux, Windows and portable devices
  • GraphHopper Open Source routing library for Desktop, Android and iOS.
  • BRouter focuses on bike routing and features elevation awareness, alternatives, fully configurable routing profiles and offline routing for Android
  • OpenTripPlanner_(Android) is an Android app for multi-modal trip planning using any OpenTripPlanner server
  • Cruiser is a map and navigation application.

Libraries/development tools

Article principal : Frameworks#Navigation

Libraries focused on OSM Routing can be found at Develop/Frameworks. Here some general libs:

  • DGLib Directed Graph Library used by Grass's vector network tools (shortest path, traveling salesman, isodistances, Steiner trees; also Addons)
  • Graphserver is a webservice providing shortest-path itineraries on TIGER/line road maps, and public transport data in the General Transit Feed Specification format
  • osm4routing is a command-line tool for parsing OSM data into a routing graph.
  • pgRouting - PostGIS-based routing engine. Special tool osm2pgrouting for importing OSM data to internal graph structure. Works directly on top of SQL database tables.
  • Libosmscout offers simple, high-level interfaces to offline rendering and routing functionalities based on OpenStreetMap data
  • Spatialite Spatialite has its own routing engine VirtualNetwork and a spatialite_osm_net tool for building a routable network directly from OSM data. Routing can use either Dijkstra or A* algorithm.
  • GraphHopper routing engine with Java API.
  • ffwdme.js is a JavaScript toolkit that aims to bring interactive GPS driving directions to the mobile browser.
  • Valhalla is a free, open-source routing service that lets you integrate routing and navigation into a web or mobile application.

Protocols:

Routing considerations

Highway-type

The order of values for the highway-tag ordered by assumed speed is:

Type Description (mainly valid in Western Europe)
motorway Usually the maxspeed can be kept for long distances, but these roads can be sensitive to long traffic jams. Usually forbidden for slow traffic (pedestrians, cyclists, agricultural, ...)
trunk Similar to motorways, but these roads can have level crossings, so the stretches where the maximum speed can be reached are shorter. Best avoided when using slow vehicles (sometimes forbidden, depending on the local legislation).
primary Connecting roads between cities, towns and villages. The classification depends mostly on the importance of the areas they connect. This is often also reflected in the number of lanes and the general traffic throughput, but the speed for these classifications is mostly comparable. Usually around 90-100 km/h in the countryside, and 50 (or even 30) km/h when crossing a residential center.
secondary
tertiary
motorway_link Used for on- and off-ramps or complete motorway junctions. Reachable speed depends a lot on curvature, usually around 60-90 km/h
trunk_link In contrast to motorway junctions, these link roads are often very short pieces (f.e. allowing one to turn right without stopping at a traffic light). The speed on these road pieces is very slow, as these often need to give way to the other traffic.
primary_link
secondary_link
tertiary_link
unclassified These roads usually connect farms, isolated houses and small hamlets through the countryside to bigger residential areas. Due to lack of traffic signs, they often have a speed limit way faster than can be driven safely. Speed on a well-maintained but unfamiliar unclassified road will rarely exceed 50 km/h.
residential Residential roads are found in a residential area, so usually have a speed limit of 50 km/h to 30 km/h, with a lot of traffic calming features.
living_street Living streets are streets where slow traffic has absolute right-of-way. The speed limit is normally around 20 km/h. Through-going traffic is absolutely discouraged (and often impossible).
service Service roads are usually found on private property or parking lots. The driver has to pay attention to manoeuvring vehicles, and must wait often.
track Tracks are roads of agricultural purpose. They usually connect fields to farms. The surface sometimes makes them inaccessible for regular cars, or at least limits the speeds to a very slow pace. Tracks should always be avoided for through-going traffic.
pedestrian Pedestrian roads are normally forbidden for motorised vehicles, but can be allowed on certain hours (f.e. early in the morning), or for certain purposes (like delivering goods to shops). Even when allowed, only pedestrian speed is advisable. Cycling can also be forbidden on pedestrian highways.

This is highly country specific and rather useless without country specific values. For example in Germany primary roads allow 100km/h both legally and as a realistic speed while minor motorway_link(s) are built to allow a recommended speed of 60 km/h, only major motorway_links allow a realistic speed of 80 or 100. For more information see OSM_tags_for_routing/Maxspeed#Additional_information_for_selected_countries

Lanes

The number of lanes of a highway is directly tagged in OSM and has a major influence on the average speed (fastest route) and fuel-consumption (most efficient route). There is no simple mapping to speed unfortunately, in many cases more lanes only indicate more congestion.

Highway condition

Other factors, in our case more difficult to measure, which determine the average speed are the width of pavement, condition of the network (roadworks, surface type and surface smoothness - especially in ex-USSR), Levels of Service (LOS), minimal radius curve, banked turns, visibility based on curves and gradients, etc.

In OpenStreetMap this model can be interesting for those routes where there are no data on speeds (for example: highway=road).

Inclines

Same as curves, inclines may decrease the speed of traffic. In winter of when lots of hgv is present the hindrance is also on the descending way. While some inclines are explicitly tagged, in some cases utilization of additional informations such as ele=* and height elevation profile from DEM data could prove useful.

Sinuosity

See also turning radius=*

In some studies about the accessibility [2] develop models that assume a certain speed of travel depending on the degree of sinuosity of the track and certain characteristics of this one. By means of the sinuosity index (observed line distance/expected line distance ) for every section it is possible to obtain a speed estimated according to the degree of winding of the road and type of route. This needs to take into account the visibility around corners (determined by vegetation, embankments, cuttings, cliffs,...) and road width. The model is more precise if the excessively large arcs are avoided provided that a long curve can be equal to many small curves along a way, giving similar values of sinuosity for both routes. Some countries use these values to divide sections of roads and put speed limits (but this is not usual).

On the other hand, geographical approaches like that of the space syntax presuppose that, in urban environments, pedestrians and drivers are influenced at the moment of choosing theirs paths for the visibility of the route. In this respect a pedestrian who moves, for example, from the point A to the point B will select principally wide and rectilinear streets, squares or avenues with a wide visual field, avoiding crossed by winding and narrow streets, even when the latter route is somewhat shorter.

Crossings, junctions and lane changes

Certain cost should be assumed for:

  • crossing higher-class roads
  • changing to and from lower-class roads
  • u-turns
  • lane changes

Average speed

OpenStreetMap data will need average/realistic speed values for routing.

  • maxspeed:practical=* is a rejected but nevertheless used proposal to tag estimated average speed values (with the possibility to specify day/night/rush hour values) in areas where official speed limits are largely meaningless and road/track type information insufficient to derive meaningful travel speed estimates.
  • Speedcollector is a currently defunct service to collect real-world measurements, while it might be possible to derive average speed per way from stored tracks.
  • Global Statistical Speed Matrix is a proposed concept (no current signs of life?) to extract speed information from NMEA/GPX tracks and store them efficiently in a database to make collected data useful for routing purposes.

List of other tags giving routing hints

Bicycle

- see also hiking

Hiking

Routing obstacles and other conditions requiring special consideration

  • crossing=* - pedestrian or other crossing, slowdown

Mailing lists

The following mailing lists are relevant to routing

  • osm-routing 'Discussion about Routing with vector Data. Especially concerning OSM Data'
  • osm-accessibility For all kinds of disabilities this concerns the proposal and use of tags that are of special interest for disabled persons. Special maps shall be created with this data.

See also