Zh-hant:Key:bridge

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Public-images-osm logo.svg bridge
Bridge-yes.jpg
說明
橋樑是一種讓道路與橋樑這些圖徵,跨越如道路、鐵路、渠道或谿壑等其他圖徵的人工結構物。 編輯此說明
組: Bridges
用於這些元素
不可用於節點可用於路徑不可用於區域不可用於關係
已記載的值: 9
常用組合
参照
狀態:已批准Page for proposal

維基數據
一般地圖上標示出橋樑的方式。
左圖是一個較不適當的橋樑繪製方式,請盡量使用右圖的方式。

橋樑在開放街圖中的定義是讓道路、鐵路、水道、管線等這些與「路線」有關的圖徵,可以橫跨其他前述項目或自然地形的平面與拱狀結構,以 bridge=* 標示之。不同種類的橋樑亦可以利用這個標籤標示出,後面的章節可見目前已在使用的各種數值。

當兩個路線圖徵交會時,該加上橋樑或隧道可能並不好判斷。一個比較好的判斷方式是看看下方的圖徵之左右兩側及上部是否有覆土、或是上方圖徵是否有更札實的結構(如穿過大樓一樓中間的步行街),如果符合上述條件可能選擇加上一個隧道較好;而上部結構單純,只用來支撐該路線本身的圖徵則可繪製成一個橋樑。儘管如此,如果遇到一些比較少見的例子,你還是可以比較彈性的判斷該選擇哪一種圖徵來繪製,但請必需注意一個重點:在大部份的情況下,橋樑與隧道不應該被繪製在同一個位置

橋樑的一些特徵可以使用子標籤如標注橋樑是否可移動的 bridge:movable=* 或表示橋樑結構的 bridge:structure=*bridge:support=* 表示。此外,如果有必要把一個橋樑的形狀 area 繪製出來,我們會將 man_made=bridge 做為主標籤(表示是一個標樑構造物圖徵)並可以選擇加上 bridge=* 為二級的標籤。

繪製方式

在橋樑的的兩端將路徑切開,並在橋樑的地方加上 bridge=yes 和其圖層標籤。在一般的情況下,橋樑的起點會離道路的交叉口有一小段的距離,所以請盡量不要將橋樑直接連接到交叉口上;在某些特殊的情況時,道路的交叉口並不是設在地面上,而是整個交叉口都在橋樑上,你可以將實際上是橋樑的位置都標上橋樑的標籤。

橋樑前後端的斜坡處並不屬於橋樑的一部份,大部份的情況下不需要標上橋樑的標籤,重要的話可以加上代表土堤的 embankment=* 標籤,但土堤一般來說不需要設定它的圖層。

某些大跨距的橋樑可能會利用 斜拉或其他型式建構,我們可以使用 bridge:structure=* 將其特別標示出來;bridge:support=* 則可以用來標示出橋樑墩柱的支撐方式。如果一個橋樑同時運用到多種構成方式,可以將橋樑分成多段,並加上不同的標籤。關於其他更詳細的內容可見下方關於 bridge=cantileverbridge=trestlebridge=viaduct 等段落的敘述。

某些跨越河川航道等地的橋樑是可動的,可以被標注為 bridge=movable,或使用 bridge:movable=* 來對橋樑進行更詳細的描述。(這個標籤亦可以標示出曾經可動但現在棄用的橋樑。

限製條件

有些橋樑有其最大限重、限軸重、限長等限制,請在其加上 maxweight=*maxaxleload=*maxlength=*

橋樑對車輛或行人的通行限制使用 access=* 標籤。

如果橋樑底下的道路有法定限高,請在該道路加上 maxheight=* 標籤,除非橋樑本身也有限高,否則請不要將此標籤加上橋樑的圖徵上。關於橋樑的實際限高請使用 maxheight:physical=*

圖層

橋樑一般都該加上圖層 layer=* 標籤,一般簡單的橋樑請使用 layer=1 即可,較複雜的橋樑系統請依情況使用適當的數值。

橋名

橋樑有數種標示橋樑名稱的方法,你可以使用以下幾種適合用來標示出橋樑名稱的方法:

