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Public-images-osm logo.svg boundary = protected_area
Yatsuhigata 04x4720s.jpg
Se usa para indicar los límites de áreas protegidas, incluyendo parques nacionales, áreas naturales protegidas, áreas marinas protegidas, sitios patrimoniales y otras áreas similares. Show/edit corresponding data item.
Grupo: Límites
Usado en estos elementos
puede ser usado en nodosno puede ser usado en víaspuede ser usado en áreaspuede ser usado en relaciones
Combinaciones útiles
Véase también
Estado: de factoPage for proposal


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boundary=protected_area se utiliza para marcar los límites de las áreas protegidas, incluidos los parques nacionales, espacios naturales, áreas de protección marina, lugares históricos y otras áreas similares.

+ protect_class=1 to 99
+ protection_title=...

Cómo mapear

  • Para áreas protegidas de pequeño tamaño, dibuje una forma cerrada para definir el área.
  • Las áreas protegidas más grandes o complejas se suelen mapear como relaciones con type=boundary. Algunos usuarios utilizan type=multipolygon en su lugar.
  • Añada las etiquetas boundary=protected_area + protect_class=1 to 99 + protection_title=...
    • Consulte la tabla siguiente para elegir correctamente la protect_class=*
    • Añada el título o tipo de protección (como "Parque Nacional" o "Reserva de Fauna") en protection_title=...
    • Añada el nombre local más utilizado para la zona en la etiqueta name=*
      • Si hay un nombre oficial más largo, éste puede ser etiquetado con official_name=*


La naturaleza de la zona protegida se identifica mediante la etiqueta protect_class=1 to 99 que se divide en tres categorías:

  • conservación de la naturaleza para ecosistemas complejos (1-9, 97-99),
  • conservación de los recursos individuales importantes(11-19) y
  • conservación social para recursos comunitarios y arquitectura (21-29).

The tables "Protect classes for various countries" below, provide guidance on the use of protect_class.

Área de protección de la Naturaleza

Protected nature and landscape in ecosystem context, including promoted culture habits. Switch to the table of countries >>

class description* examples
1 1a Strict Nature Reserve: ... strictly protected areas ... are strictly controlled and limited ... can serve as indispensable reference areas for scientific research and monitoring.
1b Wilderness Area: ... usually large unmodified or slightly modified areas, retaining their natural character and influence within permanent or significant human habitation, ...
You can keep them apart by an additional zone-Tag.
Ia: naturereserve Florarna in Sweden.
Ib: Bolshoi Arkticheskiy naturereserve on nothsibirien peninsula Taimyr.
2 National Park: ... large natural or near natural areas set aside to protect large-scale ecological processes, ... Yellowstone (USA), Watten Sea (Europe), ...
3 Natural Monument or Feature: ... protect a specific natural monument, which can be a landform, sea mount, submarine cavern, geological feature such as a cave or even a living feature such as an ancient grove. They are generally quite small protected areas and often have high visitor value. Cultural and archaeological important. Victoria Falls (Africa), ...
4 Habitat/Species Management Area: ... aim to protect particular species or habitats and management reflects this priority. Many Category IV protected areas will need regular, active interventions ... Naturereserves, Naturschutzgebiet, ...
5 Protected Landscape/ Seascape: ... area where the interaction of people and nature over time has produced an area of distinct character with significant, ecological, biological, cultural and scenic value: ... landscape protection, Naturparks like "Lüneburger Heide", Harz, ...
6 Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources: ... conserve ecosystems and habitats together with associated cultural values and traditional natural resource management systems. They are generally large, with most of the area in a natural condition, where a proportion is under sustainable natural resource management and where low-level non-industrial use of natural resources compatible with nature conservation is seen as one of the main aims of the area. For small areas and single-value-protection see also resources-protected-area: protect_class=11 to 19. Tonda Wildlife Mangament Area (Papua Neu-Guinea), ...
7 nature-feature area: similar to 4. but without IUCN-level. Some habitats are protected by local- or district-law: areas to protect one specie, special cover of vegetation, geological site, ...
97 protected by continental agreements. They often cover sites already protected by national law. Asia: ASEAN Heritage, Europe: Smaragd-Network of the European Council, "Natura 2000" (FFH, Birdareas), European greenbelt, ...
98 protected by interstate- or international conventions. They often cover sites already protected by national law. A cross-border Nationalpark with IUCN-level should belong to 2. World Heritage Convention, UNESCO-MAB Reserve, Wetlands of International Importance ("Ramsar"), ... or the "Barcelona Convention" by states bordering the Mediterranean Sea. African - Eurasian Migratory Waterbird Agreement (AEWA), ...
99 other continental or international.

