Zh-hans:Key:access

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Public-images-osm logo.svg access
WhichAccess.png
说明
此标签描述法律层面上的通行限制。 在wiki页中编辑此说明 在数据项中编辑此说明
组: Restrictions
用于这些元素
可用于节点可用于路径可用于区域可用于关系
已记载的值: 16
常用组合
状态:实际使用

维基数据

access=*描述了道路铁路水路的通行限制,同时也可描述设施的使用限制,如建筑物建筑物入口便利设施以及娱乐场所

access=*标记了法律层面上的通行限制,并且应与基本事实相符,例如道路上的标志或相关法律。这个标签描述人们通常的通行方法,即使当地的交通标志经常被忽略。

通行限制可能非常复杂。它可能包括车辆种类,行驶方向,车辆大小和不同时段的通行限制。大多数限制都可以被标记在OSM上。好消息是,不复杂的通行限制在标记上通常也很简单。

在复杂的情况下,可能更取巧的做法是添加一条描述此处交通标志的笔记,特别是当此处与法律中的规则冲突或者有一些少见的标记组合。

入门示例

非公共的停车场

停车场都被标记为amenity=parking,但有些停车场只有一部分人可以使用。

标记非公共停车场是个好主意。添加access=private来标记一个停车场有严格的进入限制,并非公共停车场。有时候情况会更复杂,比如access=customers意味着只有顾客才可以使用停车场。一些停车场的情况则更加复杂,如限制了停留时间。

查看amenity=parking了解更多。

有通行限制的公路

一些地方有“禁止进入”标牌。这通常被标记为access=private

有一些道路受到通行限制,如在工业园内的道路,军事区的道路或者是私人车道。添加access=private以表明此段道路仅允许拥有者通行。

注意,这个标签标注的是通行限制而不是所有权,有许多私人道路可以自由通行而不需要得到拥有者允许。如果拥有者可以自由撤销道路使用权,则需要标记为access=permissive。如果拥有者有义务开放私人道路,并且无法撤销他人对道路的使用权,这可以被标记为access=yes

access=private的用处并不仅局限于道路。它可能在其他的地方出现,如leisure=playground

居民,行人,骑行者可通行的道路

你可以标记只对某些交通方式开放的道路,比如只有当地居民可以驾车进入但骑行者仍可通行的道路。

可以使用如下标签组合来标记上述情况:

更加复杂的示例

一些限制要求使用有条件的限制来标记他们

一条带有access=customers的辅助道路(highway=service)表示了这条路只能被顾客使用,除此之外没有其他的限制,顾客可以搭乘任何交通工具,在任何时间使用道路。

但如果加上motor_vehicle=no,那地图使用者就知道了只有顾客能使用这条路并且他们不能搭乘机动车使用道路。

也许这条路还是是一条单行线,那么请加上oneway=yes

也许它只能在某些时间段被使用,那么请加上使用条件以及时间:access:conditional=customers @ (Mo-Fr 08:00-17:00)

交通方式限制

使用access=*来描述一般的,适用于所有的交通方式的通行限制。

理论上来说,在highway=footway中添加access=yes可以被解读为改变默认限制(通常highway=footway默认为foot=yes和vehicle=no)为“是”。highway=footway+access=yes意味着“这条步行道路对所有行人和车辆开放”。

在实际应用中,这个组合常被编辑者用于更改而不是扩大默认值。比如access=permissive加上highway=steps,不管标签是什么,卡车都不太可能在这种“道路”上面行驶。

为了避免歧义,你可能因此想要避开一般的标签(access=yesaccess=permissive),使用更加适当的特定交通方式标签标记。比如,区分一条步行道路是否开放,可用foot=yes代替access=yes