  • 如果一個橋樑有使用 man_made=bridge 繪製橋樑輪廓,所有的標籤包括 name=* 和其他參數都應該被加在該圖徵上。橋樑的輪廓以及名字都會被彩現在 OpenStreetMap Carto 上。
  • 如果一個橋樑是一個 highway=*name=* 應該表示路標上寫的內容。一般會有兩種情況:
    • 如果路標上直接寫著橋樑名稱,則直接使用 name=*
    • 如果路標上沒有寫,橋樑又沒有被繪製成 man_made=bridge,則 name=* 保留道路的名稱,橋樑的名稱改採 bridge:name=*。這種方法並不會在預設的圖層上彩現橋樑的名稱。

如果橋樑曾經更動過名字,則可使用 bridge:old_name=*

橋樑的編號

如果橋樑有編號,請使用 bridge:ref=*。請不要使用用來標示出道路編號的 ref=*

這個一個有編號也有名字的橋樑,左邊的「12-048」是它的編號,右邊的「慈濟三橋」是橋樑的名字。

可以搭配的標籤

請不要使用 building=bridge 將橋樑的輪廓繪製出來。如果一個橋樑的輪廓有其繪製的必要性,請使用 man_made=bridgebuilding=bridge 只被使用在建築物蓋在橋樑之上合為一體的情況。

橋樑的構造可以被繪製成 bridge:structure=*bridge:support=*

橋樑的舊名和編號可以使用 bridge:old_name=*bridge:ref=* 來標示。具有代表性的橋樑 man_made=bridge 才可以使用 old_name=*ref=*。當一個著名橋樑有維基百科條目時可以使用 wikipedia=*start_date=* 則被用來描述橋樑的通車/開放通行日。

有多條道路/路線的橋樑以及其他圖徵

In case a bridge is represented by several ways or carries additional features there are currently two ways to indicate this:

  • With man_made=bridge the outline of the bridge is drawn and the roads/ways passing the bridge are connected to the outline. All bridge-specific attributes like layer, name, reference, etc. can be tagged directly on the outline. In case of bridges with multiple levels the proposed relation bridge has to be used additionally.
  • When using the proposed relation bridge all features of the bridge have to be members of the relation and all bridge-specific attributes can be tagged in the relation. In case the bridge has multiple levels only the relation can be used in order to group together all objects of the bridge.

橋樑的輪廓

某些大型、形狀特別、或具有代表性的橋樑可以使用 man_made=bridge 來繪製出它的輪廓。此類圖徵的圖層應與其連接路線的圖層一致。

在橋樑上的物件和圖徵

Node-type objects which are part of the bridge-way are commonly considered to be on the bridge, these do not need an own layer tag.

More complex situations could be handled with an extension of man_made=bridge or Relations/Proposed/Bridges and Tunnels.


Proposed features/Simplify man made=bridge mapping has some related ideas.

橋樑和水路繪製

Bridges are landmarks and can pose significant obstacles/hazards for navigability.

參見:

更多沒有在下方列舉出的橋樑類型可使用


Key Value Element Comment Rendering Photo
bridge yes way Non-specific bridge tag, possibly combined with other bridge:* tags Weißenberg - Nechern - Riegel-Mühle 10 ies.jpg
bridge aqueduct way A longer structure for carrying a canal or fresh water. Consider using historic=aqueduct for significant ancient aqueducts. Pont du gard.jpg
bridge boardwalk way A plank walkway over wet or otherwise difficult terrain, usually low to the ground and supported by posts. Swampy But Pretty Bog In Fiordland NZ.jpg
bridge cantilever way A bridge where a span is supported at one end only. Usually, the free ends of two spans are fastened to one another, giving a longer clear span between supports. Hudson River from Waryas Park in Poughkeepsie, NY 2.JPG
bridge covered way A covered bridge has a roof and fully or partly enclosed sides, usually to protect the bridge deck and members from deterioration. Consider also the combination bridge=*+covered=*. Pont couvert (Routhierville).jpg
bridge low_water_crossing way Also known as an "Irish bridge", this is a low bridge which is engineered to carry vehicles above water at low flow levels and survive submersion at high flow levels. Consider also adding either ford=yes or flood_prone=yes on low-water-bridges that will sometimes be flooded on a seasonal and/or intermittent basis (see Discussion page). Roanoke River low water crossing.jpg
bridge movable way Movable bridges contain a span that can be moved up or to the side, often to provide greater clearance for traffic moving beneath the bridge. All such spans should be tagged with bridge=movable. Further information may be provided using bridge:movable=*. The fixed spans should be tagged separately, to make clear which part of the bridge is and is not movable. MovableBridge roll.gif
bridge trestle way A bridge composed of a series of short spans where each span is supported by a rigid frame, usually called a "bent" rather than a pier. Rattlesnake Trestle.jpg
bridge viaduct way A bridge composed of a series of spans, often short relative to its overall length. The spans may be arches, girders supported by piers, etc. For ways or features that raise a feature above the natural ground on mounds or earth walls, use embankment=*. Railway Viaduct.jpg

This table is a wiki template with a default description in English. Editable here.

橋樑的生命週期

For bridges that are proposed, being constructed, being demolished, collapsed, the usual lifecycle tagging applies to the top-level tag carrying the bridge=yes specification, i.e. the highway=* or railway=* tag.

For construction, the scheme highway=construction + construction=(highway-type) is most common. For all other stages, the Lifecycle_prefixes are suitable. To preserve the OSM object history, do not delete an object that is collapsed if any remains are visible in the real world, and/or the object is being reconstructed.

Depending on the situation, when the bridge outline is mapped as man_made=bridge, the lifecycle prefix can be applied as well.

提案

iD 橋樑繪製基礎

  • As can be seen in the image below, the primary road stops when it meets the river. So we are going to map the existing bridge over the river on the map below. We are going to attach the bridge segment to the existing road.
Map representation of a road intersecting a water flow.
  • Select the line tool from the top menu.
Select the line tool for mapping.
  • Start mapping by using the line tool as follows:
    • start on one shore, somewhere on the primary road, but don’t start the bridge mapping at the junction of the roads (the bridge should start/end before the junction)
    • drag the line to the other shore, on the primary road, before the other junction of the road


Map the bridge between the two heads of the road.
  • The bridge in this case is situated on a primary road, so from the “Feature Editor” menu we are going to select “Road Features”, then look for primary road and select it.
Select the type of structure we are going to map.
Attributes of the newly mapped structure.
  • Next we are going to add more attributes to this segment of the road that we are mapping as a bridge:
    • Name: is the name of the bridge, in this case the bridge gets the same name as the road that is upon; in other cases the bridge can be “between” the roads (one road at one end of the bridge, another road at the other end of it) - in that situation the bridge can get either of those names, or it can have a specific name
    • One way: if the bridge is used just for going one way or the other (this bridge has both ways, so we don’t check this)
    • Speed limit: is there any speed limit on the bridge (in this case the road speed limit is in effect on the bridge too, and it’s 50km/h)
    • Structure: mapping the structure as a “Bridge”; the layer tag is automatically added with the default value of 1 (typical value for bridges).
    • Access: type of access for this bridge (on this particular bridge all type of access is permitted so we leave everything on yes as default)
    • Lanes: number of lanes. This bridge has 1 each way, so we set lanes=2
    • Surface: choose what type of surfaces is the bridge made of (in this case is asphalt)
    • Road Number: the reference number or code of the road; in this case since we are keeping the information for the bridge consistent with the one from the road, we are filling there the national name of the road (DN71).
  • All tags: here are presented all the attributes of the newly mapped bridge
  • to add a custom tag, click on the plus sign (at the end of the list), type the name of the tag and insert a value.
  • Don’t forget to save your work!
Save the newly mapped bridge.

參見

可能的誤用

如果你知道 有使用這個標籤的地方的話,你可以看看有什麼能取代這個標籤。
我們非常不鼓勵你在搞清楚自己在做什麼之前使用自動化編輯!
如果你知道 有使用這個標籤的地方的話,你可以看看有什麼能取代這個標籤。
我們非常不鼓勵你在搞清楚自己在做什麼之前使用自動化編輯!