Recursos del área protegida

Protected areas with a focus on single natural resources, including human living space itself, because of an important natural material or characteristic. Mostly appointed on community level. Switch to the table of countries.

class description
11 soil: crop yield, erosion protection, ...
12 water: water protection area, fresh water, drinking water, springs, ...
13 climate and -air: gasper supply/cold air, ...
for emission-, immission control in OSM existent, see "Low Emission Zone" (LEZ)
14 species: no fishing, protected for fishery, protected for hunting, plants, ...
15 location condition: floodwater retention area, protection forest, grazing land, ...
16 longtime hazard area: contamination, earth-moving area, "problem sites" ...
19 other national, not yet classified for ID 1 to 18, IUCN-level -999, ... . The indigenous areas with IUCN -999 should belong to ID 24.

Ámbito social protegido

Important social interests. Visualize sociopolitical assets. Switch to the table of countries.

class description
21 Actividad ciudadana: zonas religiosas, áreas sagradas, espacios asociativos, ocio
22 Cultural assets (cultural assets and - efforts, districts historical heritage, monument conservation):
protection of sites with special architecture or historic interest, designed and created intentionally by people: urban layout, buildings, landscape, gardens, art-goods, ...
23 Protection in favor of economics: special economic zones, ...
24 Political protection:
reservation / indigenous area / aboriginal: self-governing communities with land + indigenous: in OSM existent, see "boundary=aboriginal_lands"
state-boundaries: in OSM existent, see "boundary=administrative"
25 Military areas: military refuges, test area, ...
with regard to contents this is correct, however in OSM existent, see "military=*" and Map_Features#Military
26 Historic: for colonial-era entities and protectorates. Otherwise like erstwhile-, former- or ancient-protected areas please better assign "cultural values" with value=22.
(27) Public land: Public ground owned by Government entity (see discussion: it is no guaranty for protection, it is an owner-info for add.-tags!).
29 other social, not yet classified for ID 21 to 28.

Claves adicionales

For background-information of the objects.

key value description
protection_title=* wildlife sanctuary, Zapovidnyk, National Park, Special Protected Area, World Heritage Convention, Aesthetic Forest, Heritage River, Indian Reserve, ... Title or type of protection, not the proper name. The national designation, the formal title or type of protection (see level-table).

Important! Strongly recommended

name=* proper name the common name of the area
ref=* <reference number> Use the ref=* to hold an external ID number for the area
opening_hours=* Dec 20-Jan 06 00:00-24:00
or "sunrise to sunset", etc.
The dates or times when the protected area is open to the public
website=* appropriate website for further information about the protected area
operator=* The institution or individual which operates the protected area
governance_type=* government_managed / government / private / social_group The governance describes the decision-making structure of a site. Also see operator=*, site_ownership=*
site_ownership=* public, international, national, federal, province, state, regional, county, municipal, community, private
related_law=* Law 4/1994, BNatSchG: § 23, ... The title of the edict or legal text which establishes or regulates the area.
start_date=* yyyy-mm-dd The date the protected area was created. Also see end_date=*.
protection_object=* aborigine, art, cave, heritage, habitat, nature, recreation, soil, water, etc ... The subject or object of the protected area, that is, the feature that is protected.
period=* 1200-1500 or Late Middle Ages to give the time when a historic area was being used. Use the name of the period or a range of years.
ethnic_group=* the name of the ethnic (indigenous, aboriginal) group Used in connection with political protection, protect_class=24 in Colombia

Clases de protección para varios países

The tables below provide guidance on the use of protect_class in different countries. If your country is undocumented then refer to of the WDPA where you can search for it by its proper name. If there are no results, ask the appropriate (government) administration, use the talk page or your local mailing list for discussion and than add it below or add it to the "other"-levels. The following labeling is based upon the "IUCN Category" ... try to add ("harmonise") your country's protection-system to the table.

