JA:基本的な3Dの建物

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利用できる言語 — Simple 3D buildings
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このページでは、建物の基本的な 3D 属性のためのタグを解説します。

以下のタグ付け方法は 2nd 3D Workshop Garching の成果であり、そこではほとんどの 3D 開発者が、そのプログラムで統一されたタグのサブセットをサポートすることに同意しました。基本的に、我々は2種類のエリアを使って建物のボリュームを説明します。「建物のアウトライン」は複雑な建物や「建物の部分」の最も一般的なエリア用のもので、とりわけ高さが異なったり、他の属性を持つ部分について説明します。

建物の輪郭

Two building:part areas within a building area

建物の輪郭は、エリア(つまり、閉じたウェイまたはマルチポリゴン)として描画して building=* でタグ付けします。これは建物のすべての部分を結合した部分で覆われた区域で、建物のフットプリントとも呼ばれます。建物全体を表す他の属性(例えば、住所、名称、全体の高さ、管理者)も、この建物の輪郭にタグ付けする必要があります。どの建物も building=* の輪郭は1つだけ持つべきであり、それぞれの建物が重複してはいけません。

建物の輪郭は、二次元のレンダラーや、三次元のモデリングに関心がないデータ利用者への後方互換性を提供します。後述する building:part=* タグはすべて無視されるので、これらのデータ利用者は動作のために必要なすべての情報を受け取ります。

マルチポリゴンのタグ付けルールでは、属性をマルチポリゴンを構成するウェイではなく、リレーションにタグ付けすることを要求しています。

建物の部分

もし building=* のある部分の属性(例 height)が異なる場合、それらを building:part=yes あるいは building:part=type of building:part でタグ付けして追加エリアとしてモデル化することができます。

building=* に少なくともひとつ building:part=* とタグ付けされているエリアがあったら、建物のアウトラインはもはやボリュームレンダリングとはみなされない、ということに注意してください。

There are three ways to use the area of building=* for 3D Rendering in this case:

  • Cover the whole outline with building:part=yes areas. These areas may overlap each other or may be disjunct, which depends on the actual building.
    Avoid using building:parts with overlapping 3D volumes if possible, especially if the volumes would have common faces.
  • Use building:part=yes only for those parts, which differ from the overall building.
    This case requires a building relation where the building=* outline has the outline and the parts building:part=* have the part.
  • Split the building into horizontal slices (floors stacked on top of each other) and add to each part building:levels=*, building:min_level=*, height=*, min_height=* tags.

建物のリレーション

type=buildingでタグ付けされたリレーションは、建物のアウトラインと全ての建物の部分を一緒にグループ化します。少なくともひとつ建物の部分がある場合はリレーションの使用を強く推奨します。さもないとアプリケーションは建物のアウトラインのエリア内にだけある建物の部分をフォールバックして探さなければなりません。 Relations/Proposed/Buildings 及びProposedRoofLines#Building_Relationを参照。

建物のアウトラインと部分用のタグ

次のタグは建物のアウトラインと建物の部分の両方に使うことができます。

高さ

schematic example of level and height tagging
Key Comment
height=* 接地面の最低位置と建物の屋根の先端との間の距離。ただし、アンテナ、尖塔、その他屋根に据え付けられた装置は除きます。
min_height=* 建物構造の下のおおよその高さ。

min_height が使われた時でも、height は依然として地面から構造物の先頭までの距離であることに注意してください。このため、3メーターの高さの"橋"が、橋の基底部が地上10メーターの位置にある場合は、min_height=10, height=13となります。

building:levels=* 地上にある建物の天井の数(屋根の中にある階数は除く), 建物をうまいやり方で織り込むことができるように。新しい建物をタグ付けする場合は、height の値を設定するようにしてください。height タグの補足として building:levels=* を使うようにしてみてください!
building:min_level=* 建物の部分でスキップされた階数、min_height に類似

屋根

よく知られている屋根の種別のカタログを使って建物の屋根の特徴を表現することができます。後ほど、追加的な屋根の形は、手動モデリング向けのさらに進んだアプローチ(例. ProposedRoofLinesあるいはOSM-4D/Roof_tableの一部)も含めて紹介されるでしょう。

