Zh-hans:Key:surface

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Public-images-osm logo.svg surface
Transportation in Tanzania Traffic problems.JPG
描述
用于提供道路的物理表面和一些其他特征。 Edit this description in the wiki page. Edit this description in the data item.
组: Properties
元素
可用於節點可用於路徑可用於區域不可用於關係
已记载的值: 16
常用组合
维基数据
状态:習慣使用


Key:surface(表面)用于提供道路的物理表面和一些其他特征,特别是关于材料成分和结构的附加信息。 最初的时候,我们关心表面与运输和运动的联系,经常使用划线功能,而现在我们越来越多地使用自然(natural=*)类型的确定区域。 有关表面的广义描述,请参阅 Landcover(地面)。

对于机动车道路,除非另有说明,否则默认表面是已铺装(surface=paved)。在 OpenStreetMap 中,已铺装(paved)并非特定类型,可能包括碎石路、柏油路、沥青路(注意:仅澳大利亚的沥青路使用 bitumen,其他地区的沥青路使用 asphalt)。未铺装(surface=unpaved )是已铺装的相反状态. 其他具体到铺装材料的标签用于给人更具体的指引。导航软件会默认未铺装道路因更长通行时间而导致平均行驶速度缓慢,而且出现某些恶劣天气时不会导航到未铺装道路。

光滑度(smoothness=*)也是一个重要的表面特征,无论路面用料如何,都指表面的规则度和平整度。这对旱冰鞋或者类似的东西特别有用。

轨道类型(tracktype=*)也是一个重要的表面特征,无论形状如何,都指表面硬度(按人话来讲就是火车地铁那些,怎么绕来绕去咱不管它,但是要填写是哪种轨道)。

高速公路(highway=*)should ideally always be tagged with surface (and/or with tracktype=*) given that there is no default for such paths. (这里没看懂,大概就是说普通道路你画的时候可以一拉就完事了,但是高速公路没有特殊情况的话都要详细填写各种标签。)

Rendering software convention varies, but generally roads-that-are-not-paved are shown in a different colour but same width as their paved cousins or use the same colour but are dashed. Rendering of road surface in standard OSM style is a complicated subject.(这段没完全理解,但不重要,讲的是地图渲染软件对未铺装道路的渲染(用什么颜色、多宽、线段虚实)没有统一标准。)

某些情况下,其他标签都不足以描述这条路的质量有多么好(我估计讲的是德国油纸包的无限速高速),可以考虑使用平滑度(smoothness=* )和实际最大速度(maxspeed:practical=*)的标签. 实际最大速度(maxspeed:practical=*)在其他标签不足以描述合理预期车速的时候特别有用(这个是给导航软件看的,比如德国的无限速高速,左边一条大家实际开到时速 200,右边一条实际能开到 180,那导航会优先选择左边那条;又比如后厂村路,人多车多,不管路政立的是二十三十四十的限速牌,统统只能跑到时速 5,这个情况也可以用)。如果一条质量良好的未铺装道路实际能开到时速 60 公里,另一条已铺装的烂路实际只能开到时速 10 公里,没有填写实际最大速度的话,导航会被误导选择已铺装的烂路。因为默认情况下,已铺装道路会比未铺装道路开得快。