Áreas de protección de la Naturaleza

Switch to the description

Country 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 97 98 99
Australia In Australia there is no general relationship between the title given to a protected area and its IUCN category. Tagging should be based on data from (CAPAD)[1] In Australia there is no general relationship between the title given to a protected area and its IUCN category. Tagging should be based on data from (CAPAD)[2] In Australia there is no general relationship between the title given to a protected area and its IUCN category. Tagging should be based on data from (CAPAD)[3] In Australia there is no general relationship between the title given to a protected area and its IUCN category. Tagging should be based on data from (CAPAD)[4] In Australia there is no general relationship between the title given to a protected area and its IUCN category. Tagging should be based on data from (CAPAD)[5] In Australia there is no general relationship between the title given to a protected area and its IUCN category. Tagging should be based on data from (CAPAD)[6] - - UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve, Ramsar-Wetlands,World Heritage Convention other international, not yet classified
Austria In Austria there is no general relationship between the title given to a protected area and its IUCN category.

Nationalpark In Austria there is no general relationship between the title given to a protected area and its IUCN category. In Austria there is no general relationship between the title given to a protected area and its IUCN category. In Austria there is no general relationship between the title given to a protected area and its IUCN category. In Austria there is no general relationship between the title given to a protected area and its IUCN category. - Natura2000-Gebiet, Vogelschutzgebiet, Europaschutzgebiet Biosphärenpark -
Bolivia source - Parque / National Park Monumento Natural / Natural Monument Santuario, Reservas de Vida Silvestre / Sanctuary (endemic flora & fauna), Wildlife Reserves - Área Natural de Manejo Integrado / Integrated Management Natural Area Reserva Natural de Inmovilización / Natural Reserve of Immobilization - - -
Brazil Biological Reserve, State Ecological Station National Park, State Park, State Marine Park Wildlife Refuge State Area of Outstanding Ecological Interest State Environmental Protection Area Extractive Reserve, National Forest, State Sustainable Development Reserve, Extractive Reserve, National Forest - - UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve, Ramsar-Wetlands,World Heritage Convention other international, not yet classified
1a: Natuurreservaat
1b: Wildernisgebied
Nationaal park Natuurmonument Biotoop Beschermd landschap Ecosysteem - Vogelbroedplaats - -

Wallonia Source
1a: Réserves naturelles domaniales (RND) et réserves naturelles agréées (RNA) intégrales - - Réserves naturelles domaniales (RND) et réserves naturelles agréées (RNA) dirigées, cavités souterraines d'intérêt scientifique (CSIS), zone humide d'intérêt biologique (ZHIB) Parc Naturel Réserve forestière (RF) - - - -
Bulgaria Резерват (Reserve) Национален парк (National Park) Природна забележителност (Natural Monument) Поддържан резерват (Managed Nature Reserve) Природен парк (Natural Park) Защитена местност (Protected site) - Натура 2000 (EU Naturа 2000) Биосферен резерват по програмата на ЮНЕСКО "Човекът и биосферата"(UNESCO-MAB) Други неквалифицирани международни зони (other international, not yet classified)
Canada Wilderness Area, Nature Conservancy of Canada Lands (Ia), Nature Reserve (Ia), Ecological Reserve (Ia), Special Place (Ia), Migratory Bird Sanctuary, Migratory Bird Refuge (Ia), Provincial Park, Territorial Park, Migratory Bird Sanctuary, National Historic Site, National Historic Park, Migratory Bird Sanctuary, -Refuge, Wildlife Management Area, Migratory Bird Sanctuary, Eastern Habitat Joint Venture Lands, Conservation Authority Area,Conservation Area, Recreation Site, Faunal Habitat, Salmon River, Wildlife Habitat - Waterfowl Gathering Area, Community Pasture, Migratory Bird Sanctuary, Agreement Forest, Protective Forest, Operational Parks and Reserves, National Capital Commission Area, Recreation Site, Natural Area, Migratory Bird Sanctuary - UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve, Ramsar-Wetlands,World Heritage Convention other international, not yet classified
China National Nature Reserves National Parks/National Geoparks/National Forest Parks/National Wetland Parks/National Desert Parks/National Water Parks/National Special Marine Protected Areas National Closed Sandified Land Protected Areas/National Typical Earthquake Sites National Domestic Animal Genetic Resources Conservation Areas/National Aquatic Germplasm Resources Conservation Areas/National Wood (Flower) Parks - - - - - -
Colombia - National Park / Parques Nacionales Naturales (PNN) y Reservas Nacionales Naturales (RNN) National Nature Monument / Área natural única Protected Site ( Santuarios de Flora y Fauna Regional Park /Parques Regionales Naturales (PRN) Área de Reserva Forestal (ARF) - - - -
Croatia Strict Reserve / Strogi rezervat National Park / Nacionalni park Special Reserve / Posebni rezervat Nature park / Park prirode Regional park /Regionalni park Nature monument / Spomenik prirode Significant landscape / Značajan krajobraz - - -
Czech Republic National Nature Reserve, Nature Reserve National Park National Nature Monument, Natural Monument Protected Site Protected Landscape Area - - Natura 2000 - other international, not yet classified