Image Roof0 0.jpg Roof1 0.jpg Roof2 0.jpg Roof2 3.jpg Roof2 4.jpg Roof2 5.jpg Roof4 0.jpg Roof4 2.jpg Roof5 6.jpg Roof8.jpg Roof5 0.jpg Roof3 1.jpg
roof:shape flat(平屋根) skillion gabled(切妻造) half-hipped(入母屋造) hipped(隅棟) pyramidal(ピラミッド型) gambrel(腰折れ屋根) mansard(二重勾配屋根) dome(ドーム型) onion(たまねぎ型) round(かまぼこ型) saltbox
Key Comment
roof:orientation=along/across 棟(稜線)のある屋根には、棟は建物のいちばん長い側面に沿って平行にあるものとみなされます。しかし、このタグで明示的にタグ付けすることができます。
roof:height=* メーターによる屋根の高さ
roof:angle=* roof:height=*の代替です。屋根の高さは両サイドの傾きを(度数で)提示することで暗黙的に示すことができます。
roof:levels=* 屋根の下の階数であり、既にbuilding:levels=*でカウントされているものとは違います。
roof:direction=* 屋根の後ろ側から前側への方向、例:屋根の主面が向いている方向


繰返しになりますが、屋根の中には(例.正方形の建物)このページにあるようなシンプルなテクニックでは正確にモデル化できないものもあります。

表面

Key Comment
building:colour=* 建物正面の色。取り得る値は colour=* を参照。
roof:colour=* 建物の屋根の色。取り得る値は colour=* 参照。
building:material=* Outer material for the building facade.
roof:material=* Outer material for the building roof.

Demo areas

コミュニティにとっての敷居をできるだけ下げるために、以下に追加済みの詳細をリストアップします:

Edit this table

Location OpenStreetMap OSM2World OSMBuildings F4 Map OpenScienceMap OSM go Mapbox GL Tangram Blicky
Greece Athena View in 2D N/A View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Germany Bremen View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
United States Chicago View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
United States Cincinnati View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Venezuela Ciudad Guayana View in 2D N/A View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Germany Coburg View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Austria Graz View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Austria Graz 2 View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Austria Graz 3 View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Germany Hagen View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Finland Helsinki View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Spain Huesca View in 2D N/A View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Germany Karlsruhe, Fernmeldeturm View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Iceland Kópavogur, Smárar View in 2D N/A View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Germany Köln, Dom View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Germany Köln, Funkturm View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Germany Köln, Rheinauhafen View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Germany Köln, Wohngebiet in Neuehrenfeld als "Labor" View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Germany Köthen View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Germany Köthen 2 View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Poland Kraków View in 2D N/A View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
United States Las Vegas View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Germany Leipzig View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Peru Lima View in 2D N/A View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
United Kingdom London View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Poland Lwówek Śląski View in 2D N/A View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Russia Moscow View in 2D N/A View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Russia Moscow 2

with type=building relation

View in 2D N/A View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
United States New York City View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
France Paris, Eiffel Tower View in 2D N/A View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Germany Passau View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
United States Phoenix (Arizona) View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Netherlands Rijswijk View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Germany Rostock, Südstadt View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
United States San Jose (California) View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Brazil São Paulo View in 2D N/A View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Germany Schwerin View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Singapore Singapore View in 2D N/A View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Germany Stadum View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
United States Syracuse (New York) View in 2D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Japan Tokyo, Nishi-shinjuku View in 2D N/A View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Japan Tokyo, Odaiba View in 2D N/A View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Canada Toronto View in 2D N/A View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Norway Trondheim View in 2D N/A View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Vatican Vatican View in 2D N/A View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D
Poland Warsaw View in 2D N/A View in 3D View in 3D View in 3D

View in 3D Drive in 3D Fly in 3D

View in 3D View in 2.5D View in 3D

Example Models

用語

Diagram of the main architectural elements that make up a pitched roof

An image can help to understand some architectural terms.

ツールのサポート

以下の3D ツールがこの新しいスキーマを使用しています:

  • OSM2World (部分サポート、現在残りの機能を0.2.0リリースに向けて実装中) - slippymap参照
  • Kendzi3d (サポート済み) - JOSMのプラグイン
  • OSM-3D (部分サポート、OSM-3D#Buildings参照)
  • Nutiteq Android 3D mapping SDK [1] (most roof shapes supported)
  • WikiMiniAtlas (partial support, only pyramidal roofs)
  • OSMBuildings (partial support)
  • F4 Map - see the [2]
  • OpenScienceMap - [3] Interprets only height/min_height tags client-side. The S3DB Layer uses vtm meshes generated on the server (using plpgsql with PostGIS and SFCGAL).
  • OSG-Maps (partial support)
  • osm2x3d (partial support) see [[4]]) and [[5]]
  • osmapa.pl mapnik stylesheet (partial support - most roof types implemented)

関連項目

  • F3DB (Full 3D buildings)