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Public-images-osm logo.svg boundary = protected_area
National park.png
国立公園、海の自然保護区、文化財、野生、原産地など、保護区域の境界を示すために使います。 Edit or translate this description.
グループ: 境界線


boundary=protected_area は国立公園、海の自然保護区、文化財、野生、原産地など、保護区域の境界を示すために使います。

+ protect_class=1~99
+ protection_title=...


The nature of the protected area is identified using protect_class=1 to 99 which are divided into three categories:

  • nature conservation for complex ecosystems (1-9, 97-99),
  • resources conservation for important single resources(11-19) and
  • social conservation for community and architecture (21-29).

The tables "Protect classes for various countries" below, provide guidance on the use of protect_class.


Protected nature and landscape in ecosystem context, including promoted culture habits. Switch to the table of countries >>

class description* examples
1 1a Strict Nature Reserve: ... strictly protected areas ... are strictly controlled and limited ... can serve as indispensable reference areas for scientific research and monitoring.
1b Wilderness Area: ... usually large unmodified or slightly modified areas, retaining their natural character and influence within permanent or significant human habitation, ...
You can keep them apart by an additional zone-Tag.
Ia: naturereserve Florarna in Sweden.
Ib: Bolshoi Arkticheskiy naturereserve on nothsibirien peninsula Taimyr.
2 National Park: ... large natural or near natural areas set aside to protect large-scale ecological processes, ... Yellowstone (USA), Watten Sea (Europe), ...
3 Natural Monument or Feature: ... protect a specific natural monument, which can be a landform, sea mount, submarine cavern, geological feature such as a cave or even a living feature such as an ancient grove. They are generally quite small protected areas and often have high visitor value. Cultural and archaeological important. Victoria Falls (Africa), ...
4 Habitat/Species Management Area: ... aim to protect particular species or habitats and management reflects this priority. Many Category IV protected areas will need regular, active interventions ... Naturereserves, Naturschutzgebiet, ...
5 Protected Landscape/ Seascape: ... area where the interaction of people and nature over time has produced an area of distinct character with significant, ecological, biological, cultural and scenic value: ... landscape protection, Naturparks like "Lüneburger Heide", Harz, ...
6 Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources: ... conserve ecosystems and habitats together with associated cultural values and traditional natural resource management systems. They are generally large, with most of the area in a natural condition, where a proportion is under sustainable natural resource management and where low-level non-industrial use of natural resources compatible with nature conservation is seen as one of the main aims of the area. For small areas and single-value-protection see also resources-protected-area: protect_class=11 to 19. Tonda Wildlife Mangament Area (Papua Neu-Guinea), ...
7 nature-feature area: similar to 4. but without IUCN-level. Some habitats are protected by local- or district-law: areas to protect one specie, special cover of vegetation, geological site, ...
97 protected by continental agreements. They often cover sites already protected by national law. Asia: ASEAN Heritage, Europe: Smaragd-Network of the European Council, "Natura 2000" (FFH, Birdareas), European greenbelt, ...
98 protected by interstate- or international conventions. They often cover sites already protected by national law. A cross-border Nationalpark with IUCN-level should belong to 2. World Heritage Convention, UNESCO-MAB Reserve, Wetlands of International Importance ("Ramsar"), ... or the "Barcelona Convention" by states bordering the Mediterranean Sea. African - Eurasian Migratory Waterbird Agreement (AEWA), ...
99 other continental or international.


Protected areas with a focus on single natural resources, including human living space itself, because of an important natural material or characteristic. Mostly appointed on community level. Switch to the table of countries.

class description
11 soil: crop yield, erosion protection, ...
12 water: water protection area, fresh water, drinking water, springs, ...
13 climate and -air: gasper supply/cold air, ...
for emission-, immission control in OSM existent, see "Low Emission Zone" (LEZ)
14 species: no fishing, protected for fishery, protected for hunting, plants, ...
15 location condition: floodwater retention area, protection forest, grazing land, ...
16 longtime hazard area: contamination, earth-moving area, "problem sites" ...
19 other national, not yet classified for ID 1 to 18, IUCN-level -999, ... . The indigenous areas with IUCN -999 should belong to ID 24.


