IOF mapping

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The IOF is the International Orienteering Federation (see http://orienteering.org). Several types of orienteering competitions use maps standardized by the IOF.

Example of a foot orienteering map with IOF symbols.

IOF standard orienteering maps

The IOF has released Standards standard mapping specifications for several different types of orienteering sport competitions.

As a general rule, orienteering maps usually provide contour data and (with a standard scale of 1:15000 or 1:10000) an above average level of detail in natural / vegetation features.

OSM and IOF mapping

IOF mapping with OSM may mean one or all of following:

  • OSM data can be rendered with IOF symbols and style definitions. (Optionally showing additional features.)
  • Corresponding OSM tags are defined for each IOF code.
  • OSM Editor Templates/Symbolbars are provided so mappers can choose the tagging by IOF codes/symbols.

As a result, it has become possible to create orienteering maps using GPL'ed Free software. This is important for mainly two reasons. First, so that cartographic beginners can try the art of map-making without having to buy an expensive software. Secondly, today's leading map-making software lacks many features, e.g being able to making maps cooperatively in a group. Anyone can make the changes they need to free software (or have them made), which is not possible with proprietary software.

We use our Free Software for making free maps, but are of course free to choose under which terms and conditions we use and distribute our maps.

Keep in mind that full detail orienteering maps must not be released until after the last competitor starting in the competition has gotten his map and started.

Therefore the mappers of a orienteering map will usually start off with two separate working layers in their editors first. (The free osm layer and a private layer that is stored in a local file or database.) As they conduct the survey they will correct and add to the OSM data layer (man-made, water and marsh features), while keeping additional landform, rock, boulder, trails and vegetation features in the private layer, which will not be made public until after the competition event.

We would love to get feedback if you are using the software described here to make maps. For contact information see bottom of page.

IOF mapping does not mean changing tagging solely for the purpose of IOF rendering.

This page should be used by someone wishing to see how to turn OSM data into IOF data, not by someone looking to tag objects with IOF tags.

Note that to produce good orienteering map from OSM data one should expect manual modification of OSM data even in case of complete and perfect mapping. It is not only acceptable but desirable to change data to create more legible map (for example really small passable gap between two buildings should be on map larger than according to scale to make map clear). Also, for example in areas with forbidden access only prominent buildings should be mapped and other differences like "Areas totally contained within a building shall be mapped as being a part of the building.".

Practical IOF mapping

For a general introduction see GIS for Dummies (written by a dummy) and look around in the OpenStreetMap.org Wiki. Follow good practices and check out the FAQ. With OSM we are not using a map drawing program, we are using a GIS application (Geographical Information System).

The basic understanding is that we "record whats actually on the ground". Configuring or changing the "renderer" program to adjust how a map generated from the data looks like, is a different task.

For IOF mapping with OSM you will currently need at least two OSM programs with special IOF additions: A map object editor and a renderer (map generator) — The renderers that are build into the available editors are not (yet) capable of rendering IOF maps directly.

That means that as long as not all features needed for IOF mapping are available in the programs upsteam, you need to download specially enhanced versions. Please refer to the sections below to determine the patched files you'll need.

Elevation data and contours

Orienteering maps need contours. However the OSM map servers do not provide elevation data.

Elevation data for creation of contours has to be fetched from a separate source like the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) or ASTER.

Remember not to upload contour lines to the OSM map servers.

Options:

Editing

For the editor you can choose between JOSM and Merkaartor:

  • JOSM has some advanced functions and many plugins
  • Merkaartor looks more close to the final map. Someone used to OCAD might be much more comfortable with this one.

It is recommended to test both programs to see what suits you best. Read more instructions on how to use the programs on their wiki pages.

You can switch and use different editors while working on the same map data (even concurrently if you are working with a database).

JOSM

JOSM is a map editor with some advanced functions and many plugins.

You can configure which server to use under: Settings -> Connection Settings (2nd tab). Set the base server URL, your username and password.

IOF mapping additions:

  • IOF taging presets
    • Download JOSM IOF presets to your JOSM directory.
    • Open the settings panel in JOSM and select the map settings tab. Under "Tagging Presets" de-select "Enable defaults" and add a new tagging presets source. In the popupbox write the path to your saved file (if placed in the same folder as the jar-file, this is simply "isompresets.xml"), press OK and restart JOSM.
  • IOF editor style
    This changes the style and colours of the map in JOSM.
    • Download the iof-png-icons and extract the archive in your JOSM directory.
    • Download JOSM IOF style and save it your JOSM directory.
    • Open the settings panel and in the advanced settings tab set the following values:
      • mappaint.style: comostyle
      • mappaint.icon.sources: comostyle=iof-png-icons
      • mappaint.style.sources: comostyle=comostyle.xml
  • Optionally set these:
    • mappaint.icon.enable-defaults=false
    • mappaint.style.enable-defaults=false
    • mappaint.useRealWidth=false

For more information see JOSM/MapPaint.

Merkaartor

The edited map in Merkaartor looks more close to the final map (as in what you see is what you get). Someone used to OCAD might be more comfortable with this one.

See Merkaartor/Documentation.

You can configure which server to use under: Preferences -> Data tab (Set website path, your username and password.)

IOF mapping additions:

  • IOF editor style (IOF style for Merkaartor is now complete.)

Using Merkaartor for IOF mapping is described in details in OSM IOF mapping manual from http://mafc-tajfutas.uw.hu/como

Old map as editor background

Both JOSM and Merkaartor support loading your old maps as a (picture) background. (You need to make sure you are allowed to use and publish derived works.)

Your options are:

  • (simpler) Use the picture layer feature of your editor to load a picture as background, then move, rotate and scale it.
  • (more advanced, without additional capabilities) Use a Web Map Service (WMS). With this, many persons can use the same image layer, and you only have to position the image once. You may upload your image to a web service (like http://warper.geothings.net/) but this has some limitations (e.g. max file size). You can also put up your own. This is a map rectifier and WMS: http://svn2.geothings.net/mapwarper/ (not tried).

For Merkaartor see method in OSM IOF mapping manual under the "Walking papers" chapter.

Rendering

After a while of editing you probably want to see what your map will look like.

In contrast to OCAD, JOSM (and to some degree Merkaartor) do not show exactly how the printed map will look, and it is not possible to print it directly. To get the final map image file, you have to use a renderer, which creates a map combining the objects data with a symbol set. There are at least four renderers available for OSM data: Mapnik, Osmarender, Kosmos and Maperitive.

In order to make IOF orienteering maps that draw areas and cliffs with patterns the renderers need to be patched to be able to do this.

Mapnik

Mapnik is rather difficult to install and can't use the map data directly without conversion. Related information and some ISOM rendering can be found on HikingBikingMaps and OpenOrienteeringMap. It does not support the IOF tags.

Osmarender

Osmarender was easier to use and adopt, but note that it has not been actively maintained since March 2012.

The Osmarender output is a file in the Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) format. All major modern web browsers except Internet Explorer can show SVG images. (Adobe has a plugin for IE to show SVG.)

Osmarender is an XSL file, which defines the necessary transformations to get the SVG image according to the rule file. For doing this transformations, it is necessary to have an XSL transformer program. You could use a web browser that supports XSL like Firefox to view the map directly and (with the Web Developer addon) even save it. (View generated source, and save it as an .svg file.) Otherwise you need a separate program that can do the transformation, see Osmarender/Howto. With Linux and Mac OS "xsltproc" is usually already installed.

There is a special Osmarender version enhanced for IOF mapping. So you must download this and not the OSM standard version:


The .xsl file defines transformations of map objects and symbol files onto a map, and the rule file contains the rules to use the transformations so that the map looks like an orienteering map. The rules file is different if you want to make an isom, issom or some other map.

It would be good to be able to use the Osmarender Frontend to configure the tags to render as IOF special land form, water and man-made symbols.

Besides the deviations in the version to download you can refer to the instructions on the Osmarender/Howto page to render your map.svg file.

Since the map is a vector graphics file, the pixel density can easily be adopted when printing the map, and the map will scale nicely to other sizes. For example scale to 50%, if you want a 1:10000 scale instead of 1:15000.

Inkscape

It is recommended to download Inkscape, a good vector graphics editor. Use it to generate the final layout of your map with all logos and pictures you'll want to include.

Finally you can print the map with Inkscape or save it in a format your print shop can handle.

Colour profiles

Adopting colours for different printers or screens.

If you don't use Inkscape you could create a search and replace script to change the colour definitions in the .svg file.

Example for changing one colour:

sed -i 's/#RRVVBBAA-colour-to-replace;/#RRVVBBAA-new-colour;/g' map.svg

Rounded curves in SVG files (circular, elliptic, quadratic and cubic Bézier arcs)

It is possible to make the bending curves a bit more softly after generating the map file (post-processing).

Download lines2curves and install Perl if you don't have it installed already. You probably need to install the Math::Vec methods from http://search.cpan.org/dist/Math-Vec (see README instructions).

Then it is done with a simple command like this:

lines2curves.pl map.svg > map-bezier.svg

Rendering problems

Current rendering problems or where improvements would be good:

  • Ruin with dashes (gaps in the middle of the segments / only draw corners)
  • Major power line (without fill in middle). Rendering as an Area? Maybe, modify osmarender to use the SVG masking feature
  • Add/move/delete tags/markers on lines. Need to adjust the position of markers on lines, if they not appear where they are wanted. Possible solution: "tags:yes/no/indicated/unlessindicated"
yes - as normal
no - not at all
indicated - tags on nodes with tag:yes
unlessindicated - tags on all nodes except tag:no
  • Can not do line tags with varying length (e.g impassable cliffs)
  • A (large) erosion gully, has to be rendered as an area (can not do pointed ends nor varying line width)
  • Path junctions (visible/indistinct)
  • Path crossing with streams, bridge or not.
  • Crossing points (on fences etc.) have to be done as a line now, want fixed-size crossing point (as node)?
  • Firing range: Small rendering error (line behind arrow)

Working with other mapping software

An example for a proprietary mapping software sometimes used for orienteering maps is OCAD.

Comparison

OSM software pros

  • Use of database allow for good collaborative mapmaking. Several people could edit and access the map data simultaneously.
  • Use of database give revision history: who has changed something and when.
  • Possibility to use map data with additional GIS applications. You can add touristical and name information about objects for example or use relations to link objects together.
  • Objects on map have absolute positions (lat/long) obeying geodetic projection standards. Easy to merge maps.
  • Open file format permits people to make new programs.
  • Free software, you can make your own additions and many can contribute to the code.
  • No licence cost, new (inexperienced) cartographers can download the software and try it.
  • Most programs and the database work well in many operating systems (Windows, Linux, Mac OS...).
  • Possible to combine ISOM, ISSOM, School maps, etc. in the same database and then render them for different purposes.
  • ... .

OSM software cons

  • The Editors are not (yet) fully WYSIWYG capable. The objects may look different in the editor than on the map (i.e. use fine precision lines and points instead of map symbols).
  • Probably not easy to use for course setting. However, have a look at the Purple Pen free software made for that purpose.
  • Quite hard to render own map objects. (Usually not necessary, use Inkscape to add text, logos, pictures, etc. to your page layout.)
  • ... ?

Converting shapefiles

The easiest is to export your OCAD map as a shapefile and then convert that to the OSM file format. Shapefile export is only available in the professional edition of OCAD. If you only have the standard edition, you have to export as dxf file and then convert that to a shapefile, see further down.

By exporting to shapefile you should be able to get your features from OCAD converted to .osm (not tested). You will have to configure how key and values shall be translated. Please read shp2osm.

Here is also described how you transform your projection. This might be a bit of problem if the shapefile exportet from OCAD doesn't include correct information.

Converting dxf files

If you don't have OCAD Professional but only standard edition, you will have to export your map to dxf and then convert it to a shapefile. Note, you WILL lose information (what I can see, you don't get any information about the types of objects).

You can use Grass to convert dxf to shapefiles.

Converting to OCAD

Not recommended. Feel free to try:

Setting up a local database

To be able to cooperate on parts of your map privately until you publish the map after the competitions, or to add a layer that contains only temporary details, you can setup a local database and osm api. The current OSM database setup is called The Rails Port. Read install instructions there.

To merge data between databases use your editor to save the map data downloaded from a database server to a local .osm file, switch the server settings in the editor, open the .osm file and upload the data to that server.

Do we have to remove database IDs from the .osm file?

IOF codes and their corresponding OSM map features

Compared to the set of IOF codes, OpenStreetMap knows more map features than IOF codes exist. OSM already provided tag definitions for quite a fraction of the IOF Codes. With some newer tags the OSM features cover the complete range of IOF Codes.

OSM map features

OSM map features consist of elements that are tagged with key=value pairs.

The basic elements can be nodes (single points), ways or areas. Ways consist of a number of ordered nodes, and areas are ways where the start and end node are the same. Read more about the basic elements on the Elements page.

Tagging refers to adding key=value pairs describing elements. It is not necessary for a map drawer to learn and use tags directly, if the editor provides another way to define objects (with preset tags for example).

Generally osm tags should be named descriptively according to how someone would search for them, had he found something on the ground, classify with good [[Verifiability]|verifiability], and organized to optimize rendering for different purposes and when tags or values are missing/unsupported/combined/...). They are not optimized for human editing. That kind of optimization (like grouping, dependencies, easy switching, etc.) can be handled by editor programs.( syntactic conventions)

IOF codes

Below tag definition has been updated and slightly modified according to Annex A of OSM IOF mapping manual

Please help in finding and documenting all osm tags belonging to IOF symbols.
The benefit is, that osm data can be rendered with IOF stylesheets, and when mappers create objects by IOF codes/symbols in OSM Editors, can be prompted to choose from the (more precise) set of OSM features.
The corresponding OSM tags have not yet stabilized.

Remember, the general OSM rules, "map whats on the ground, not what should appear on the map" and verifiability.

If you don't find whats on the ground listed here or on map features, search for existing tags with the wiki search and Taginfo. If you need, you could add any tags you like (referring to that page). There is a proposal process to introduce and discuss new features (tags), see http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Proposed_Features .

Proposed features (keys) for IOF-Codes

Introducing common tags for IOF mapping:

Proposed Tag Description Status in OSM proposal process Usage (OSM Taginfo) OSM Wiki page, OSM proposed_feature page
direction=* Can be [0-360] and states the direction of an asymmetric feature, where 0 is north and counted clockwise. On IOF maps vineyards for example are displayed with the distict direction of the rows, given this tag is available. For way features that are not symmetric about the way (like a cliff) the direction tag is not necessary. The markings will always be TO THE RIGHT of the direction of the way. For example, going in the direction of a slope contour line, downwards should be to the right. However, for nodes and areas which have a variable direction, like elongated knolls, caves or forests runnable in one direction, the direction needs to be tagged. It is given in degrees (0-360) with 0 degrees pointing north counting clockwise. unspecified tagInfo: direction Wiki: direction=*
foot=passable foot=passable states that (barrier like) features are not a total barrier when on foot. (Default (without a tag) is foot=impassable ). This is a proposed new value for the foot key. A path up a cliff could be access=no (and even foot=no), still when the cliff is foot=passable, it should be mapped as such and appear as such on the IOF orienteering map. There is a nice little quiz about passable/impassable, see Page B and Page C.  ? tagInfo: foot=passable and tagInfo: foot=impassable no Wiki page so far, no proposed_features page so far
indistinct=yes indistinct=yes states that the borderlines or position defined by the element is not visible as sharp as the map data may suggest. On IOF maps many such elements will show up without an outline, so only a colour change is displayed on the map.  ? tagInfo: indistinct no Wiki page so far, no proposed_features page so far
ruins=yes ruins=yes states that the feature is deteriorated / unmaintained. There is a icon "ruined" in International Control Descriptions for Orienteering. ruins=yes is part of map features . tagInfo: ruins Wiki: key=ruins and Proposed_features: ruins
runnability=* runnability=* can be 20%,60%,80%,100% (20% = very diffcult to run, 60% = difficult to run, 80% = slow run, 100% = open forest) and refers to the definition of the IOF standard (ISOM 2000 4.4). On IOF maps the runnability of forests/woods for example translates into shades of green. There is a nice little quiz about runnability .  ? tagInfo: runnability no Wiki page so far, no proposed_features page so far
rideability=* rideability=* can be 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% (25% = difficult to ride, 50% = slow riding, 75% = medium riding, 100% = fast riding) and refers to the definition of the IOF standard (ISMTBOM 2010 4.5).

Translating into mtb:scale=* ?

 ? tagInfo: rideability no Wiki page so far, no proposed_features page so far

Proposed features / still needed for IOF

Introducing new tags for IOF mapping:


Landforms

Proposed Tag Description Status in OSM proposal process Usage (OSM Taginfo) OSM Wiki page, OSM proposed_feature page
earth_bank --> man_made=embankment or natural=earth_bank A earth bank is tagged with man_made=embankment. Ways could be tagged with additional keys embankment=* or cutting=*. More information see below.

Use natural=earth_bank for natural earth banks e.g big erosion gullies.

man_made=embankment and embankment=yes and cutting=yes are parts of map features. tagInfo: man_made=embankment and tagInfo: barrier=embankment and tagInfo: embankment and tagInfo: cutting Wiki: man_made=embankment and Wiki: embankment=* and Wiki: cutting=*

Wiki: natural=earth_bank

earth_wall --> man_made=mound Distinct earth wall.  ? tagInfo: man_made=mound no Wiki page so far, no proposed_features page so far
erosion_gully --> natural=gully, barrier=trench An erosion gully or trench which is too small to be shown by symbol [106 Earth bank] is shown by a single line. For a man made (dry) trench use barrier=ditch, for a trench with water see IOF-Codes 305, 306, 307.  ? tagInfo: natural=gully tagInfo: barrier=trench Wiki: natural=gully
natural=knoll or node: man_made=mound A small obvious mound or rocky knoll.  ? tagInfo: natural=knoll and tagInfo: man_made=mound no Wiki page so far, no proposed_features page so far
natural=depression or natural=hollow A small shallow natural depression or hollow.  ? tagInfo: natural=depression and tagInfo: natural=hollow no Wiki page so far, no proposed_features page so far
natural=hole A pit or hole with distinct steep sides.  ? tagInfo: natural=hole no Wiki page so far, no proposed_features page so far
natural=termite_mount termite mound. There is an icon "ant hill, termite mound" in International Control Descriptions for Orienteering.  ? tagInfo: natural=termite_mount no Wiki page so far, no proposed_features page so far
broken_ground An area of pits or knolls, which is too complex to be represented in detail.

Rock and Boulders

Proposed Tag Description Status in OSM proposal process Usage (OSM Taginfo) OSM Wiki page, OSM proposed_feature page
boulder_field An area which is covered with so many blocks of stone that they cannot be marked individually.
boulder_cluster A small distinct group of boulders so closely clustered together that they cannot be marked individually. This IOF-Symbol is just used in IOF-ISOM, it is not used in IOF-ISSOM and IOF-ISMTBOM.
Rocky pit --> natural=hole + rock=* Rocky pits or holes which may constitute a danger to the runner.  ? tagInfo: natural=hole and tagInfo: rock=* no Wiki page so far, no proposed_features page so far
natural=bare_rock A runnable area of rock without earth or vegetation is shown as bare rock. approved tagInfo: natural=bare_rock Wiki: natural=bare_rock and Proposed_features: bare_rock

Water and Marsh

Proposed Tag Description Status in OSM proposal process Usage (OSM Taginfo) OSM Wiki page, OSM proposed_feature page
well --> node: man_made=water_well or node: amenity=fountain Small wells or captive springs or fountain. Unspecified resp. approved tagInfo: man_made=water_well and tagInfo: amenity=fountain Wiki: man_made=water_well and Wiki: amenity=fountain and Proposed_features: amenity=fountain
Waterhole --> node: natural=hole + water=yes A water-filled pit or an area of water which is too small to be shown to scale.  ? tagInfo: natural=hole and tagInfo: water=yes no Wiki page so far, no proposed_features page so far

Vegetation

Proposed Tag Description Status in OSM proposal process Usage (OSM Taginfo) OSM Wiki page, OSM proposed_feature page
landuse=orchard Land planted with fruit trees or bushes. approved tagInfo: landuse=orchard Wiki: landuse=orchard and Proposed_features: orchard
undergrowth --> natural=undergrowth An area of dense undergrowth but otherwise good visibility (brambles, heather, low bushes, and including cut branches) which reduces running.  ? tagInfo: natural=undergrowth no Wiki page so far, no proposed_features page so far
boundary --> boundary=field or boundary=parcel or boundary=forest_compartment + border_type=vegetation boundary of cultivated land (seasonally out of bounds) when not shown with other symbols (fence, wall, path, etc.), also a permanent boundary between different types of cultivated land. A very distinct vegetation boundary within the forest.  ? tagInfo: boundary=field and tagInfo: boundary=parcel and tagInfo: boundary=forest_compartment Wiki: boundary=* and Wiki: boundaries and Wiki: border_type=*
natural=rootstock large roots (of fallen trees). Orienteering maps often show positions for those. There is an icon "root stock" in International Control Descriptions for Orienteering.  ? tagInfo: natural=rootstock no Wiki page so far, no proposed_features page so far

Man made features

Proposed Tag Description Status in OSM proposal process Usage (OSM Taginfo) OSM Wiki page, OSM proposed_feature page
distinct ride --> man_made=cutline A distinct ride without track or path is tagged with man_made=cutline. part of map features. tagInfo: man_made=cutline Wiki: man_made=cutline
stone wall --> barrier=wall + wall=* A stone wall or stone-faced bank. part of map features. tagInfo: barrier=wall and tagInfo: wall=* Wiki: barrier=wall
(arms) firing range --> military=range or sport=shooting_range A firing range is shown with a special symbol to indicate the need for caution. military=range is part of map features. tagInfo: military=range and tagInfo: sport=shooting_range Wiki: military=range
fodder rack --> amenity=feeding_place + feeding:type=manger A fodder rack, which is free standing or attached to a tree. proposed tagInfo: amenity=feeding_place and tagInfo: feeding:type=manger Wiki: amenity=feeding_place and Proposed_features: amenity=feeding_place

IOF-Codes (ISOM, ISSOM, ISMTBOM) and their tags

There are different maps for orienteering sport:

The IOF has categorized map symbols into the following groups.

Land forms

Remember not to upload contours to the OSM map servers. Elevation model data has to be saved separately.

Value for iof= key notation Element IOF Code and Name (ISOM2000) IOF Code and Name (ISSOM2007) IOF Code and Name (ISMTBOM2010) Comment Extra key=value pairs Rendering example (not to scale) corresponding osm tags
contour Way 101 Contour, 102 Index contour, 103 Form line 101 Contour, 102 Index contour, 103 Form line. The standard vertical interval between contours is 2 or 2.5 m in IOF-ISSOM. 101 Contour, 102 Index contour, [103 not used in ISMTBOM] Height contours type=normal/index/form. altitude=[meter] to specify height over sea IOFcontour.png
slope_line Node 104 Slope line 104 Slope line 104 Slope line Draw slope line for node on a contour. IOFslope line.png
Node 105 Contour value 105 Contour value 105 Contour value Contour value (show on map) show on contour line points with ele=* value
earth_bank Node Way 106 Earth bank 106 Earth bank 106 Earth bank A earth bank is an abrupt change in ground level which can be clearly distinguished from its surroundings, e.g. gravel or sand pits, road and railway cuttings or embankments. Impassable banks shall be mapped with the IOF-symbol 201 Impassable cliff. For a small earth bank you could use a single node. size=normal/high (?) IOFearth bank.png man_made=embankment. For natural earth banks, e.g big erosion gullies use natural=earth_bankFor earth banks along a way add tag embankment=yes or cutting=yes. Optional: height=* so that the renderer can decide whether a slope is high or not.

Should it be mapped as an area to define a varying length of the slope lines?

earth_wall Way 107 Earth wall, 108 Small earth wall 107 not used in ISSOM, 108.1 Small earth wall 107 Earth wall, [108 not used in ISMTBOM] Earth walls size=normal (> 1 m) / small (> 0.5 m). height=[meter] IOFearth wall.png man_made=mound + height=* + optional: ruins=yes.
erosion_gully Way 109 Erosion gully, 110 Small erosion gully 109 Erosion gully or trench, 110 Small erosion gully 109 Erosion gully, [110 not used in ISMTBOM] An erosion gully or trench which is too small to be shown by symbol 106 Earth bank is shown by a single line. size=normal (> 1 m) / small (> 0.5 m). depth=[meter]. area=yes/no (for larger erosion gully) IOFerosion gully.png natural=gully, barrier=trench + depth=* + optional: indistinct=yes. For a man made (dry) trench use barrier=ditch (for a man made trench with water use waterway=ditch, see below).
NOT USED Way 111 Knoll 111 not used in ISSOM 111 not used in ISMTBOM Knolls shown by contours. Larger knolls are shown by 101 Contour, 102 Index contour, 103 Form line. All kind of larger knolls, e.g. historic=tumulus or historic=archaeological_site with site_type=tumulus
small_knoll Node 112 Small knoll, 113 Elongated knoll 112 Small knoll, 113 Small elongated knoll [112, 113 not used in ISMTBOM] Knolls too small to be shown by contours. elongated:yes/no. direction:[0-360] for direction of long side of elongated knoll. height=[meter]. IOFsmall knoll.png node: man_made=mound or natural=knoll or natural=termite_mount or natural=ant_hill + optional: height=* + length=* + width=* + optional: direction=* for elongated knolls.
NOT USED Way 114 Depression 114 not used in ISSOM 114 not used in ISMTBOM Larger depressions are shown by contours and slope lines. Larger depressions are shown by 101 Contour, 102 Index contour, 103 Form line and 104 Slope line. natural=depression + depth=* + length=* + width=*. All kind of larger depressions, hollows, sink, swale, old bomb crater, historic mining, etc. .
small_depression Node 115 Small depression 115 Small depression 115 not used in ISMTBOM Small shallow natural depressions and hollows (minimum diameter 2 m) which cannot be shown to scale by contours. Minimum depth from the surrounding ground should be 1 m. depth=[meter] IOFsmall depression.png natural=depression or natural=hollow + depth=* + optional: indistinct=yes
pit Node 116 Pit 116 Pit or hole 116 not used in ISMTBOM Pits and holes with distinct steep sides which cannot be shown to scale by IOF-symbol 106 Earth bank (minimum diameter 2 m). Minimum depth from the surrounding ground should be 1 m. depth=[meter] IOFpit.png natural=hole + depth=*
broken_ground Area 117 Broken ground 117 Broken ground 117 not used in ISMTBOM An area of pits or knolls, which is too complex to be represented in detail. IOFbroken ground.png tag? + optional: runnability=*
special_landform Node 118 Special land form feature 118 Prominent landform feature 118 not used in ISMTBOM A small landform feature which is significant or prominent. Description:User Defined IOFspecial landform.png (something you map appropriately and configure the renderer to show it as IOF118_special-landform). e.g. natural=rootstock

Rock and boulders

Value for iof= key notation Element IOF Code and Name (ISOM2000) IOF Code and Name (ISSOM2007) IOF Code and Name (ISMTBOM2010) Comment Extra key=value pairs Rendering example (not to scale) corresponding osm tags
cliff Node Way 201 Impassable cliff, 203 Passable rock face 201 Impassable cliff (forbidden to cross), 203 Passable rock face 201 Impassable cliff, 203 not used in ISMTBOM 201: An impassable cliff, quarry or earth bank with height > 2 meters. 203: A small vertical rock face with height > 1 m. passable:yes/no. tags:yes/no. direction:[0-360] for nodes. height=[meter]. IOFcliff.png natural=cliff or landuse=quarry or barrier=retaining_wall (e.g. in vineyards) + optional: height=* + optional: foot=passable
rock_pillars Area 202 Rock pillars/cliffs 202 Gigantic boulder or rock pillar 202 Rock pillars/cliffs Rock pillars or gigantic boulders. IOFrock pillars.png natural=cliff or natural=rock + area=yes
rocky_pit Node 204 Rocky pit 204 Rocky pit 204 not used in ISMTBOM A rocky pit, hole or mineshaft which may constitute a danger to the competitor. depth=[meter] IOFrocky pit cave.png natural=hole + rock=* + optional: depth=*. Node:man_made=mineshaft + optional: depth=*.
cave Node 205 Cave 205 Cave 205 not used in ISMTBOM Cave direction=[0-360] see rocky_pit natural=cave_entrance
boulder Node 206 Boulder, 207 Large boulder 206 Boulder, 207 Large boulder 206 Boulder, 207 not used in ISMTBOM Distinct boulders of different sizes size=small (> 1 m) / medium / large, height=[meter] IOFboulder.png natural=stone + height=*.
boulder_field Area 208 Boulder field 208 Boulder field 208 not used in ISMTBOM An area which is covered with so many blocks of stone that they cannot be marked individually. IOFboulder field.png  ?
boulder_cluster Node 209 Boulder cluster 209 not used in ISSOM 209 not used in ISMTBOM A small distinct group of boulders so closely clustered together that they cannot be marked individually. size=normal/large? IOFboulder cluster.png  ?
stony_ground Area 210 Stony ground 210 Stony ground 210 Stony ground An area of stony or rocky ground which reduces runnability. IOFstony ground.png natural=scree or all objects with surface=stone + area=yes + optional: runnability=*
open_land, surface:sand Area 211 Open sandy ground 211 Open sandy ground 211 Open sandy ground An area of soft sandy ground or gravel with no vegetation and where running / cycling is slow. Where an area of sandy ground is open and has good runnability / cycling is good, it is represented with IOF-symbols 401 open land, 402 open land with scattered trees, or 529 paved area. IOFopen sand.png All objects with surface=sand + area=yes + optional: runnability=*, e.g. natural=beach, natural=dune, playground=sandpit.
bare_rock Area 212 Bare rock 212 Bare rock 212 Bare rock A runnable / ridable area of rock without earth or vegetation. IOFbare rock.png natural=bare_rock

Water and marsh

Value for iof= key notation Element IOF Code and Name (ISOM2000) IOF Code and Name (ISSOM2007) IOF Code and Name (ISMTBOM2010) Comment Extra key=value pairs Rendering example (not to scale) corresponding osm tags
water Area 301 Lake, 302 Pond, 304 Uncrossable river 304.1 Impassable body of water, 305.1 Passable body of water, [301, 302, 304 not used in ISSOM] 301 Lake, 302 not used in ISMTBOM, 304 Uncrossable river Water areas (lakes, ponds, rivers, canals). bank_line:yes/no. passable:yes/no (issom) IOFwater.png natural=water + optional: water=lake or water=pond or water=shallow + optional: foot=impassable resp. foot=passable + optional: waterway=riverbank.

(For tagging islands in lakes and rivers use Relation:multipolygon ).

bank_line Way 301 Lake, 304 Uncrossable river 304.1 Impassable body of water, 305.1 Passable body of water 301 Lake, 304 Uncrossable river Bank lines to water areas (also see water) See water foot=passable or ford=yes removes bank line for waters
river Way 304 Uncrossable river 304 not used in ISSOM 304 Uncrossable river An uncrossable river or canal is drawn with bank lines. The bank lines are broken at a ford. bank_line:yes/no. passable:yes/no? IOFriver.png way: waterway=river or waterway=canal + optional: foot=impassable resp. foot=passable + optional:ford=yes + optional: waterway=riverbank
watercourse Way 305 Crossable watercourse, 306 Crossable small watercourse, 307 Minor water channel 305 not used in ISSOM, 306 Crossable small watercourse, 307 Minor water channel 305 Crossable watercourse, 306 Crossable small watercourse, 307 Minor water channel Crossable watercourses (width < 5 m). The width of watercourses over 5 m wide should be shown to scale (area: natural=water ). size=large (> 2 m) / small (< 2m) / minor (intermittent), width=[meter] IOFwatercourse.png waterway=stream or waterway=ditch or waterway=drain + width=* + optional: foot=passable + optional: ford=yes + optional: intermittent=yes + optional: indistinct=yes.
waterhole Node 303 Waterhole 303 Waterhole 303 not used in ISMTBOM Water-filled pit IOFwater pit.png node: natural=hole + water=yes
narrow_marsh Way 308 Narrow marsh 308 Narrow marsh 308 not used in ISMTBOM A marsh or trickle of water (< 5m wide). width=[meter] IOFnarrow marsh.png way: natural=wetland + optional: wetland=* or way: natural=mud
marsh AreaNode 309 Uncrossable marsh, 310 Marsh, 311 Indistinct marsh 309 Impassable marsh, 310 Marsh, 311 Indistinct marsh 309 Uncrossable marsh, 310 Marsh, 311 not used in ISMTBOM Marsh that could be shown as an area type=impassable / normal (passable) / indistinct IOFmarsh.png area: natural=wetland + wetland=* (e.g. wetland=bog, wetland=marsh, wetland=swamp) + optional: foot=passable resp. foot=impassable + optional: intermittent=yes + optional: indistinct=yes.
well Node 312 Well 312 Small fountain or well 312 not used in ISMTBOM Small wells or captive springs or fountain (small: > 1 m high or > 1 m in diameter). IOFwell.png node: man_made=water_well or node: amenity=fountain
spring Node 313 Spring 313 Spring 313 not used in ISMTBOM Source of a stream. When placed on the start of a watercourse, the direction is oriented downstream. direction:[0-360] IOFspring.png natural=spring + direction=*
special_water Node 314 Special water feature 314 Prominent water feature 314 Special water feature A small water feature which is significant or prominent.

There is an icon "water tank, water trough" in International Control Descriptions for Orienteering.

Description:User Defined IOFspecial water.png "x" for remains: all node with "water" except objects defined explicitly in ISOM, e.g. amenity=watering_place or amenity=drinking_water or man_made=reservoir_covered or man_made=water_tank.

... (something you map appropriately and configure renderer to show it as IOF314_special-water)

Vegetation

Value for iof= key notation Element IOF Code and Name (ISOM2000) IOF Code and Name (ISSOM2007) IOF Code and Name (ISMTBOM2010) Comment Extra key=value pairs Rendering example (not to scale) corresponding osm tags
open_land Area 401 Open land, 403 Rough open land, 415 Cultivated land 401 Open land, 403 Rough open land, 415 Cultivated land (seasonally out of bounds) 401 Open land, 403 Rough open land, 415 not used in ISMTBOM Different types of open land surface:normal (very good runnability) / rough / cultivated Open land1.png natural=heath or natural=grassland or natural=scrub or natural=fell or landuse=grass or landuse=farmland or landuse=meadow or landuse=farm or landuse=village_green or landuse=field or leisure=park + optional:runnability=*
open_land_in_forest Area 401 Open land, 403 Rough open land, 415 Cultivated land, 417 Indistinct vegetation boundary 401 Open land, 403 Rough open land, 415 Cultivated land, 417 not used in ISSOM 401 Open land, 403 Rough open land, 415 Cultivated land, 417 not used in ISMTBOM Same as open_land, but rendered over the forest area. It means that cutting hole into a forest can be avoided if this tag is used. surface:normal/rough/cultivated Open land1.png Alternative: using Relation:multipolygon like tagging islands in lakes and rivers.
scattered Area 402 Open land with scattered trees, 404 Rough open land with scattered trees 402 Open land with scattered trees, 404 Rough open land with scattered trees 402 Open land with scattered trees, 404 Rough open land with scattered trees Semi-open land with scattered trees. To be used over a forest area (It adds the yellow pattern over the white/green forest.) surface:normal/rough Scattered.png (for scatered trees also tag forest/wood, see next)
forest Area 405 Forest: easy running, 406 Forest: slow running, 408 Forest: difficult to run; 410 Vegetation: very difficult to run, impassable; 411 Forest runnable in one direction; 421 not used in ISOM 405 Forest: easy running; 406 Forest: slow running; 408 Forest: difficult to run; 410 Vegetation: very difficult to run; 411 Forest: runnable in one direction; 421 Impassable vegetation 405 Forest: good visibility, 406 Forest: reduced visibility; (408, 410, 411, 420 not used in ISMTBOM ) Forests with different running speed. Very_difficult and impassable are synonyms (in ISOM; in ISSOM different symbols). No default value for ‘running’ key because of rendering reasons. running:easy/slow/ difficult/ very_difficult/ impassable. one_direction:yes/no, direction:[0-360] IOFforest.png natural=wood or landuse=forest or barrier=hedge or natural=tree_row + runnablity=* + optional: foot=impassable + optional: direction=*. Key wood=* describes the (wood) vegetation type (e.g. wood=coniferous or wood=deciduous or wood=mixed ).
undergrowth Area 407 Undergrowth: slow running; 409 Undergrowth: difficult to run; 421 not used in ISOM 407 Undergrowth: slow running; 409 Undergrowth: difficult to run; 421 Impassable vegetation 407, 409, 421 not used in ISMTBOM An area of dense undergrowth but otherwise good visibility running:slow/difficult IOFundergrowth.png natural=undergrowth + runnablity=* + optional: foot=impassable
orchard Area 412 Orchard 412 Orchard 412 Orchard Land planted with fruit trees or bushes. The dot lines may be orientated to show the direction of planting. direction:[0-360] IOForchard.png landuse=orchard + optional: direction=*
vineyard Area 413 Vineyard 413 Vineyard 413 Vineyard Vineyard. The green lines may be orientated to show the direction of planting. direction=[0-360] IOFvineyard.png landuse=vineyard + direction=*
boundary Way 414 Distinct cultivation boundary, 416 Distinct vegetation boundary 414 Distinct cultivation boundary, 416 Distinct vegetation boundary 414, 416 not used in ISMTBOM Different type of boundaries between vegetation areas, when not not shown with other symbols (fence, wall, path, etc.) type=distinct_cultivation/ distinct_vegetation IOFboundary.png boundary=field or boundary=parcel or boundary=forest_compartment + border_type=vegetation
 ? Node - 418 Prominent large tree, 419 Prominent bush or small tree - Trees and bushes. natural=tree or natural=bush + optional:circumference=* + optional: height=* . Describing the (tree) vegetation type use type=broad_leaved resp. type=conifer .
special_vegetation Node 418, 419, 420 Special vegetation features 420 Special vegetation features 418, 419, 420 Special vegetation features Special vegetation feature Description:User Defined. display=cross/circle/dot IOFspecial vegetation.png best practice: use "x" for remains, use 418 Special vegetation feature (ISOM) like 418 Prominent large tree (ISSOM), use 419 Special vegetation feature (ISOM) like 419 Prominent bush or small tree (ISSOM).... (something you map appropriately and configure the renderer to show it as IOFxxx_special-vegetation_x/o)

Man-made features

There is a page about mapping Hiking paths.

General note: highway=footway highway=cycleway and highway=bridleway are shortcuts for highway=path + defined access=* tags i.e. foot=designated, bicycle=designated or horse=designated tags.

Value for iof= key notation Element IOF Code and Name (ISOM2000) IOF Code and Name (ISSOM2007) IOF Code and Name (ISMTBOM2010) Comment Extra key=value pairs Rendering example (not to scale) corresponding osm tags
road Way Area 501 Motorway, 502 Major road, 503 Minor road, 504 Road, 505 Vehicle track (501, 502, 503, 504, 505 are not used in ISSOM) 501 Motorway, 502 Major road, 503 Minor road. (504 and 505 are not used in ISMTBOM) Roads suitable for vehicles type=motorway/major/ minor/narrow/track. area=yes/no. construction:yes/no. IOFroad.png 501: highway=* + oneway=yes (e.g. highway=motorway or highway=trunk ) + optional: highway=construction .

502: highway=* + width=* resp. est_width=* wider than 5 m + optional: highway=construction . 503: highway=* + width=* resp. est_width=* between 3-5 m + optional: highway=construction . 504: highway=* + width=* resp. est_width=* less than 3 m + optional: surface=paved or surface=asphalt or surface=concrete ). 505: highway=* + width=* resp. est_width=* less than 3 m + optional:all kinds of poorly maintained roads (e.g. surface=ground or tracktype=* > 3) . (Maybe some rules using surface=* or Proposed_features/surface_unification could be useful to improve appropriate rendering.)

 ? Way (831, 833, 835, 837 not used in ISOM) (831, 833, 835, 837 not used in ISSOM) 831 Track: fast riding, 833 Track: medium riding, 835 Track: slow riding, 837 Track: difficult to ride Tracks highway=track + width=* + rideability=*
path Way 506 Footpath, 507 Small path, 508 Less distinct small path 507 Small unpaved footpath or track, 508 Less distinct small path. (506 not used in ISSOM) (506, 507, 508 not used in ISMTBOM) Paths type=large/small/indistinct. area=yes/no, urban=yes/no (for issom unpaved footpath) IOFpath.png highway=path + trail_visibility=*.

(consider adding sac_scale=* classification for hiking paths: Approved_features/Hiking)

 ? Way (832, 834, 836, 838 not used in ISOM) (832, 834, 836, 838 not used in ISSOM) 832 Path: fast riding, 834 Path: medium riding, 836 Path: slow riding, 838: Path: difficult to ride Paths highway=path + width=* + rideability=*
 ? WayArea (506.1 not used in ISOM) 506.1 Unpaved footpath or track (506.1 not used in ISMTBOM) An unpaved footpath or rough vehicle track is a way for passing mainly by foot, without a smooth, hard surface. highway=track resp. highway=path + tracktype=* > 3 + optional: surface=ground
narrow_ride Way 509 Narrow ride 509 Narrow ride 509.1 Narrow ride A distinct ride. Where there is a path along a ride, symbols 507 (Small path) or 508 (Less distinct small path) should be used. IOFnarrow ride.png man_made=cutline + optional: cutline=* (e.g. cutline=section ) + optional: width=* < 5 m .
Way 510 Visible path junction, 511 Indistinct junction (510, 511 not used in ISSOM) 510 Visible path junction, 511 Indistinct junction Whether a junction easily could be seen in competition speed -- (just draw)
footbridge Node 512 Footbridge (512 not used in ISSOM) (512 not used in ISMTBOM) A footbridge with no path leading to it. The direction is automatically oriented if on a watercourse, erosion_gully or narrow_marsh direction:[0-360] IOFfootbridge.png bridge=footbridge + layer=1
 ? NodeWay (512.1 not used in ISOM) 512.1 Bridge (512.1 not used in ISMTBOM) A bridge is a structure spanning and permitting passage over a river, chasm, road or the like Part of a way + bridge=yes + usually: layer=1. (For complex bridge over bridge constructions use values between 5 to -5 but not 0)
bridge:yes (?) Node 513 Crossing point with bridge, 514 Crossing point without bridge (513, 514 not used in ISSOM) (513, 514 not used in ISMTBOM) Whether a path over a watercourse have a bridge over it or not. 513: Part of a way + bridge=yes .

514: Part of way + ford=yes

railway Way 515 Railway 515.1 Railway , 515.2 Tramway. (515 is not used in ISSOM) 515 Railway A railway or other kind of railed track. type=rail/tram IOFrailway.png 515, 515.1 : railway=rail

515, 515.2 : railway=tram

power_line Way 516 Power line, 517 Major power line 516 Power line, cableway or ski lift; 517 Major power line 516 Power line, cableway or ski lift; 517 Major power line Power line, cableway or skilift. size=normal/major?. For nodes on line: pylon:yes/no. IOFpowerline.png Major powerlines? power=line resp. power=minor_line with power=tower resp. power=pole

aerialway=* (e.g. aerialway=chair_lift or aerialway=cable_car) with aerialway=pylon

power_pylon Node 516 Power line, 517 Major power line 516 Power line, cableway or ski lift; 517 Major power line 516 Power line, cableway or ski lift; 517 Major power line Pylon on a power line -> Not needed to use as nodes of power line are automatically rendered as pylons. See power_line power=tower resp. power=pole or aerialway=pylon
tunnel WayArea 518 Tunnel (518 not used in ISSOM) 518 Tunnel A way under roads, railways, etc. which may be used by the runner. This symbol is used whether or not the tunnel has a track leading to it. (maybe smallest as node on road?) part:extent/opening/edge. width=[meter].? IOFtunnel.png Part of a way + tunnel=yes + usually: layer=-1
 ? WayArea (518.1 not used in ISOM) 518.1 Underpass or tunnel (518.1 not used in ISMTBOM) An underpass or a tunnel is a passage running underneath the ground, especially a passage for pedestrians or vehicles, crossing under for instance a railroad or a road. Part of a area + tunnel=yes + usually: layer=-1 + optional: width=*
stone_wall Way 519 Stone wall, 520 Ruined stone wall, 521 High stone wall 519 Passable stone wall.

(520, 521 not used in ISSOM)

521 Stone wall.

(519, 520 not used in ISMTBOMl)

Walls made of stone size=normal/ruined/high. IOFstonewall.png barrier=wall + wall=*, or barrier=retaining_wall or barrier=city_wall + foot=passable resp. foot=impassable + optional: height=* + optional: ruins=yes
 ? WayArea (519.1, 521.1 not used in ISOM) 519.1 Passable wall, 521.1 Impassable wall (forbidden to cross) (519.1, 521.1 not used in ISMTBOM) A passable wall or retaining wall is a construction made of stone, brick, concrete etc., which can be passed.

An impassable wall or retaining wall is a wall, which fulfil the function of an enclosure or solid barrier. It shall not be crossed, due to forbidden access or because it may constitute a danger to the competitor due to its height. Very wide impassable walls shall be drawn in plan shape and represented with the symbol building

barrier=wall or barrier=retaining_wall or barrier=city_wall + foot=passable resp. foot=impassable + optional: height=* + optional: ruins=yes
fence Way 522 Fence, 523 Ruined fence, 524 High fence 522 Passable fence or railing; 524 Impassable fence or railing (forbidden to cross).

(523 not used in ISSOM)

524 High fence.

(522, 523 not used in ISMTBOM)

Fences size=normal/ruined/high IOFfence.png 522: barrier=fence + foot=passable + optional: height=* < 1,5 m

523: barrier=fence + ruins=yes 524: barrier=fence + foot=impassable + optional: height=* > 1,5 m

crossing_point NodeWayArea 525 Crossing point 525 Crossing point 525 Crossing point A crossing point is a gap or an opening in a fence, railing or wall, which can easily be passed through by a competitor. Direction is aligned automatically if placed onto a fence, stone_wall or pipeline IOFcrossing point.png barrier=gate or barrier=entrance or barrier=stile + optional foot=yes resp. bicycle=yes
building NodeArea 526 Building 526.1 Building (forbidden to pass through or over) 526 Building Buildings For nodes: direction:[0-360] IOFbuilding.png building=* or amenity=shelter or tourism=alpine_hut or tourism=chalet
 ? Area (526.2, 852 not used in ISOM) 526.2 Canopy, 852 Building pass-through. (526.2, 852 not used in ISMTBOM) A canopy is a building construction which can easily be crossed by competitors, e.g. passages, gangways, courts, bus stops, gas stations or garages. covered=* (e.g. covered=yes or covered=arcade or covered=colonnade ) or tunnel=building_passage or building=roof
 ? Node (526.3 not used in ISOM) 526.3 Pillar (526.3 not used in ISMTBOM) A pillar is an upright shaft or structure of stone, brick or other material, used as a building support. man_made=pillar
settlement Area 527 Settlement (527 not used in ISSOM) 527 Settlement Houses and gardens and other built up areas. type=normal/striped, boundary=yes/no IOFsettlement.png built up areas could be: landuse=residential or landuse=commercial or landuse=allotments or amenity=* (e.g. amenity=school or amenity=university ) or leisure=* (e.g. leisure=garden or leisure=stadium)
 ? Area (528.1 not used in ISOM) 528.1 Area with forbidden access (forbidden to cross) (528.1 not used in ISMTBOM) An area with forbidden access such as a private area, a flower bed, a railway area etc. access=private or foot=no or access=no
permanent_out_of_bounds Area 528 Permanently out of bounds (528 not used in ISSOM) (528 not used in ISMTBOM) Permanently forbidden boundary:yes/no IOFpermanently out of bounds.png access=private or foot=no or access=no
paved_area Area 529 Paved area 529 Paved area 529 Paved area An area of hard standing used for parking or other purposes. IOFpaved area.png area with surface=paved (e.g. surface=asphalt or surface=concrete )
 ? WayArea (529.1 not used in ISOM) 529.1 Step or edge of paved area (529.1 not used in ISMTBOM) A step or an edge of a paved area. highway=steps + optional: step_count=* + optional: width=*
ruin NodeArea 530 Ruin (530 not used in ISSOM) (530 not used in ISMTBOM) Ruin IOFruin.png building=* + ruins=yes or historic=ruins
firing_range Way 531 Firing range (531 not used in ISSOM) 531 Firing range Firing range (usually way with two nodes). target at end of line. IOFfiring range.png military=range or sport=shooting + shooting=range
grave Node 532 Grave (532 not used in ISSOM) 532 Grave A distinct grave. IOFgrave.png historic=tomb or amenity=grave_yard or landuse=cemetery
pipeline Way 533 Crossable pipeline, 534 Uncrossable pipeline 533 Passable pipeline, 534 Impassable pipeline (forbidden to cross) 534 Uncrossable pipeline.

(533 not used in ISMTBOM)

Pipelines passable:yes/no IOFpipeline.png man_made=pipeline + location=overground + optional: foot=passable
tower Node 535 High tower, 536 Small tower 535 High tower, 536 Small tower 535 High tower, 536 Small tower Tower. A high tower or large pylon (535). An obvious shooting platform or seat, or small tower (536). size=high/small IOFtower.png 535: man_made=tower + tower:type=* (e.g. tower:type=communication or tower:type=bell_tower). Or man_made=water_tower or man_made=lighthouse or man_made=mast.

536: amenity=hunting_stand

cairn Node 537 Cairn 537 Cairn, memorial, small monument or boundary stone (537 not used in ISMTBOM) Cairn, memorial stone or boundary stone IOFcairn.png man_made=cairn or historic=memorial or historic=boundary_stone or man_made=survey_point
fodder_rack Node 538 Fodder rack 538 Fodder rack 538 Fodder rack A fodder rack which is free standing or built on to a tree. IOFfodder rack.png amenity=feeding_place + feeding:type=manger
special_manmade Node 539, 540 Special man-made features 539, 540 Prominent man-made features 539, 540 Special man-made features Special man-made feature Description:User Defined. display=cross/circle. IOFspecial manmade.png „x“ could be for example tourism=artwork or amenity=bench or pipeline=marker

„o“ could be for example historic=kiln_ground …(something you map appropriately and configure the renderer to show it as IOFxxx_speciaal-man-made_x/o

 ? Area (839 not used in ISOM) (839 not used in ISSOM) 839: Ridable Area an off-track area which may be ridden on in a terrain where offtrack riding is normally forbidden. Area with bicycle=yes (e.g. landuse=grass + bicycle=yes ).

Technical symbols

(Not implemented yet)

Value for iof= key notation Element IOF Code and Name (ISOM2000) IOF Code and Name (ISSOM2007) IOF Code and Name (ISMTBOM2010) Comment Extra key=value pairs Rendering example (not to scale) corresponding osm tags
Way 601 Magnetic north line 601 Magnetic north line 601 Magnetic north line pointing to magnetic north
Node 602 Registration marks 602 Registration marks 602 Registration marks At least three registration marks must be placed within the frame of a map in a nonsymmetrical position.
Node 603 Spot height 603 Spot height 603 Spot height Spot heights are used for the rough assessment of height differences. ele=* value, optional: name=*

Overprinting symbols

This refers to objects and markings that may be only valid temporarily during the competition. Like refreshment points, out-of-bound areas, etc. and the "off road" route for the competitor that connects the start point with control points and the finish.

(Not implemented, see Comparison for an alternative.)

  • Orienteering does contains a tag definition for permanent control markers, but it looks as it is used differently (see tagwatch for GB and Scandinavia).


Value for iof= key notation Element IOF Code and Name (ISOM2000) IOF Code and Name (ISSOM2007) IOF Code and Name (ISMTBOM2010) Comment Extra key=value pairs Rendering example (not to scale) corresponding osm tags
Node 701 Start 701 Start 701 Start The start or map issue point
Node 702 Control point 702 Control point 702 Control point The control points are shown with circles. The centre of the circle shows the precise position of the feature.
Node 703 Control number 703 Control number 703 Control number The number of the control.
Way 704 Line 704 Line 704 Line Where controls are to be visited in order, the start, control points and finish are joined together by straight lines.
Way 705 Marked route 705 Marked route 705 Marked route Marked route
Node 706 Finish 706 Finish 706 Finish Finish
Way 707 Uncrossable boundary 707 Uncrossable boundary (forbidden to cross) 707 Uncrossable boundary A boundary which it is not permitted to cross (to the competitor).
Node 708 Crossing point 708 Crossing point 708 Crossing point Crossing point (temporary during the competition).
Way 708.1 not used in ISOM 708.1 Crossing section 708.1 not used in ISMTBOM A crossing section (temporary during the competition) through or over a building, wall or fence, or across a road or railway or through a tunnel or an out-of-bounds area.
Area 709 Out-of-bounds area 709 Out-of-bounds area (forbidden to cross) 709 Out-of-bounds area An out-of-bounds area (temporary during the competition).
Area 710 Dangerous area 710 not used in ISSOM 710 not used in ISMTBOM An area presenting danger to the competitor.
Node 711 Forbidden route 711 not used in ISSOM 711 Forbidden route A route which is out-of-bounds is shown with crosses..
Node 712 First aid post 712 First aid post 712 First aid post The location of a first aid post.
Node 713 Refreshment point 713 Refreshment point 713 Refreshment point The location of a refreshment point which is not at a control.
Area 714 not used in ISOM 714 714 Temporary construction or closed area (forbidden to cross) 714 not used in ISMTBOM Obvious temporary constructions like platforms for spectators and speaker, closed area for spectators, outside restaurant areas, etc.
Node 840 not used in ISOM 840 not used in ISSOM 840 Control point with focus point (in MTBO maps) The focus point can be used when it is necessary to clarify the exact position of a control for instance in a dense track network.
Node 843 not used in ISOM 843 not used in ISSOM 843 Dangerous object across tracks or paths, stairs These barriers must be highly visible on the map and should be overprinted in purple. The symbol should be used for all obstacles that are difficult to cross. This symbol can be used for stairs.
Node 844 not used in ISOM 844 not used in ISSOM 844 Uncrossable barrier / forbidden to cross This symbol can be used for all spots that are forbidden or impossible to pass, e.g. uncrossable barriers; fences or walls that are forbidden or impossible to cross; short sections of roads, tracks or paths that are forbidden to use.

IOF codes (ISSKIOM) for Ski Orienteering Maps

TODO


Links and contacts

IOF mapping with OSM documentation can be found at http://mafc-tajfutas.uw.hu/como.

Many thanks go to David Svantesson who provided the community with symbol sets (iof-svg-symbols, iof-png-icons) and Osmarender enhancements to make it capable of rendering IOF symbols and implement the first OSM IOF mapping possibilities.

Any comments, testing reports, usage (and usage reports) and help is greatly appreciated.

Contacts:

  • Imre TOROK: toreny@freemail.hu
  • David is reachable by email as david@oxtract.se
  • Other OSM users interested in orienteering maps include Ollie, Thomas Wood, luchs, Mila, Wbski...