France Réserve intégrale Cœur de Parc national Réserve naturelle nationale (si réserve géologique), Réserve naturelle régionale (si réserve géologique), sites classés et inscrits Réserve naturelle nationale, Réserve naturelle régionale, Réserve biologique, Réserve nationale de chasse et faune sauvage, Sites du Conservatoire du Littoral Aire d'adhésion de Parc national, Parc naturel régional, Parc naturel marin, Sites du Conservatoire du Littoral Parc naturel marin - Natura 2000 UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve, Ramsar-Wetlands,World Heritage Convention -
Germany - Nationalpark - Naturschutzgebiet Naturpark, Landschaftsschutzgebiet - Geschützer Biotop, -Landschaftsbestandteil, Naturdenkmal, Horstschutzgebiet, Waldschutzgebiete (Schon- und Bannwald), Gewässerschutz, ... Natura 2000: Site of Community Interest (SCI), FFH-Gebiet (SAC), Vogelschutzgebiet (SPA), Emerald-Gebiete. European greenbelt, ... UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve, Ramsar-Feuchtgebiete, Welterbe, ... weitere internationale, noch nicht klassifiziert.
India National parks in India Wildlife sanctuaries of India
- Parco Nazionale, Parco Naturale Regionale, Area Naturale Marina Monumento Naturale, Sito Archeologico Riserva Naturale Statale/Regionale, Biotopo, Area Naturale Marina Zona umida, Area Protetta, Oasi, Parco Urbano, ecc. - Natura 2000: Sito di Importanza Comunitaria (SIC), Zona di Protezione Speciale (ZPS), Zona Speciale di Conservazione (ZSC), Convenzione delle Alpi Convenzione di Ramsar, UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve,
Panama (IUCN-Ib) Reserva Científica Parque Nacional Monumento Natural Refugio de Vida Silvestre Reserva Hidrológica;
Paisaje Protegido;
Área Natural Recreativa
Reserva Forestal;
Área de Recursos Manejados
Philippines Wilderness Area National Park, Natural Park Natural Monument Bird Sanctuary, Wildlife Sanctuary Protected Landscape, Protected Seascape, Protected Landscape and Seascape, Managed Resource Protected Area, Natural Biotic Area Resource Reserve, Watershed Forest Reserve - ASEAN Heritage Parks UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve, Ramsar-Wetlands, World Heritage Convention other international, not yet classified
Portugal Parque Nacional,