Key Value Element Comment Rendering Photo
Paved
surface paved way area 中文:已铺装。就是粗略地描述了这条路覆盖了铺路石、混凝土、沥青。如果可能的话使用更精确的值。
surface asphalt way area 中文:沥青。这是沥青混凝土的简称,并不意味着路面只是沥青。大多数此类道路都标记为已铺装,没有指定精确的表面 Surface asphalt.jpg
surface concrete way area 中文:混凝土。这里说的是水泥基混凝土,可以铺成一大块,浇筑好之后预留了伸缩缝(这里说的就类似省道那些灰色的路面,能看出是一个个大方块的水泥,上面还有垂直人行道的防滑条纹)。 对于预制板(就是说不是现场倒水泥铺路的,而是在工厂已经把一块块水泥块做好了,运到这里铺的),如果您知道这个水泥路面是怎么做的,请使用混凝土分类下的 concrete:platesconcrete:lanes Dscf0221 600.jpg
surface concrete:lanes way area 中文:(没见过这种路,看图吧,如果你实地看到是这种路,就选这个,注意不是公园那种一步娘炮两步扯蛋的小路)。用于双履带式车辆的长而窄的混凝土预制板,轮胎始终接触地面。 每块预制板之间会用各种东西填充。请注意,如果你用的是单行道,则只使用 concrete,不要选这个,因为没有多个车道(这个是英文复数的毛病,说这种情况是 lane,不是 lanes)。 Concrete lanes.png
surface concrete:plates way area 中文:预制水泥路。重型预制板短边紧密排列在一起,连接处可能有焦油或沙子(和上面那个对比就是上面那个勉强能人力搬运,这个很明显要机器搬)。 Dscf0222 600.jpg
surface paving_stones way area A relatively smooth surface paved with artificial blocks (block pavers, bricks) or natural stones (flagstones), with a flat top. The gaps between individual paving stones are very narrow, either because the stones have a perfectly regular shape (rectangular, or any surface-filling shape) or because they have been carefully selected, fitted and placed in order to form an even, closed surface. Surface paving stones.jpgDscf1620-800.jpg
surface sett way area Sett paving, formed from natural stones cut to a regular shape. The stones do not cover the surface completely, unlike paving_stones. Granite Setts.jpg
surface unhewn_cobblestone way area Cobblestone paving, formed from natural, uncut, overall rounded stones. Firmly attached to a ground, unlike pebblestone. Ancient road surface.jpg
surface cobblestone way area Cobblestones in the colloquial sense. This value may give only a rough description; if possible, use a more precise value such as sett or unhewn_cobblestone. Granite Setts.jpgAncient road surface.jpg
surface cobblestone:flattened way area Should not be used to avoid confusion with sett or unhewn_cobblestone. It is neither a commonplace description nor a correct name.
surface metal way area Used for bridges, or for temporary tracks over fields for normal road vehicles or site traffic. Surface-Metal.jpgMetal footbridge over Sand Quarry - geograph.org.uk - 1325566.jpg
surface wood way area Used for bridges, plank walkways, and garden decking Wooden-bridge.jpg
surface User defined way area All commonly used values according to Taginfo.
Unpaved
surface unpaved way area A highway feature is predominantly unsealed along its length; i.e., it has a loose covering ranging from compacted stone chippings to earth. Unpaved roads may, in aerial imagery, show evidence of water along their course; in such circumstances, the waterway should not be tagged as a stream, though it might appear as such. This value gives only a rough description; use a more precise value if possible.
surface compacted way area A mixture of larger (e.g., gravel) and smaller (e.g., sand) parts, compacted (e.g., with a roller), so the surface is more stable than loose gravel. Used, for example, for park paths, better tracks, some service ways, … Best sort of ways below paving with asphalt, concrete, paving stones. Sometimes known as water-bound macadam. Mixture and compacting leads to more grip and stability. Compacted forest track no1.jpg
surface fine_gravel way area A multilayer pavement with a stone or gravel basis and a topmost surface of firm, granular grit, basalt or quartz, as invented by the Roman empire. Easy to walk, jog, cycle or ride on. In hilly areas mostly with drainage channels and concave cross-section for proper water shedding. Motorized vehicles will not move stones if the way is maintained properly, and bicycles tires will not leave any imprints at least in dry weather. If the topmost surface is heavily eroded or loose gravel aggravate going please use gravel instead. DSC05537a-Feinschotterweg.jpg
surface gravel way area Broken/crushed rock with sharp edges, known as ballast on railways. Usually loosely arranged. Typical size for road and surface construction range between 4 and 8 cm. Gravel can be used as a ground-layer for compacted. Dscf1582-800.jpg
surface pebblestone way area Pebbles are stones rounded by waves or river flow. Typical size range from 2 to 8 cm. Describing a surface in OSM they are loosely arranged. Like gravel pebbles can be used as a building part of compacted. Dscf1781-800.jpgDscf1829-800.jpgDscf1831-800.jpg
surface dirt way area Probably very similar to ground. Like all this, it is prone to erosion and therefore often uneven. Gravel is sometimes mistakenly called dirt. Some compacted roads are sometimes called dirt too, please consider the definition of compacted. Transportation in Tanzania Traffic problems.JPG
surface earth way area Probably a type of ground. Usually natural, but may also apply to artificial preparations of soil. Duplicate of dirt. Dscf1832-800.jpg
surface grass way area Grass covered ground. Mostly nice to walk. Less prone to erosion than pure ground. Might degrade through heavy usage. Grassway.JPG
surface grass_paver way area A sort of permeable paving using regular cell structure, where the voids in this structure enable rainwater to drain into the ground and the structure itself increases the load bearing capability. Often used for parking lots or infrequent used ways like for emergency-vehicles. Dscf1611-800.jpgDscf1614-800.jpg
surface ground way area No special surface, the ground itself has marks of human or animal usage. This value gives only a rough description; if possible, use a more precise value such as grass, clay, sand, earth, gravel or pebblestone. Gfp-florida-big-shaols-state-park-forest-trail.jpg
surface mud way area Similar to ground but most of the year wet which gives a soft ground with low carrying capacity. Mostly found on wetland like swamps or in tidal areas. Sometimes also found on slopes draining onto a way. Dscf1819-800.jpg
surface sand way area Small to very small fractions (less than 2mm) of rock. Dscf0220 600.jpg
surface woodchips Woodchips as a surface Tanner Moor 2 (DFdB).jpg
surface snow way area Winter roads. Male Weimeraner Following a Scent Trail in the Snow.jpg
surface ice way area Ice roads, winter roads Jaatee2003.jpg
surface salt way area Salt lakes 2012.10.02.155200 Bonneville Salt Flats Utah.jpg
surface User defined way area All commonly used values according to Taginfo.
Special (sports, etc.)
surface clay way area Most common on tennis courts. Sometimes used for other sports: soccer, athletic tracks, boules, etc. EVD-tenis-212.jpg
surface tartan way area A synthetic, all-weather surface typically used in running and other sport tracks. Although Tartan is a trademark, it is used as a generic term due to its widespread usage. Athletics track.jpg
surface artificial_turf way area An all-weather surface made from synthetic fibres to look and feel like natural grass. Often used for tracks and pitches of sports such as football, baseball, etc. Kunstgress.JPG
surface decoturf area DecoTurf is an artificial surface used for some tennis courts. Court Arthur Ashe.jpg
surface metal_grid way area Metal grids are often used as a surface on industrial-style bridges or stairs. When wet, the surface can become very slippery, especially for bikes. The surface can also be unsuitable for dogs, due to the sharp edges and the look-through effect. Stahlbau mit Gitterrosten.JPG
surface carpet way area Carpet may be used for some sport courts such as indoor tennis courts.

This table is a wiki template with a default description in English. Editable here.


Surface for foot- and cycleways

If a foot- or cycleway was tagged as a tag (not as a separate way) on a highway (i.e., highway=secondary + cycleway=track/lane), you can add surface by the following syntax:

sidewalk:surface=paving_stones

Or if there is a foot- or cycleway only at one side from street, or there are different surfaces at both sides, you can use right and left (or both, to tag explicit both sides):

cycleway:right:surface=asphalt
cycleway:left:surface=paving_stones

With this syntax you also can add other relevant tags like: smoothness, oneway, bicycle, foot, width, segregated, and more.

See also

References