|power = plant|
|An industrial facility where power (electricity, useful heat, biogas...) is produced by individual tag:power=generator units.|
|Used on these elements|
|Tools for this tag|
Power plants may also be responsible for storing energy: in the case of electric power plants this is most commonly through hydroelectric pumped storage, although battery storage plants are becoming more common.
This page explains how we can map all power plants around the world, distinguished in two classes: enclosed and dispersed.
|power||plant||Defines this area as a power plant.||basic tag|
|name||name||The name of the plant.||recommended|
|operator||Operator||Name of the company that operates the power plant.||recommended|
|start_date||Date (YYYY-MM-DD)||Date when the construction was finished, using.||recommended|
|landuse||industrial||With the exception of, a power plant is an industrial facility.||strongly recommended if not already inside a bigger landuse=industrial, else optional|
|plant:source||The energy sources used||List of energy sources used by individual generators within the plant. Multiple fuels should be separated by semicolons (;). Example: plant:source=coal;gas||recommended|
|plant:method||method||The method by which the power plant works||optional|
|plant:output:*||Rated output||The rated output of the whole facility often available in operator public documentation. The tagging is consistent with generator:output=*: a co-generation plant would have for example plant:output:electricity=* and plant:output:steam=* keys. They accept numeric values or yes if the exact rating is unknown.||recommended when using simple tagging|
|plant:storage||Rated storage capacity||The amount of energy the plant can store.||recommended for storage plants|
Enclosed power plant
In this case, spatial capabilities of the database would enable us to retrieve features which are inside the power plant's perimeter. According to the functional chart, we must find object tagged as power=generator + generator:plant=output inside and attributes must be defined consistently with power plant's ones.
Many other stuff (buildings, substations) can be recommended or optional.
- plant:output=* < generator:output=* : Too many generators on the map or current generators have oversized output rating
- plant:output=* = generator:output=* : Everything is all right
- plant:output=* > generator:output=* : We miss generators
Please note that this comparison is made on two axis : The first by comparing all kind of output in both plant and generators (it's a problem to have a plant with yes whereas there is no generator with generator:output:electricity=* for instance). The second axis is on the amount of each kind of power made as above rules.
As discussed on mailing list, we mustn't try to bind stuff (like outside power station for instance) to an enclosed power plant if it is not in the power plant perimeter. We'd better to create two independent objects. More information here: https://lists.openstreetmap.org/pipermail/tagging/2013-April/013321.html
In some situations power plant could expose two or more distinct perimeters. This can be mapped with Relation:multipolygon and definitely fulfill the dispersed power plant model introduced below.
As discussed on tagging mailing list, power plant areas and perimeters would be pretty hard to map when many different operators share the same location on a generation site.
A simple rule to make the distinguishing between operators is to create a separate area for each one. Two or more power plants would directly be created.
In general, only one company is operating a power plant so if two or more operators are present on a site, we could have two different power plants or two different components for power generation. In all cases we mustn't map it in a single one area. Each area will have different operator=* values and potentially as many name=*. The key point is still the ownership of the land occupied by the power plant.
Furthermore and often, room is reserved besides actual power plants for future extensions. This room should be concerned by the power plant area right now since it's fenced as the main production site.
Finally, Relation:multipolygon doesn't match these operator consideration since operator distinguishing MUST be done.
Dispersed facilities power plants
Wind, tidal, hydropower and photovoltaic power plants may consist of a group of generators in the same location used for production of electricity. Each turbine or panel would be tagged as power=generator.
The land between generators may be used for agricultural or other purposes while it may correspond to the ocean's ground for tidal farms. A wind/solar farm may also be located offshore instead of a tidal farm which is always located on the sea ground.
Finally, relations with type=site should only be used when no specific perimeter surrounds buildings nor turbines.
Then create a using type=site + power=plant. Computing of total farm rating is done by adding all the generator:output:* values of its generator members which are described with generator:plant=output (output generator, see Generator chapter for more information).
See the approved proposal intended to map hydropower water supplies.
This key may be hard to use or understand. Take a look to all those quick examples to find out how it's simpler than it seems ;)
|Power plant||Tagging||Description||OSM ref|
|Hoover Dam, Nevada, USA||Boulder dam is a famous dam built in early 1900's next to Las Vegas, USA. A substation collects the 19 generators power as to transmit to the power grid. The lake also allows authorities to feed nearby towns with fresh water.
Since each component isn't linked by a fenced perimeter, a relation is used to make this power plant alive in OSM.
|Génissiat Dam, France||Genissiat dam is a run-of-the-river power plant relying on a big concrete structure to get a 23km long lake on the Rhone river. It is hosting 6 power generators inside the dam connected to penstocks and outlets ducts. The waterway corresponding to river is diverted in dedicated ways corresponding to penstocks intakes. Have a look to the map to get more information
As many major generator and plants in Europe, Genissiat EIC code is given with ref:EU:ENTSOE_EIC=*
|Roselend_Dam, France||Here is a wide electricity production site built in French Alps. Water is stored in a huge lake and goes through 60 km long tunnels ending into the La Bathie underground power plant.
The choice is made to bring all the stuff inside a unique relation instead of the single power plant cavern. The six francis tubrines are currently under maintenance to step up their output to 100 MW of electricity each. Power is sent to the power grid by the.
|Power plant||Tagging||Description||OSM ref|
|Gravelines Nuclear power plant, France||Gravelines is the most powerful nuclear electricity generation site in France. 6 units can be found there, with 910 MW output each.
Nuclear reactors are splitted in two map features with power=generator on the hosting the steam turbine. The dome hosting the most radioactive parts and the fission reaction can be described as a steam generator, only as a bonus since it's not the place which actually produce electricity, relatively to generator:plant=* The surrounding way carefully follow the fence all around the power plant. As many major generator and plants in Europe, Gravelines EIC code is given with ref:EU:ENTSOE_EIC=*