如果不同的限制适用于不同的交通方式,那么可以使用特定交通方式标签。这些标签从大标签分支出来,每个都有一个类别,使标签的范围缩小。

比如,

  • access=nobus=yes意味着只有公共汽车能使用道路(比如一条公共汽车专用道路)。
  • access=yesmotor_vehicle=no意味着除了机动车以外所有交通方式都可通行。
  • access=forestryfoot=permissive表示林业车辆可以合法的使用道路。行人也可以使用道路,但允许可能在之后被撤销。注意,这个标签同时禁止了所有的交通方式,除了被标记的交通方式。比如,自行车和马通常在这个组合中被搞错。因此,在限制中最好使用特定交通方式标签,而不是通常的access=*。

陆上交通

每个国家的车辆类别都不一样,所以可能你的国家的有些车辆类别未在表中列出。有些车辆类别可能会在表中有一个不同的定义。

  • access=*(类别:任何陆上交通工具)
    • 不使用车辆的交通方式
    • 使用车辆的交通方式
      • vehicle=*(类别:任何车辆)
      • 非机动车
      • 机动车
        • motor_vehicle=*(类别:任何机动车)
        • 单条轨迹的
          • Sinnbild Kraftrad.svg motorcycle=*(两轮摩托车)
          • Sinnbild - Kleinkrafträder und Fahrräder mit Hilfsmotor.svg moped=*(轻便摩托车)
          • Sinnbild Mofa.svg mofa=*(和上面那个差不多,就是速度慢)
        • Sinnbild Kfz.svg 两条轨迹的(类别:有两轮以上或轨迹多于一条的机动车)
          • Sinnbild PKW.svg motorcar=*汽车(它可以在限制中表示通常的两条轨迹的机动车类别)
          • Motorhome.svg motorhome=*[W] 房车
          • Sinnbild Reisebus.svg tourist_bus=*描述了一种不像普通的公交服务的公共交通服务,通常是长途(但不是全部)。
          • Sinnbild Reisebus.svg coach=*描述了不属于公共交通服务的长途大巴。
          • goods=*(轻型商业货运车辆,如最大重量小于等于3.5t的货运车辆)
          • Sinnbild LKW.svg hgv=*(重型货运车辆,如最大重量大于于3.5t的货运车辆)
          • Sinnbild Traktor.svg agricultural=*(农业机动车辆,如拖拉机。有额外限制,如限速25km/h)
          • golf_cart=*(高尔夫车和相似的小型低速电动车)
          • atv=*(又名四轮摩托车(Quad)(限制宽度为1.27米或更小的车辆)。这仍在提案阶段。你可以使用maxwidth=1.27以代替。
          • snowmobile=*
        • 特殊用途车辆
          • psv=*(公共交通服务车辆)
          • hov=*(高容量车辆的快速通道,限制因地区而异,如至少一位乘客)
          • car_sharing=*(共享汽车)
          • emergency=*(类别:紧急车辆。如救护车,消防车,警车)注意,紧急车辆通常不被法定通行限制所限制。明确指定是紧急车辆通道的地方可使用emergency=designated
          • hazmat=*(危险品车)
          • 15 disabled=*(残疾人士通行限制(不止在停车场))

未列出的

  • 混合动力车,电动车和其他无排放车辆(如氢动力)。查看讨论页了解更多。
  • 聘请司机的车辆。
  • 4wd_only=*(仅允许四驱)
  • Sinnbild LKW mit Anhänger.svg roadtrain=*[W] 公路火车)(公路火车)
    • B-double.png bdouble=*: 大型挂车(挂了两个货厢)
    • 其他重型货车的配置(挂了两个货厢或者小货厢(?))。
  • lhv=*(长货车)
  • [W] 推车
  • [W] 电动人力车
  • [W]Kei Cars(有限制尺寸,重量以及引擎动力的小车。它们的尺寸被一些国家从道路限制中区别开,比如日本。