Parque Natural

Paisagem Protegida (*issued by National Authority),

Monumento Natural,

Sítio Classificado

Reserva Natural Paisagem Protegida (*issued by Local/Regional Authority),

Paisagem Protegida Regional,

Paisagem Protegida Local

Área Protegida Privada Natura 2000 UNESCO-MAB,


Russia Zapovednik National Park Nature Monument Zakasnik - Ramsar-Wetlands, World Heritage Convention, UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve, ... other international, not yet classified
United Kingdom
due to publishing restrictions, data not on the WDPA
- - - - Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty - - - - other international, not yet classified
the United States National Wilderness. 1A: Nature Conservancy Fee Land, Research Natural Area (USFS), Ecological Preserve or Natural Area, Research Natural Area (BLM), ... 1b: Wilderness Area, - (BLM), -(USFS), Wilderness Study Area (BLM), ... National Park (NPS), State Marine Reserve, (State Park), ... National Monument, Audubon Society Preserve or Sanctuary, State Marine Park, ... National Wildlife Refuge, National Wildlife Refuge (FWS), Special Biological Areas (USFS), State Habitat Area, State Nature Preserve, State Waterfowl Production Area, State Wildlife Management Area, State Marine Conservation Area, State Marine Recreational Management Area National Preserve. Area of Critical Environmental Concern (BLM), City Park, City Preserve or Natural Area, Conservancy Easement, Conservation/Natural Area, County Park, Local Land Trust Easement, Local Land Trust Preserve, National Forest (USFS), Nature Conservancy Fee Land, State Conservation Area or Park, State Ecological Reserve, State Heritage Preserve, State Managed Conservation Easements, State Natural Area, State Park, State Wild or Scenic River, Wild, Scenic & Recreation River (USFS), ... National Forest, National Grassland. Waterfowl Production Area (FWS) - - - other international, not yet classified

Slovakia National Nature Reserve, Nature Reserve National Park National Nature Monument, Natural Monument Protected Site Protected Landscape Area - - - - other international, not yet classified
Spain Reservas Naturales Integrales Parque Nacional Monumento Natural,


Reservas Naturales,

Área Marina Protegida, Sitio de Interés Científico, Reserva Natural Especial

Parque Natural,

Paisaje Protegido, Áreas Naturales de Especial Interés

Parque Rural, Parque Regional Zonas de la Red Ecológica Europea Natura 2000 (LIC, ZEC, ZEPA y Hábitats de Interés Comunitario) UNESCO-MAB Reservas de la Biosfera, Humedales Ramsar,World Heritage Convention

Ukraine Nature Reserve, Zapovednik (Природний заповідник) National Nature Park, National Park (Національний природний парк) Natural Monument, Natural Nature Monument (Пам'ятка природи) Zakaznyk (Заказник); Conservation Stow (Заповідне урочище) Regional Landscape Park (Регіональний ландшафтний парк); Botanic Garden (Ботанічний сад); Dendrological Park (Дендрологічний парк); Zoological Park (Зоологічний парк); Park-monument of Landscape Art (Парк-пам'ятка садово-парковогомистецтва) - - - UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve (Біосферний заповідник); Ramsar-Wetlands (Водно-болотні угіддя міжнародного значення) other international, not yet classified

Recursos de áreas protegidas

Switch to the description.

Country 11 12 13 14 15 16 19
Australia Water Catchment Protection Areas other national, ...
Austria - Quellschutzgebiet, Wasserschutzgebiet IG Luft - Bannwald Altlast, Überschwemmungsgebiet, Hochwasserzone -
Waterwinningsgebied Jachtgebied andere, niet geclassificeerd
Canada Game Preserve, ... other national, ...
Germany Bodenschutz Trinkwasserschutz, Trinkwassergewinnung, Heilquellenschutz, ... Kaltluftentstehung, Frischluftversorgung, Immissionsschutz-, ... Angelverbot, Fischereischutzzone, Jagdschutzgebiet, ... Retentionsraum, Schutzwald, Standort, Kontaminationsfläche, Bodenbewegungsgebiet, ... weitere, nicht klassifiziert
Philippines Game Refuge, Marine Reserve other national
USA State Forest EPA Superfund site

Ámbito social protegido

Switch to the description.