Important social interests. Visualize sociopolitical assets. Switch to the table of countries.

class description
21 Community life: religious, sacred areas, associative locations, recreation
22 Cultural assets (cultural assets and - efforts, districts historical heritage, monument conservation):
protection of sites with special architecture or historic interest, designed and created intentionally by people: urban layout, buildings, landscape, gardens, art-goods, ...
23 Protection in favor of economics: special economic zones, ...
24 Political protection:
reservation / indigenous area / aborigine: self-governing communities with land + indigenous
state-boundaries: in OSM existent, see "boundary=administrative". ...
25 Military areas: military refuges, test area,
with regard to contents its right, but in OSM its already used with the key military=* ...
26 Historic: for colonial-stuff and protectorates. Otherwise like erstwhile-, former- or ancient-protected areas please better sign in "cultural values" ID 22.
(27) Public land: Public ground owned by Government entity (see discussion: it is no guaranty for protection, it is an owner-info for add.-tags!).
29 other social, not yet classified for ID 21 to 28.

Additional keys

For background-information of the objects. Use the ref=* to hold an external ID for the area.

key value description
protection_title=* wildlife sanctuary, Zapovidnyk, Nationalpark, Special Protected Area, World Heritage Convention, Aesthetic Forest, Heritage River, Indian Reserve, ... Title or type of protection, not the proper name. The national designation, the formal title or type of protection (see level-table).

Important! You should give this. To make differences within one class. At the end it gives a sample of terms. The individual labeling, f.e. like the phillipine "Nipas Category".

protection_object=* aborigine, nature, habitat, art, econonic, politic, military, historic, water, soil, air, climat, noise, floodwater, rockslide, retention, ... The point, subject matter, worth-feature.
Preferably don´t list species or elements - therefor you should give a website-url.
protection_aim=* intention of the site
protection_ban=* "no cats", ...*!! banned actions. special permits ... Its not used, so *upcoming it will be taken out from here.
protection_instruction=* "only cats", ...*!! imperative. site development enforcement orders. Its not used, so *upcoming it will be taken out from here.
related_law=* Law 4/1994, BNatSchG: § 23, ... for the area. The title of the edict, title of the legal text, etc.
site_zone=* 1 to *, 1a to *, I to *, Ia to * if there are buffer- or grading zones respectively levels of protection. For example national parks or waterprotection areas have such a system. Fit the ways with a relation to keep area and zones together.

This tag should be more concretized like: catchment_zone=*, water_catchment_zone=*, protection_zone=*, water_protection_zone=*, habitat_buffer_zone=*, hazard_zone=*, ...

valid_from=* yyyy-mm-dd if a directive is coming into effect. May be too for values like "1910 - 1920; 1960-12-09" if a protection is no continuum.
yyyy-mm-dd see above and see the wiki-side
opening_hours=* Dec 20-Jan 06 00:00-24:00
may be too "sunrise to sunset", ...
for routes- and entering-concepts (associated with a zone-concept): if there are breeding seasons or something like that ... for example: opens only Dec 20 to Jan 06 but nonstop, 24h. In this context, the key-name doesn´t harmonize really but ... it should work.
operator=* institutions, persons etc.
governance_type=* government_managed (ministry or agency in charge, government-delegated management), social_protagonist, private_landowner, social_group (local Communities) Who primarily maintains the site. The governance describes the decision-making structure of a site and is closely linked to ownership. About responsibly, social integration. (see wdpa-def.)
site_ownership=* public (federal, province, municipal), community conserved areas (community, indigenous), joint or co-ownership, private. on wdpa´s protectedplanet.net it is the key 'designation_type'.
site_status=* designated, retired, intended, obtained, ... on wdpa´s protectedplanet.net it is the key 'status'.
protection_award=* EUROPARC Transboundary Parks, Europadiplom, ... Sometimes there are awards for a protected site
protected=* perpetuity, limited, temporary for an alternate determinated protection. Access.
Its simular to the northamerican "protected" (see tagwatch)

+ ref:EUR27:source=*

Mediterranean temporary ponds
Interpretation Manual of European Union Habitats - EUR27 (July 2007)

ID or cipher of corresponding classification systems by their abbreviation like from
WDPA - the "World Database on Protected Areas"
IUCN - the "IUCN Protected Areas Categories System".
EUR27 - the "Interpretation Manual of European Union Habitats" EUR27 (July 2007), EUR28, ...
Other - regional and local lists.

+ scale=*
to giva a time when the element was being used. period with appropriate scale (persian, christian, pre-christian, chinese, mayan, ...). During tagging, nobody wants to figure out, what his period is in an different scale. That might done by querys. You need both tags.
website=* http://www.nameoftheasite.com appropriate site, for further information about the protected area, species, contact persons, laws, etc..
name=* proper name the site name, the proper name of the site. Use name-typical keys.
contamination=* nuclear_mess, mercury, ... or hazard_zone. Doesn´t realy belong to protected-areas. To mark a boundary of a polluted area. Constrained access due to the fact of longtime contamination facts.
north, south, west, east, central, upper, lower, sub, northeast, ... for any partition of an area or orientation of an object.
ethnic_group=* the name of the ethnic (indigenous, aboriginal) group, in connection with political protection, protect_class=24 I.e. in Colombia: arhuaco, embera, guambiano, kogui, nasa, paez...

Protect classes for various countries

The tables below provide guidance on the use of protect_class in different countries. If your country is undocumented then refer to protectedplanet.net of the WDPA where you can search for it by its proper name. If there are no results, ask the appropriate (government) administration, use the talk page or your local mailing list for discussion and than add it below or add it to the "other"-levels. The following labeling is based upon the "IUCN Category" ... try to add ("harmonise") your country's protection-system to the table.


Switch to the description

Country 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 97 98 99
オーストラリア In Australia there is no general relationship between the title given to a protected area and its IUCN category. Tagging should be based on data from (CAPAD)[1] or (WDPA)[2] National Park, Heritage River, Aquatic Reserve, State Reserve, Other Park (Conservation Park)[3], Natural Features Reserve-Streamside, -Wildlife, Management Agreement Area Conservation Park, Natural Features Reserve -Bushland, Forest Reserve, Resource Reserve, Nature Refuge, Game Reserve, Fish Habitat Area, Botanic Gardens (Com.), Native Forest Other Conservation Area, Historical Reserve, Heritage River Resource Reserve, (Forest Reserve) - - UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve, Ramsar-Wetlands,World Heritage Convention other international, not yet classified
オーストリア 1a: Naturzone, Biosphärenpark-Kernzone;

1b: Bewahrungszone

Nationalpark Naturdenkmal, geschützte Höhle, besonders geschützte Höhle Naturschutzgebiet Landschaftsschutzgebiet Naturpark - Natura2000-Gebiet, Vogelschutzgebiet, Europaschutzgebiet Biosphärenpark -
ブラジル Biological Reserve, State Ecological Station National Park, State Park, State Marine Park Wildlife Refuge State Area of Outstanding Ecological Interest State Environmental Protection Area Extractive Reserve, National Forest, State Sustainable Development Reserve, Extractive Reserve, National Forest - - UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve, Ramsar-Wetlands,World Heritage Convention other international, not yet classified
1a: Natuurreservaat
1b: Wildernisgebied
Nationaal park Natuurmonument Biotoop Beschermd landschap Ecosysteem - Vogelbroedplaats - -
ブルガリア Резерват (Reserve) Национален парк (National Park) Природна забележителност (Natural Monument) Поддържан резерват (Managed Nature Reserve) Природен парк (Natural Park) Защитена местност (Protected site) - Натура 2000 (EU Naturа 2000) Биосферен резерват по програмата на ЮНЕСКО "Човекът и биосферата"(UNESCO-MAB) Други неквалифицирани международни зони (other international, not yet classified)
カナダ Wilderness Area, Nature Conservancy of Canada Lands (Ia), Nature Reserve (Ia), Ecological Reserve (Ia), Special Place (Ia), Migratory Bird Sanctuary, Migratory Bird Refuge (Ia), Provincial Park, Territorial Park, Migratory Bird Sanctuary, National Historic Site, National Historic Park, Migratory Bird Sanctuary, -Refuge, Wildlife Management Area, Migratory Bird Sanctuary, Eastern Habitat Joint Venture Lands, Conservation Authority Area,Conservation Area, Recreation Site, Faunal Habitat, Salmon River, Wildlife Habitat - Waterfowl Gathering Area, Community Pasture, Migratory Bird Sanctuary, Agreement Forest, Protective Forest, Operational Parks and Reserves, National Capital Commission Area, Recreation Site, Natural Area, Migratory Bird Sanctuary - UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve, Ramsar-Wetlands,World Heritage Convention other international, not yet classified
コロンビア - National Park / Parques Nacionales Naturales (PNN) y Reservas Nacionales Naturales (RNN) National Nature Monument / Área natural única Protected Site ( Santuarios de Flora y Fauna Regional Park /Parques Regionales Naturales (PRN) Área de Reserva Forestal (ARF) - - - -
クロアチア Strict Reserve / Strogi rezervat National Park / Nacionalni park Special Reserve / Posebni rezervat Nature park / Park prirode Regional park /Regionalni park Nature monument / Spomenik prirode Significant landscape / Značajan krajobraz - - -
チェコ共和国 National Nature Reserve, Nature Reserve National Park National Nature Monument, Natural Monument Protected Site Protected Landscape Area - - Natura 2000 - other international, not yet classified
