JA:Tag:boundary=protected_area

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Public-images-osm logo.svg boundary = protected_area
Yatsuhigata 04x4720s.jpg
説明
国立公園、海の自然保護区、文化財、野生、原産地など、保護区域の境界を示すために使います。 Edit or translate this description.
グループ: Boundaries
適用できる要素
ノードに使用不可能ウェイに使用不可能領域に使用可能リレーションに使用可能
依存するタグ
よく併用されるタグ
関連項目
状態:事実上の標準

boundary=protected_area は国立公園、自然保護区、海洋保護区、文化遺産など、保護区域の境界を示すために使います。

See:  Protected area

boundary=protected_area
+ protect_class=1a to 99
+ protection_title=...

マッピング方法

protect_class=*による保護区域の分類


The nature of the protected area is identified using protect_class=1 to 99 which are divided into four categories:

  • Conservation Land, derived from international definitions (1-6)
  • Other types of nature conservation (7, 97-99),
  • Resources conservation for important single resources(11-19) and
  • Social conservation for community and architecture (21-29).

Note that values 7-99 are not based on outside definitions and were invented for OSM.

The tables "Protect classes for various countries" below, provide guidance on the use of protect_class in specific countries.

Note that several of the values were proposed but have been very rarely used (for example, 11, 15, 16, and 26).

In some cases other tags are more common: boundary=national_park instead of 2, and boundary=aboriginal_lands instead of 24.

Nature Protected Area

Protected nature and landscape in ecosystem context, including promoted culture habits. Switch to the table of countries >>

Main Protected Area[1] Categories
Class Description Examples Rendering in
osm-carto
Usage
protect_class=1a Strict Nature Reserve (IUCN Category Ia)[1]: "...strictly set aside to protect biodiversity and also possibly geological/geomorphological features, where human visitation, use and impacts are strictly controlled and limited to ensure protection of the conservation values. Such protected areas can serve as indispensable reference areas for scientific research and monitoring." (IUCN definition)

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protect_class=1a
protect_class=1b or protect_class=1 Wilderness Area (IUCN Category Ib): "...usually large unmodified or slightly modified areas, retaining their natural character and influence, without permanent or significant human habitation, which are protected and managed so as to preserve their natural condition." (IUCN definition)

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protect_class=1b


protect_class=1

protect_class=2 National Park (IUCN Category II): "Large natural or near natural areas set aside to protect large-scale ecological processes, species and ecosystems... which also provide a foundation for environmentally and culturally compatible spiritual, scientific, educational, recreational and visitor opportunities." (IUCN definition)

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protect_class=2
protect_class=3 Natural Monument or Feature (IUCN Category III): "...protect a specific natural monument, which can be a landform, sea mount, submarine cavern, geological feature such as a cave or even a living feature such as an ancient grove. They are generally quite small protected areas and often have high visitor value." Cultural and archaeological important (IUCN definition)

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protect_class=3
protect_class=4 Habitat/Species Management Area (IUCN Category IV): "...aim to protect particular species or habitats and management reflects this priority. Many category IV protected areas will need regular, active interventions to address the requirements of particular species or to maintain habitats, but this is not a requirement..." (IUCN definition)

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protect_class=4
protect_class=5 Protected Landscape/Seascape (IUCN Category V): "...area where the interaction of people and nature over time has produced an area of distinct character with significant ecological, biological, cultural and scenic value: and where safeguarding the integrity of this interaction is vital to protecting and sustaining the area and its associated nature conservation and other values." (IUCN definition)

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protect_class=5
protect_class=6 Protected area with sustainable use of natural resources (IUCN Category VI): "...conserve ecosystems and habitats, together with associated cultural values and traditional natural resource management systems. They are generally large, with most of the area in a natural condition, where a proportion is under sustainable natural resource management and where low-level non-industrial use of natural resources compatible with nature conservation is seen as one of the main aims of the area." (IUCN definition)

For small areas and single-value-protection see also resources-protected-area: protect_class=11 to 19.

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protect_class=6
Other Nature Protected Area Categories
Class Description* Examples Rendering in
osm-carto
Usage
protect_class=7 nature-feature area: similar to 4. but without IUCN-level.

Consider using plain-English tagging alternatives instead of this value:

Some habitats are protected by local- or district-law: areas to protect one specie, special cover of vegetation, geological site, ... (not rendered)
protect_class=97 A protected area protected by international continental agreements. They often cover sites already protected by national law. Used for the following conventions and treaties:

Consider using plain-English tagging alternatives instead of this value:

(not rendered)
protect_class=98 A protected area protected by intercontinental treaties or conventions. They often cover sites already protected by national law. Does not include a cross-border national park (which would be tagged protect_class=2). Used for the following conventions and treaties:

Consider using plain-English tagging alternatives instead of this value:

(not rendered)
protect_class=99 other continental or international, not yet classified. (not rendered) protect_class=99

Resources-protected-area

Protected areas with a focus on single natural resources, including human living space itself, because of an important natural material or characteristic. Mostly appointed on community level. Switch to the table of countries.

Class Description Rendering in
osm-carto
Usage
protect_class=12 water: water protection area, fresh water, drinking water, springs, ...

Consider using plain-English tagging alternatives instead of this value:

(not rendered)
protect_class=14 species: no fishing, protected for fishery, protected for hunting, plants, ...

Consider using plain-English tagging alternatives instead of this value:

(not rendered)
protect_class=15 location condition: floodwater retention area, protection forest, grazing land, ...

Consider using plain-English tagging alternatives instead of this value:

(not rendered)
protect_class=19 other national, This tag was used by an import in Poland for "Użytek ekologiczny" areas
  • Instead of this value, consider using protect_class=6 for areas protected for "sustainable use of natural resources"
(not rendered)

Social-protected-area

Important social interests. Visualize sociopolitical assets. Switch to the table of countries.

Class Description Rendering in
osm-carto
Usage
protect_class=21 Community life: religious, sacred areas, gathering places, recreation (this sense of "recreation" has given rise to value 21 being assigned to state parks in New York, USA)

Consider using plain-English tagging alternatives instead of this value.

(not rendered)

For example Jones Beach State Park

protect_class=22 Cultural assets (cultural assets and - efforts, districts historical heritage, monument conservation):
protection of sites with special architecture or historic interest, designed and created intentionally by people: urban layout, buildings, landscape, gardens, art-goods, ...

More commonly tagged with: historic=* and/or heritage=*

(not rendered)
protect_class=24 Political protection:

Consider using plain-English tagging alternatives instead of this value.

(not rendered)
protect_class=27 Currently used only for Norwegian "Friluftsområde", a category of outdoor space accessible made publicly accessible by Norwegian law. (not rendered)

Discouraged, legacy, and unused values of protect_class=*

Legacy values of protect_class=*
Class Description* Rendering in
osm-carto
Usage
protect_class=11 soil: crop yield, erosion protection, ... [This tag was proposed but never used] (not rendered)
protect_class=13 climate and -air: gasper supply/cold air, ... [This tag was proposed but never used. See boundary=low_emission_zone (LEZ).] (not rendered)
protect_class=16 longtime hazard area: contamination, earth-moving area, "problem sites" ... Formally deprecated by hazard=*. (not rendered)
23 Protection in favor of economics: special economic zones. Formally deprecated by boundary=special_economic_zone. (not rendered)
25 Military areas: military refuges, test area, ...

See military=*, landuse=military and Map_Features#Military instead. Formally deprecated by landuse=military and military=*.

(not rendered)
26 Historic: "for colonial-era entities and protectorates". More commonly tagged with: historic=* and/or heritage=*. (not rendered)
29 other social, not yet classified for ID 21 to 28. [This tag was proposed but has never been used] (not rendered)

追加のキー

地物に関する背景情報について

キー 説明 使用状況
protection_title=* wildlife sanctuary, Zapovidnyk, National Park, Special Protected Area, World Heritage Convention, Aesthetic Forest, Heritage River, Indian Reserve, ... Title or type of protection, not the proper name. The national designation, the formal title or type of protection (see level-table).

Important! Strongly recommended

name=* 固有の名称 区域の一般的な名前
ref=* <参照番号> その区域に対する外部IDを示すために ref=* を使います
opening_hours=* Dec 20-Jan 06 00:00-24:00
or "sunrise to sunset", etc.
その保護区域が一般公衆に開放されている日時
website=* http://www.nameoftheasite.com その保護区域に関する適切なウェブサイト
operator=* その保護区域を管理する組織または個人
governance_type=* government_managed / government / private / social_group その区域についての意志決定機構。operator=*, site_ownership=*も参照。
site_ownership=* public, international, national, federal, province, state, regional, county, municipal, community, private
related_law=* Law 4/1994, BNatSchG: § 23, ... その区域を設定・規制する法令
start_date=* yyyy-mm-dd その保護区域が設定された日時。end_date=*も参照。
protection_object=* aborigine, art, cave, heritage, habitat, nature, recreation, soil, water, etc ... その保護区域の対象、つまり保護されている事物
period=* 1200-1500 or Late Middle Ages 歴史的地区が使われていた時期を示す。時代の名前か年号の範囲を使います。
ethnic_group=* 民族グループの名前 コロンビアでの政治的保護(protect_class=24)に関連して利用されています。

背景

国際自然保護連合 (IUCN)が自然保護管理における「エンゲージメントの強度」を示すカテゴリーを設計しました。On a technical view, the fact of protection doesn't fit with the surface or the objects of an area, it just looks for some structures for bordering (e.g. on initial areas, inhabitants may go on with their usual activities for a longer period of transition). 'Protection is no landuse', it is a political agreement. So, the already existing key "boundary" is a suitable key. As associated value, "protected_area" was newly established, because it is clear and emphasizes "the precaution" and "the limitation". Limitations don't emerge only by nature conservation. Further reasons are socio-political and include economic requests, for taking care of resources. Areas also might receive awards, which require a consideration. Those matters are also taken up here.

馴染みのある国ごとの序列システムの利用を簡単に(マッピングとレンダリングで)取り扱えるように、多様な命名法に対して少数のID ("protect_class")が割り当てられています。取扱いや意図が似た保護区域は同じ値を使うべきです。IDは短いし馴染みやすいです。なぜなら外国語の名称("Природна ..." = 3)よりも自分の使う名称と同一視しやすいためです。IUCNによるprotectedplanetのウェブサイトを参照すれば、多種にわたる国ごとの自然保護区域を判定できます。

さて最初のクラス1-9はこのIUCNカテゴリーとほとんど一致しており、自然保護の類をカバーしています。しかし独立性を保つため、このクラスはIUCNカテゴリーと一致していると考えないようにしましょう。10台のクラスは、土壌、鉱物、水、空気、生物種、場所によっては特定の施設など、資源を保護する区域を示します(経済的観点)。20台のクラスは社会政治的な関心を示します。そして90台のクラスはawardや広域的・地球的規模のカテゴリーです。

Protect_class 1から6までは IUCN Protected Areas Categories System (2009)に由来します。正しいクラスに関連づけるためには、protectedplanet.netのIUCNデータベースの"IUCN Category"節を参照してください。The intention is for protect_class=* 1 to 6 fit with the IUCN-level I to VI, class 19 to IUCN -999. whereas protect_class 7 more correctly associates to additional sites which otherwise would go untagged. There are no protected areas for the United Kingdom in the WDPA (see WDPA-FAQ). 国際条約による区域は protection_class 97から99にあります。

関連項目

  • leisure=nature_reserve - 国立公園と同様、自然保護区は野生生物の保護に関係しますが同時に人間のレクリエーション(ハイキングや野生生物観察のような、限定的で影響の小さな活動)を提供します。区別は必ずしも明確ではありませんが、目安としては、自然保護区は国立公園よりも狭い領域で、国立公園が(場合によっては複数の町や都市を含む)広い領域を囲んで行政的に定義された境界であるのに対し、自然保護区はもっと自明な(より自然で人間による蚕食がない)領域です。

Weblinks

There are governments, keeping a habitat system:

Wikipedia

  1. 1.0 1.1 International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)[1]
  2. Per [2], "The Natura 2000 sites are [...] considered as the contribution from the EU member States to the Emerald Network"
  3. Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA)
  4. The Barcelona Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region
  5. Also known as the "Convention on Wetlands"
  6. UNESCO Biosphere Reserve
  7. World Heritage Convention