水上交通

  • access=*(类别:任何水上交通)
    • Maki-swimming-15.svg swimming=*(游泳)
    • boat=*(小船,包括游艇)(在CEVNI中小于20m长的船,可能在不采用CEVI的地区有其他规定)
      • motorboat=*(用于way)(用发动机驱动的小船)
      • sailboat=*(用于way)(用帆的小船(根据在 ColregCEVNI中的定义))
      • canoe=*(没有帆或发动机的小船,如小艇,独木舟,皮划艇)
    • fishing_vessel=*(渔船)
    • Maki2-ferry-18.svg ship=*(商船)
      • passenger=*(客船)
      • cargo=*(货船)
        • bulk=*(干物品散货船)
        • tanker=*(液体散货船,包括压缩气体)
        • container=*(普通货船的集体标签)
        • imdg=*(危险品货船,查看[W] IMDG了解更多。)
      • isps=*(国际船舶和港口设施安全条例)

建议讨论后再做标记。

轨道交通

  • access=*(类别:任何轨道交通)

可能的值

Value Description
yes The public has an official, legally-enshrined right of access; i.e., it's a right of way.
no No access for the general public. Consider using additional access (like foot=yes or bicycle=permissive, etc.) to indicate who can use the element. If only specific transport modes are forbidden, for example, at a vehicle no-entry sign, use a more specific restriction like vehicle=no or motor_vehicle=no over the general key access.
private Only with individual permission
permissive Open to general traffic until such time as the owner revokes the permission which they are legally allowed to do at any time in the future.
destination Only when travelling to this element/area; i.e., local traffic only. NOTE: This restriction often only applies to certain modes of transportation (e.g., only to vehicles). Take care to use the right transport mode restriction; e.g., vehicle=destination when only vehicle traffic is restricted.

Sign text in different languages:
English: "except for access" (UK) / "no thru traffic" / "local traffic only" (USA), Dutch: "bestemmingsverkeer"/"uitgezonderd plaatselijk verkeer" (Flanders/Belgium), German: "Anlieger frei"/"ausgenommen Anrainerverkehr" (Austria), French: "Interdit sauf riverains"/"excepté circulation locale" (Wallonie/Belgium), Norwegian: "Gjennomkjøring forbudt"/"ingen gjennomkjøring"/"kun kjøring til eiendommene", Danish: "Gælder kun gennemkørsel".

Note that "access only for residents" is private (for example vehicle=private when applied only to vehicles).

delivery Only when delivering to the element. For example motor_vehicle=delivery on a highway=pedestrian. Status: "approved" Text-x-generic.svg
customers Only for customers of the element. If access is not open to any person willing to pay, consider using private instead. Membership clubs are generally tagged as private.
designated A preferred or designated route for the class of traffic specified by the tag key, such as foot=designated, in general this means that there is a (explicit) sign saying something like "pedestrians allowed", or a pedestrian icon.

Using this value with the plain access key, access=designated, has no meaning, and should not be used. (see #Transport mode restrictions)

For compulsory cycleways mapped as separate ways see bicycle=use_sidepath.

use_sidepath Used to indicate that a mapped parallel way -that belongs to the same road- must be used instead (mostly acting as access=no with some exceptions). A road can legally consist of several ways, such as a single or dual carriageway with parallel tracks for cyclists, mopeds, pedestrians and/or equestrians. Used in countries where these classes must use specific parallel ways when present (following traffic rules, sometimes in conjunction with traffic signs). This tag should only be used to limit specific transport modes (e.g., bicycle=use_sidepath).
dismount Permitted for some vehicle (or animal) only if you dismount. Mostly used for bicycle: Use bicycle=dismount when people are not permitted to cycle (e.g., through a graveyard) but are allowed to dismount and bring the bike. See Bicycle#Bicycle Restrictions. Note that bicycle=no is also commonly used where dismounting and pushing bicycle is legal.
agricultural Only for agricultural traffic. Note a farmer's access track would be private rather than agricultural unless the track is open to any vehicle used for agricultural purposes. Status: "approved" Text-x-generic.svg
forestry Only for forestry traffic. Status: "approved" Text-x-generic.svg
discouraged A legal right of way exists (see yes) but usage is officially discouraged (e.g., HGVs on narrow but passable lanes). Only if marked by a traffic sign (subjective otherwise).
Carnotrec.jpg
unknown The access conditions are unknown or unclear. For the access key, where users might assume access rights by definition or some default, this makes it explicit that the actual situation is not known (since an absent access tag might also be mistaken by some users as being compliant to an assumed default). These tags should therefore not be removed without replacing them with a better alternative