Country 21 22 23 24 (possibly being deprecated by boundary=aboriginal_lands) 25 26 27* [7]) 29
Australia monument conservation other social
Austria Kulturdenkmal, UNESCO-Kulturerbe (Truppenübungsplatz, Kaserne, Fernmeldeanlage, Munitionslager)
Brazil Indigenous Protected Areas other social, ...
Colombia - - - Indigenous Protected Areas and Afro Colombian Protected Areas: Resguardos indígenas y Tierras de Comunidades Negras - - - -
Germany Denkmalschutz - weitere sozial bestimmte
Philippines UNESCO Cultural Heritage Sites Special Economic Zones Ancestral Domains/Lands other social
Portugal UNESCO World Heritage List,

MN - Monumento Nacional,

MIP - Monumento de Interesse Público,

SIP - Sítio de Interesse Público,

IIP - Imóvel de Interesse Público,

IIM - Imóvel de Interesse Municipal,

IM - Interesse Municipal

Spain UNESCO Patrimonio de la Humanidad, Bien de Interés Cultural (BIC)
Switzerland Kulturgüterschutz (KGS Swiss Inventory) - - - - - -
USA monument conservation Indigenous Protected Areas (Federal) Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), federal public lands which are not (federal) US Department of Agriculture's US Forest Service (USFS), State Land Trust. other social


The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) designed categories of nature conservation management, which communicate "intensities of engagement". On a technical view, the fact of protection doesn't fit with the surface or the objects of an area, it just looks for some structures for bordering (e.g. on initial areas, inhabitants may go on with their usual activities for a longer period of transition). 'Protection is no landuse', it is a political agreement. So, the already existing key "boundary" is a suitable key. As associated value, "protected_area" was newly established, because it is clear and emphasizes "the precaution" and "the limitation". Limitations don't emerge only by nature conservation. Further reasons are socio-political and include economic requests, for taking care of resources. Areas also might receive awards, which require a consideration. Those matters are also taken up here.

In order to allow the use of a familiar country-specific ordering system for easy handling (mapping and rendering) the multiplicity of "nomenclatures" was assigned to a few numbers of IDs ("protect_class"). Similarly managed or intended protected areas should use the same value. IDs are short and more friendly; it is easier to conflate an abstract code with "my" local name, than a foreign name ("Природна ..." = 3). The protectedplanet website by the IUCN allows us to determine many types of national nature-conservation areas.

So, the first 'class 1-9' mostly align with these IUCN-categories and cover the section nature-conservation (and that in a holistic view, inclusive culture aspects like special kinds of farming). But for the sake of independence, don't think of the classes as "coupled" with the IUCN categories. The '10s-block' signifies areas to conserve resources ("economic view") - the basic ones are soil and minerals, water, air, species and for some locations, certain features or facilities. The '20s-block' signifies socio-political interests. Finally the '90s-block' signifies awards and supra-regional, and global categories.

Protect_class 1 to 6 are from IUCN Protected Areas Categories System (2009). To associate the correct class, see the IUCN-database at, section "IUCN Category". The intention is for protect_class=* 1 to 6 fit with the IUCN-level I to VI, class 19 to IUCN -999. whereas protect_class 7 more correctly associates to additional sites which otherwise would go untagged. There are no protected areas for the United Kingdom in the WDPA (see WDPA-FAQ). Sites by international convention belong into protect_class 97 to 99.


Until 2010 there was a lack of fitting tags for the plurality of types of nature-reserves (e.g. in europe there are about 90). Only two types are used in OSM: nature reserve (leisure=nature_reserve) and nationalpark (boundary=national_park), moreover those are technically not equal. So lots of protected areas became tagged incorrectly.

Pay attention to the discussion-content, see:

You can keep buffer-areas or zones apart with additional 'site_zone-tag plus relation' (see polygon example graphic).

Véase también

... discussion about terms (International consistency)

  • leisure=nature_reserve - Like a national park, a nature reserve is about protecting wildlife etc. The distinction is unclear and is under discussion, but some suggestions are: nature reserves are smaller areas than national parks, National parks are rather like administrative boundaries around large areas (and may in fact include cities) whereas nature reserves are more evident on-the-ground.

Enlaces externos

There are governments, keeping a habitat system: