JA:品質保証

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利用できる言語 — Quality assurance
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正確性網羅性も参照してください。

品質保証ツールは OSM のデータの品質を高めるのに役立ちます。ふつう、ツールはデータ中のバグの一覧を提供し、マッパーがエディタを使って確認し修正できるようにすることでこれを実現します。バグを規則とデータ解析によって自動的に検出したり、手動で報告されたバグの意味を提供するツールであったり、両者の組み合わせであったりします。この実現方法や、どの種類のバグに注目するかについては様々な考え方があり、そのため数多くのツールがあります。

OpenStreetMap は New and Changed Ways を扱えば、他の商用の地図よりも新しく、高い品質のものになり得ます。

バグ報告ツール

バグ報告ツールは、データのうち恐らく誤っているだろうものをハイライトしたり指摘したりするツールです。人間による品質チェックによる問題の報告もあります。いずれの場合においても、編集を行う場合は、報告された問題に誤った情報が含まれることがあり、その信ぴょう性を考慮する必要があります。しかしながら、バグ報告によって、どの地域で問題を発見・修正する必要があるのかを可視化される価値があります。

  • メモ
    メモ は、 OpenStreetMap ウェブサイトの機能の1つです。右下隅の「メモの追加」ボタンを使って問題を報告することができます。 メモは以前使われていた OpenStreetBugs と同じコンセプトを踏襲しています
  • MapDust
    MapDust は、 OSM ベースのカーナビソリューションに統合され skobbler が運営するバグ報告ツールです。もともとはナビゲーション関連のバグにフォーカスしていましたが、現在では全般的なバグ報告ツールとなっています。多くの skobbler ユーザーは OpenStreetMap の存在をしらないため、無関係な問題報告が多数含まれていますが、他のツールではカバーされない有益な問題報告がなされています。バグが OSM データが原因と判断される場合には OSM 編集者はバグを修正し、解決済みとします。現時点で英語、ドイツ語、フランス語、イタリア語、スペイン語、ルーマニア語で提供されています。

エラー検出ツール

Error Detecting Tools check the OSM data for potential data errors, inaccuracy or sparsely mapped places. Users should check if these structures are really wrong (false positives usually occur and there are not really mapping rules which are set in stone) and correct the data for a continuously rising data quality.

Comparison of some of the following tools

Tool Coverage Error types Display type Fix suggestion Downloadable API Correction guide
Keep Right World Many (50+) Marker map いいえ はい はい German only
Osmose World Many (200+) Marker map はい はい はい はい
JOSM Validator Local Many List はい - - For some problems
OSM Inspector World/Partial Many Rendered map いいえ はい  ? いいえ
Maproulette World/Partial Many (10+) One feature at time いいえ はい はい いいえ
  • Keep Right
    Keep Right (keepright.at) shows a large number of automatically detected potential errors on a map or in list form. It has a system for reporting false positives and for labelling a bug as fixed. It has rules to automatically detect the following error types: non-closed areas, dead-ended one-ways, almost junctions, deprecated tags, missing tags, bridges/tunnels without layer (careful - not always an error), motorways without ref, places of worship without religion, POIs without name, ways without nodes, floating islands, un-tagged railway crossings, wrongly-used railway crossing tag, objects with FIXME=* tags, and relations without type.
    The bottom-right corner of the interface has links to data outputs, including GeoJSON.
    There is a documentation on how to solve keep-right-errors, currently only in German language: DE:Keep Right Users Guide though here is an auto-translation into English.
    Possible downsides: Keep Right shows tens of thousands of errors, including many that have little impact for most data uses (e.g. a stream intersecting a highway: technically some feature is needed here (a bridge, a culvert or a ford). Keep Right uses flawed assumptions about layers of bridges and tunnels sometimes leading to false or misleading error messages (discussion).
  • Osmose
    Osmose ([1]) is a tool similar to Keep Right but offers even more error types. Obviously, this also includes smaller issues, like minor imprecisions or missing information that should be present in an ideal map.
  • JOSM Validator
    JOSM Validator. A feature of JOSM that checks data loaded into the editor, highlights errors and warnings, and can (on request) perform some automatic fixes. By default, it checks all objects modified in that session (and also reports errors if the error wasn't introduced by the uploader, but merely touched), but the validator can also perform complete validations on the downloaded data.
  • The Gary68 tools
    Gary68 has created a whole bunch of quality assurance tools. The tools are currently not maintained. Most of the tools are written in Perl (scripts for your computer – no web tools) and the source code of all Gary68 tools is published online. See also Category:gary68.
    • WayCheck is a program which checks the OSM data (file) for open ends and crossings. The found positions must be evaluated by a user and he or she can correct the data in JOSM or Potlatch or post a mark in OpenStreetBugs. The WayCheck page lists reports generated by the program and any user is encouraged to run reports and correct errors listed on the page and its links. This is especially useful for the quality of routing related data.
    • MotorwayCheck lists problems related to highway=motorway. Page also shows reports.
    • osmdiff is a program which compares two OSM files and documents the changes in list and map form. Some reports can be seen here: osmdiff reports.
    • unmappedplaces finds a list of potentially unmapped places. These are reported on the wiki page. The query can be run for other countries as well.
    • Mapping Quality is the successor of unmappedplaces. See the wiki page for the results. You get automatic street directory, KPIs (numbers) per place, maps that show status and CSV files for further processing.
    • SomeChecks performs some checks: One-way check, Roundabout check, Double-node check (ways), Area Check.
    • Relation Diff - Differences in relations
    • Relation Check
  • Coastline Error Checker
    Coastline error checker ([2]) は、海岸線に関する抜けなどの問題を指摘します。
  • OSM Inspector
    OSM Inspector ([3]) has several views for specific mapping needs.
  • TIGER Edited Map
    TIGER Edited Map ([4]) - TIGERデータのインポート以来編集されたアメリカの地域の地図を表示します。
  • Coarse Highway
    Ragged highways with few points (blog entry): Coarse Highways.
  • OS Locator Musical Chairs
    OS Locator Musical Chairs ([5]) attempts to intelligently match OSM streets in GB against the OS Locator streetname database and show a browsable interface of the results.
  • Map of Turn Restrictions
    ahorn.lima-city.de/tr/ または www.map.comlu.com shows turn restrictions and has separate overlays for errors and warnings showing potential problems with turn restrictions. See also JA:Relation:restriction#Tools for more tools.
  • US Interstate refs
    US interstate refs List of ref numbers and corresponding OSM interstates.
  • layers.openstreetmap.fr
    FR:Servers/layers.openstreetmap.fr provides a slippy map with image layers to help people find possible errors in the data with worldwide coverage. The service provides:>
    • layers with roads/street …
      • having no name
      • no ref
      • no one-way
      • drawing fixmes and notes texts.
    • This tool also generates half-transparent coloured layers showing administrative areas by admin_level, as well as other "political" areas (used in France for mapping electoral subdivisions, as well as intercommunal structures of cooperation that do not fit the hierarchy of admin levels, but used as well in other countries for similar non hierarchical administrative, judiciary and electoral boundaries). These coloured layers allow searching easily for missing/broken/incomplete/unclosed boundaries as well as overlapping/duplicate boundaries of the same type, or boundaries that are not tagged correctly to be found by querying the OSM database with simple filters (for example missing tag "boundary=administrative", missing or incorrect value in "admin_level=*").
  • MapQuest's Nominatim Broken Polygon Tool
    This tool shows polygons which present a problem for Nominatim. These ‘broken’ polygons could be where the interior of a multipolygon is disconnected or, where a polygon intersects itself.
  • housenumbervalidator
    housenumbervalidator checks addr:* attributes for duplicate addresses, incomplete addresses, and possibly incorrect street names. Results are displayed on a slippy map. Currently validation is performed for Germany and Austria only, as there are some language-specific checks.
    Other similar address tools:
  • Maproulette aka Remap-a-Tron
    Remap-a-Tron service, blog post and github – A customizable web application to crowd-source the fixing of specific mapping errors by randomly displaying an item of a specific type in potential need of fixing. Originally designed to highlight areas with ways deleted due to the license change, it is now expanding into a general front end for fixing identifiable problems. This service is also known as MapRoulette or maproulette.org.
  • osmlab's to-fix
    to-fix is similar to Maproulette (see previous); it shows a random error from a global list. Also available as a JOSM plugin.
  • netzwolf's opening_hours & co. map
    [6] - 営業時間、サービス時間などをチェックします。
  • So that is what inaccessible road is!
    So that is what inaccessible road is! - 道路セグメントのうち、何らかの理由でアクセスができないもの(ルーティング不可能なロードネットワークと呼びます)を地図上に表示し、JOSMやPotlachで編集できるようにします。
  • Routino error log
    Routino a router for OSM data can generate an error log file (when run with the --errorlog option) that lists problems found that could be data errors or Routino's limited understanding of the data and which may affect the ability to calculate valid routes. Since the purpose of the Routino error log is to find data that causes problems for Routino it does not mean that all reported items are data errors.
  • Bicycle tags map
    Bicycle tags map is a web map that shows bicycle related tags. The goal of this web map with bicycle tags is rendering bicycle related tags that are not (properly) rendered on OSM’s 'Mapnik' map or on the cyclemap version. It can be handy for detecting errors in OSM.
  • Administrative Grenzen in OSM
    A map that compiles all the German boundaries within OSM and also visualizes errors (unclosed multipolygones) http://ags.misterboo.de
  • Max Speed Overpass
    Max Speed Overpass is a web map that shows maximum speeds. The goal of this web map is to show max speed and edit this from this map using your favorite OSM editor. The data shown is always up to date because it uses overpass query.
  • CheckAutopista
    CheckAutopista [7] is a web map for checking information on freeways. It allows to check if maxspeed, lanes and name are used on the ways and it checks if the exits have their ref and their exit_to (or destination). Also it shows the freeway's service and rest areas and it's tollbooths.
  • Relation Analyzer
    The Relation Analyzer (http://ra.osmsurround.org/) helps to view several quality-assurance-related aspects of relations: (amongst others) relation on a map with segments' start and end marked, warning if the relation has gaps accompanied by a list of the segments if there are gaps, a height profile, type of ways included. tags.
  • analyser.openstreetmap.fr
    analyser.openstreetmap.fr is a relation analyse tool in real time. Given a relation id, it tests for validation of multipolygons of any kind, admin boundaries (and also linear relations to some extend).
  • qa.poole.ch
    qa.poole.ch is a tool to show streets with no names (respects noname=*), noaddress=* and access=yes tags.
  • Lyrk Unvollständige Adressen
    Lyrk Unvollständige Adressen shows elements with incomplete addr=* tagging.
  • Improve OSM
    Telenav によるこの一連のツールは、大量の GPS データに基づいて OSM の修正を補助します。 TelenavGPS Navigation & Maps からデータを収集します。 - アプリの Scout (ブログの記事).
    欠けている可能性がある道路、一方通行の道路、進行方向制限を識別することもできます。
    ツールはウェブサイトおよび JOSM プラグインとして利用できます。
  • Restriction Analyzer by MorbZ
    OSM Restriction Validator shows unnecessary restrictions and restrictions that block access to streets.
  • OSM-Sidewalker by Mapbox
    OSM-Sidewalker by Mapbox shows an overlay of ways which appear to be a sidewalk but are missing the footway=sidewalk tag. The tool was introduced in a blog post.

視覚化ツール

  • ITO Map
    ITO Map is a map overlay service from ITO. The layers cover different data types: Barriers, Buildings and addresses, Car parks, Electricity distribution, Fixme, Former railways, Layers, Metro, Navigable waterways, Railways, Schools, Speed limits km/h, Speed limits mph, Tracktype, Unknown roads, Water.
  • Pedestrian overlay
    [8] – A map of pedestrian/walking data; useful when checking coverage or connectivity of pedestrian mapping.
    It aims to show pedestrian mapping coverage (how many of the pedestrian-taggable elements are tagged with pedestrian data); this may be useful to see how well an area is mapped for pedestrians.
    It also aims to give an idea of connectivity (how well elements are connected, i.e. whether pedestrian elements have nodes connected to each other via nodes, for example, sometimes pedestrian elements are mapped without showing how they connect, for example a path which connects to a sidewalk may not yet have a node connecting one another); this information may be helpful for those working on routing.
  • OSRM debug option
    [9] - The debug option of the OSRM demo page provides a map overlay of the highways' speeds calculated by OSRM.

監視ツール

In addition to the above error and bug reporting tools, there are a number of tools that allow you to spot erroneous changes and edits. For example if you are very familiar with an area and have thoroughly mapped it, you might want to follow all changes and verify that no unintended damage or vandalism has happened in the area. Planet Historyにはすべての変更が記録されていますが、あまり使いやすいとは言えません。

変更が良くない場合(間違いによるものや破壊行為の場合)には、その変更をロールバックすることができます。

以下のツールやその他のツールが、 List of OSM based Services ページに挙げられています。自動的に疑わしい変更セットを検出するアプローチについては、 Detect Vandalism を参照してください。

  • osm.org
    API v0.6 introduced the concept of changeset. This is a group of edits made by particular user, with a comment. Some new displays have been developed for the web front end:
    • 'history' display showing recently closed changesets possibly affecting (bounding box overlap) the currently shown map area
    • 'User edits' display showing recently closed changesets by a particular user.
  • ITO world OSM Mapper
    OSM Mapper - osmmapper is a tool (free sign up required) to let you see when an area has been mapped the last time. You can define a region you want to watch and subscribe to the related RSS feed.
  • Real-time change following
    Currently nearly the same content: List of OSM based Services#Live/real-time edits to OSM data
    • LiveEditMapViewerJ is a Java program that allows you to follow changes as they happen on a world map.
    • OSMZmiany is based on LiveMapViewerJ but has some additional features.
  • History Browser
    virtuelle-loipe's History Browser with diff tool for single nodes/ways/relations (side by side comparison of two versions).
  • Mapki's Deep Diff
    http://osm.mapki.com/history/ - diff tool for single nodes/ways/relations. Showing all versions in a table. A bookmarklet is available.
  • OSM Deep History
  • OSM History Viewer (by PeWu)
    https://pewu.github.io/osm-history - 単一のノード/ウェイ/リレーションのための差分ツール。リスト中で変更を色分けして表示するだけです。ページ上でブックマークレットが利用できます。
    https://osmlab.github.io/osm-deep-history/ - diff tool for single nodes/ways/relations (but without nodes of ways and does, currently, not work for relations). Showing all versions in a table. A bookmarklet is available.
  • OSM History Viewer
    OSM History Viewer (OSMHV) shows modifications by single changesets in a visual way, highlighting object positions before and after a given changeset and tag changes. See also: the tool achavi has a similar feature.
  • OSM Aware
    OSM Aware is a program (only Python source code, no web service anymore) to create KML files of OSM change positions.
  • Historical Coverage
    Historical Coverage service creates animations of the historical development in a specific area. (service no longer active)
  • UserActivity
    UserActivity Statistics and maps of user activity in two OSM files. Possibly detect vandalism... Reports (for Germany) generated periodically.
  • WhoDidIt
    The WhoDidIt: OpenStreetMap Changeset Analyzer analyses what was changed in your area. You may need to select "month" or even "half a year" for the "age" parameter to see edits; display could take some seconds. Features an RSS feed to get informed about new changes.
    WTFPL licensed. At least two alternative versions exist. Longer description.
    Live implementations:
  • RSS History Filter
    RSS History Filter filters out large changesets from RSS feeds generated from the OpenStreetMap history tab
  • OSM control tool
    http://osmct.de ­– monitor free defined polygons and mail on changes. Only usable with (free?) registration?! (German language only)
  • tyrasd's RSS feed link creator
    QA RSS feed links for several services can be generated for a self-defined boundingbox at tyrasd.github.io/osm-qa-feeds.
  • tyrasd's Latest Changes service
    at https://tyrasd.github.io/latest-changes/ shows all recent changesets (within a week) which touched the current map area. Changed objects are highlighted in the map. The object highlight is changing colour (to less intense) with the age of the relevant changeset. Note that deleted objects and changesets with only deletes are not shown.
  • achavi
    achavi (Augmented Change Viewer) visualizes OpenStreetMap changes based on the Overpass API Augmented Delta (adiff) query. Supports continuous monitoring of an area of interest and visualizing single changesets (with some limitations).
  • Overpass attic queries
    With Overpass' attic queries you can query the OSM data based on time – example for objects which existed at a specific point in time or that were edited during a period of time.
  • OSM-analytic-tracker
    MichaelVL has developed an osm-analytic-tracker.
  • OSMarelmon - The OSM Relation Monitor
    OSMarelmon monitors relations of OpenStreetMap. Monitored relations are periodically checked and the changes are distributed via RSS feeds.
  • IFTTT
    Helper tools like IFTTT might be useful to convert (possibly a subset of) e.g. QA RSS feed entries into a mail notification.
  • Where are the new OSM Contributors?
    Pascal's resultsmaps contain a "Where are the new OpenStreetMap Contributors?" feature. You can spot new contributors who have edited in a specific area (may be useful to check their edits for big errors, offer help, send welcome messages and spot vandalism). Create a RSS feed.

支援ツール

  • Traffic Sign Tool
    Traffic Sign Tool - Assistant to get the right tags for German road signs.
  • QualityStreetMap
    QualityStreetMap ([10]) is a large grid for coordinating mapping work. You can select a tile and mark it complete for a specific tag. The grid covers the whole world and any tag. To edit the grid you have to log in with your OSM account. Zoom in to see the grid (min zoom level 12). The service is in beta.
  • Road lists
    Users in Germany requested different official lists: Straßenverzeichnis.
  • CheckTheMonuments
    Check The Monuments! More Quality for the Key Monument.
  • Overpass turbo
    Overpass API and the interface Overpass turbo lets you easily create custom queries which can be used to detect potential errors. The results get shown on a map with object detail links in popups and can be easily opened in JOSM. The example page lists some quality assurance uses.
  • (Missing) Maxheight map
    The Maxheight Map (aka OSM Truck QA Map) (website) is a Overpass API-based browser tool which helps you check and improve truck relevant features in OSM. Besides identifying missing maximum height tags under (railway) bridges and tunnels, you can also validate existing tagging for maximum height, width, length and weight amongst others.
  • OSM Quality Assurance Editor (by osmsurround)
    The OSM Quality Assurance Editor (website) helps to highlight (via Overpass API) missing data in several categories (tracks without tracktype tag, tracks without surface tag, streets without any sidewalk tag, ways without incline tag, ways without surface tag, ways without smoothness tag, buildings without address, residential without name) and allows to directly edit the objects via a built-in online editor.

タグの統計

タグの利用状況や入力ミスを調べるには以下の統計ツールが便利です。参照: Statistics.

  • Taginfo
    Taginfo is a system for finding and aggregating information about OSM tags and making it browsable and searchable.
  • ITO Map
    ITO Map ([11]) is a map overlay service from ITO. It runs scripts that highlight specifics tags which shows how consistent, or not, use of that tag is. It displays groups of related tags simultaneously.

その他

外部の比較

See also: Research

関連項目