点,线,区域

Tags of "access" group can be used for nodes, ways and areas. There are different priorities in OSM-community, where to put access tag: to area (usually it is a square, which have some specific conditions of access), to line (usually it is roads inside square) or to node (usually it is gate in barrier, which surrounds square, where there is a possibility to enter the area). Note that access tags mark legal status of territory and barriers and warning signs are only physical reflections of restrictions in area. In such manner, area with private status should have appropriate values, even there is no surrounding barrier or it is broken. Note, that different entrances can have different access values and different roads inside area can have different access values too. For example, we have area with permissive access - so we mark it with access=permissive. But there are several entrances, one of which is designated for all people, and other - only for persons, which have key. So we mark one entrance with access=permissive and other - with access=private. Another example - we have botanical garden with permissive access, which have roads, which are designated for public, and roads, which are designated only for staff of garden. In such case we have access=permissive at one roads and access=private (or access=no) at another.

When you are tagging some area, it is your decision, where to put "access" tags: to area, to entrances or to roads inside area (because nobody can bring you to add some tags somewhere), but removal of correct tags, which were put but someone else, is a mistake (and is close to vandalism). If you like to put tags to areas, do it, if you like to put tags to roads inside areas, do it, if you like to put tags to entrances, do it. But don't delete tags from type of elements, which you don't like.

Facility restrictions

Access can be tagged on facilities, typically including

Access time and other conditional restrictions

For a full description and more examples, please see the conditional restrictions page.

Restrictions may be limited to a particular time or day. Or they may limit the access for vehicles over a certain weight. Such conditions can be tagged as shown in these tagging examples:

  1. Only destination access is permitted during 8am and 5pm on Mondays to Fridays:
    access:conditional=destination @ (Mo-Fr 08:00-17:00)
  2. Motor vehicles heavier than 5 tonnes may only access this street for the purpose of delivering goods:
    motor_vehicle:conditional=delivery @ (weight>5)

Please note that the above tagging style can be used to replace the following time dependent restrictions. It has been suggested that they be deprecated and should therefore no longer be used. date_on=*, date_off=*, day_on=*, day_off=*, hour_on=*, hour_off=*. Also note, that using of conditional tag assumes overt indication of value, which mostly suites as a default value. For example, if access is open on one part of day (on this part of day access=permissive) and is closed on other part of day (on this part of day access=private), we have a situation, when we should mark the object with a tag access=permissive or access=private. There is no concrete, precise and universal algorithm to define, if we should use permissive or private in concrete situation, but we can definitely say, that in such case we can't use access=yes (or not use tag access at all), because access=yes (or absence of tag access) means round-the-clock open access for general public.

Size and statutory restrictions

A number of statutory restrictions based on height, width, weight, etc. can also be defined. A assumed units are the appropriate SI unit and should be specified without any suffix. For lengths use metres, for weights use metric tonnes and for times use hours. Decimal numbers should include a decimal point. Exceptions include speeds which should be in mph in places where speed limits are defined in these units and times which can include a suffix of 'days' if appropriate.

  • maxaxleload=* - The legal maximum axleload in metric tonnes.
  • maxheight=* - The legal maximum height in metres
  • maxheight:physical=* - The maximum height in metres
  • maxlength=* - The legal maximum length in metres
  • maxspeed=* - Specifies the maximum legal speed limit on a road, railway or waterway (km/h by default, mph where specified)
  • maxstay=* - Maximum time you are allowed to stay somewhere. (maximum parking time)
  • maxweight=* - permissible maximum actual weight
  • maxweightrating=* - Legal access restriction for vehicles with a max allowed weight above the specified weight in metric tonnes.
  • maxwidth=* - The legally restricted maximum width of a vehicle (also note width=* for the physical width of the entire road.)
  • mindistance=* - minimum trailing distance, often as mindistance:hgv=* on old bridges or in tunnels
  • minspeed=* - Specifies the minimum speed limit on a road, railway or waterway.
  • maxdraught=* -

导航限制

单行限制

Ways may have different access restrictions for each direction. The most simple case is a way designated as a oneway road:

oneway=yes
Driving is only allowed in the direction of the way.
oneway=-1
Driving is only allowed against the direction of the way. If possible reverse the direction of the way and tag with oneway=yes.
oneway=no
Not normally used, as two-way traffic is the default. Use only where another tag (such as highway=motorway) implies oneway=yes.

Exceptions to 'one-way' and related special cases

For more complex direction dependent restrictions, the postfixes :backward and :forward can be used on the keys, for example:

bicycle:backward=yes
When cyclists are allowed to travel in both directions on a oneway street (but no lane is present).
bicycle:backward=no
When a road has a oneway cycleway next to it that must be used, and a cyclelane in the other direction.

Also in use when cyclists are allowed to travel in the opposite direction:

cycleway=opposite
cycleway=opposite_lane
Only if a separate lane exists.
cycleway=opposite_track
Only if a separate track exists.
oneway:bicycle=no
Consistent with tags based on conditions. Note: This was previously tagged as "bicycle:oneway=no", but this is deprecated.

The oneway tag can be translated (for routing purposes) to this generic system as follows (oneway restrictions presumably do not apply to pedestrians):

不同车道的限制

主要文章:Lanes

通行限制可能在不同的车道上不同。

hgv:lanes=no|yes|yes
Heavy good vehicles are not allowed on the leftmost lane of a road with three lanes.
bus:lanes:forward=no|yes|designated
Buses are not allowed on the leftmost lane of a road with three lanes in forward direction. The rightmost lane is a designated bus lane.

转向限制

主要文章:Turn restriction

其他示例

  • bicycle=yes The public has a right of way when travelling on a bicycle.
  • horse=designated The route is designated for use by equestrians.
  • motorcycle=unknown It is unclear whether motorcycles can use this section.
  • motorcar=private The owner must give access to cars on an individual basis. Access by car is private; e.g., on a private road.
  • goods=no General goods vehicle traffic is not allowed.
  • hgv=no Heavy goods vehicle traffic is not allowed.
  • boat=no Waterway is not available for boat traffic.
  • oneway=yes + psv=opposite_lane The street is one way for cars but there is one opposite lane for buses and taxis.
  • maxweight=7 限重7t。
  • maxaxleload=3.5 限轴重3.5t。
  • maxheight=2.5 限高2.5m。
  • maxdraught=1 船最大吃水深度为1m。
  • maxspeed=110 限速110km/h
  • maxspeed=55 mph 限速55mph。
  • maxstay=14 days 最长的停留时间,单位可以是hour/hours或day/days。
一条与自行车道方向相反的单行线

标记方法:

现实情况与法律不符

在一些地区,至少有一些交通运输方式,法律的规定和通常通行方式完全不符合[1]。目前OSM还没有好方法来标记这些。

bicycle=no bicycle:de_facto=yes(存疑)

目前,一些编辑者将当地常态放入access标签,而不是法律规定[2]

可能产生的错误标记

如果你知道 有使用这个标签的地方的话,请确认能否使用其他标签代替。
我们非常不鼓励你使用自动化编辑,除非你知道自己在做什么

查看更多

参考文献