フランス Réserve intégrale Coeur de Parc national Réserve naturelle nationale (si réserve géologique), Réserve naturelle régionale (si réserve géologique), sites classés et inscrits Réserve naturelle nationale, Réserve naturelle régionale, Réserve biologique, Réserve nationale de chasse et faune sauvage, Sites du Conservatoire du Littoral Aire d'adhésion de Parc national, Parc naturel régional, Parc naturel marin, Sites du Conservatoire du Littoral Parc naturel marin Natura 2000 UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve, Ramsar-Wetlands,World Heritage Convention
ドイツ - Nationalpark - Naturschutzgebiet Naturpark, Landschaftsschutzgebiet - Geschützer Biotop, -Landschaftsbestandteil, Naturdenkmal, Horstschutzgebiet, Waldschutzgebiete (Schon- und Bannwald), Gewässerschutz, ... Natura 2000: Site of Community Interest (SCI), FFH-Gebiet (SAC), Vogelschutzgebiet (SPA), Emerald-Gebiete. European greenbelt, ... UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve, Ramsar-Feuchtgebiete, Welterbe, ... weitere internationale, noch nicht klassifiziert.
イタリア Parks.it - Parco Nazionale, Parco Naturale Regionale, Area Naturale Marina Monumento Naturale, Sito Archeologico Riserva Naturale Statale/Regionale, Biotopo, Area Naturale Marina Zona umida, Area Protetta, Oasi, Parco Urbano, ecc. - Natura 2000: Sito di Importanza Comunitaria (SIC) e Zona di Protezione Speciale (ZPS), Convenzione delle Alpi Convenzione di Ramsar, UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve,
フィリピン Wilderness Area National Park, Natural Park Natural Monument Game Refuge, Bird Sanctuary, Wildlife Sanctuary Protected Landscape, Protected Seascape, Protected Landscape and Seascape, Managed Resource Protected Area, Marine Reserve, Natural Biotic Area Resource Reserve, Watershed Forest Reserve - ASEAN Heritage Parks UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve, Ramsar-Wetlands, World Heritage Convention other international, not yet classified
ロシア Zapovednik National Park Nature Monument Zakasnik - Ramsar-Wetlands, World Heritage Convention, UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve, ... other international, not yet classified
due to publishing restrictions, data not on the WDPA
- - - - Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty - - - - other international, not yet classified
the United States National Wilderness. 1A: Nature Conservancy Fee Land, Research Natural Area (USFS), Ecological Preserve or Natural Area, Research Natural Area (BLM), ... 1b: Wilderness Area, - (BLM), -(USFS), Wilderness Study Area (BLM), ... National Park (NPS), (State Park), ... National Monument, Audubon Society Preserve or Sanctuary, ... National Wildlife Refuge, National Wildlife Refuge (FWS), Special Biological Areas (USFS), State Habitat Area, State Nature Preserve, State Waterfowl Production Area, State Wildlife Management Area National Preserve. Area of Critical Environmental Concern (BLM), City Park, City Preserve or Natural Area, Conservancy Easement, Conservation/Natural Area, County Park, Local Land Trust Easement, Local Land Trust Preserve, National Forest (USFS), Nature Conservancy Fee Land, State Conservation Area or Park, State Ecological Reserve, State Heritage Preserve, State Managed Conservation Easements, State Natural Area, State Park, State Wild or Scenic River, Wild, Scenic & Recreation River (USFS), ... National Forest, National Grassland. Waterfowl Production Area (FWS) - - - other international, not yet classified

スロバキア National Nature Reserve, Nature Reserve National Park National Nature Monument, Natural Monument Protected Site Protected Landscape Area - - - - other international, not yet classified

ウクライナ Nature Reserve, Zapovednik (Природний заповідник) National Nature Park, National Park (Національний природний парк) Natural Monument, Natural Nature Monument (Пам'ятка природи) Zakaznyk (Заказник); Conservation Stow (Заповідне урочище) Regional Landscape Park (Регіональний ландшафтний парк); Botanic Garden (Ботанічний сад); Dendrological Park (Дендрологічний парк); Zoological Park (Зоологічний парк); Park-monument of Landscape Art (Парк-пам'ятка садово-парковогомистецтва) - - - UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve (Біосферний заповідник); Ramsar-Wetlands (Водно-болотні угіддя міжнародного значення) other international, not yet classified


Switch to the description.

Country 11 12 13 14 15 16 19
オーストラリア other national, ...
オーストリア - Quellschutzgebiet, Wasserschutzgebiet IG Luft - Bannwald Altlast, Überschwemmungsgebiet, Hochwasserzone -
Waterwinningsgebied Jachtgebied andere, niet geclassificeerd
カナダ Game Preserve, ... other national, ...
ドイツ Bodenschutz Trinkwasserschutz, Trinkwassergewinnung, Heilquellenschutz, ... Kaltluftentstehung, Frischluftversorgung, Immissionsschutz-, ... Angelverbot, Fischereischutzzone, Jagdschutzgebiet, ... Retentionsraum, Schutzwald, Standort, Kontaminationsfläche, Bodenbewegungsgebiet, ... weitere, nicht klassifiziert
アメリカ合衆国 State Forest EPA Superfund site


Switch to the description.

Country 21 22 23 24 25 26 27* [4]) 29
オーストラリア monument conservation Indigenous Protected Areas other social
オーストリア Kulturdenkmal, UNESCO-Kulturerbe (Truppenübungsplatz, Kaserne, Fernmeldeanlage, Munitionslager)
ブラジル Indigenous Protected Areas other social, ...
コロンビア - - - Indigenous Protected Areas and Afro Colombian Protected Areas: Resguardos indígenas y Tierras de Comunidades Negras - - - -
ドイツ Denkmalschutz - weitere sozial bestimmte
フィリピン UNESCO Cultural Heritage Sites Special Economic Zones Ancestral Domains/Lands other social
スイス Kulturgüterschutz (KGS Swiss Inventory) - - - - - -
アメリカ合衆国 monument conservation Indigenous Protected Areas BLM, State Land Trust, Federal Public lands. Not Forest service. other social


The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) designed categories of nature conservation management, which communicate "intensities of engagement". On a technical view, the fact of protection doesn't fit with the surface or the objects of an area, it just looks for some structures for bordering (e.g. on initial areas, inhabitants may go on with their usual activities for a longer period of transition). 'Protection is no landuse', it is a political agreement. So, the already existing key "boundary" is a suitable key. As associated value, "protected_area" was newly established, because it is clear and emphasizes "the precaution" and "the limitation". Limitations don't emerge only by nature conservation. Further reasons are socio-political and include economic requests, for taking care of resources. Areas also might receive awards, which require a consideration. Those matters are also taken up here.

In order to allow the use of a familiar country-specific ordering system for easy handling (mapping and rendering) the multiplicity of "nomenclatures" was assigned to a few numbers of IDs ("protect_class"). Similarly managed or intended protected areas should use the same value. IDs are short and more friendly; it is easier to conflate an abstract code with "my" local name, than a foreign name ("Природна ..." = 3). The protectedplanet website by the IUCN allows us to determine many types of national nature-conservation areas.

So, the first 'class 1-9' mostly align with these IUCN-categories and cover the section nature-conservation (and that in a holistic view, inclusive culture aspects like special kinds of farming). But for the sake of independence, don't think of the classes as "coupled" with the IUCN categories. The '10s-block' signifies areas to conserve resources ("economic view") - the basic ones are soil and minerals, water, air, species and for some locations, certain features or facilities. The '20s-block' signifies socio-political interests. Finally the '90s-block' signifies awards and supra-regional, and global categories.

Protect_class 1 to 6 are from IUCN Protected Areas Categories System (2009). To associate the correct class, see the IUCN-database at protectedplanet.net, section "IUCN Category". The intention is for protect_class=* 1 to 6 fit with the IUCN-level I to VI, class 19 to IUCN -999. whereas protect_class 7 more correctly associates to additional sites which otherwise would go untagged. There are no protected areas for the United Kingdom in the WDPA (see WDPA-FAQ). Sites by international convention belong into protect_class 97 to 99.


Until 2010 there was a lack of fitting tags for the plurality of types of nature-reserves (e.g. in europe there are about 90). Only two types are used in OSM: nature reserve (leisure=nature_reserve) and nationalpark (boundary=national_park), moreover those are technically not equal. So lots of protected areas became tagged incorrectly.

Pay attention to the discussion-content, see:

You can keep buffer-areas or zones apart with additional 'site_zone-tag plus relation' (see polygon example graphic).


... discussion about terms (International consistency)

  • leisure=nature_reserve - Like a national park, a nature reserve is about protecting wildlife etc. The distinction is unclear and is under discussion, but some suggestions are: nature reserves are smaller areas than national parks, National parks are rather like administrative boundaries around large areas (and may in fact include cities) whereas nature reserves are more evident on-the-ground.

External links

There are governments, keeping a habitat system: